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Inorganic nanotubes as a support material for polyaniline were used for hydrogen storage. To this end, a solid-state preparation method has been developed for controlling the hydrogen storage capacity of these nanocomposites. The hydrogen storage capacities have measured at room temperature and at a low pressure of 0.5 MPa using the precise quadrupole quartz crystal microbalance technique in a chamber free of moisture. The optimum nanocomposite shows an enhanced hydrogen storage capacity of 0.78 wt.% with excellent reversibility when compared to less than 0.019 wt.% capacity of the pristine nanotubes and 0.05 wt.% of polyaniline. This large increase in the hydrogen capacity can be attributed to the chemisorption hydrogen uptake, which was enhanced by the sorption sites created through the milling process of polyaniline with the nanotubes. This is in addition to the hydrogen adsorption contribution by a controlled lumen size that is suitable for a maximum hydrogen adsorption through inserting polyaniline chains into the nanotubes.
In this paper, a numerical algorithm for the kinematic analysis of a multi-link five-point suspension system is presented. The kinematic analysis is carried out in terms of the rectangular Cartesian coordinates of some defined points in the links and at the joints. Geometric constraints are introduced to fix the relative positions between the points belonging to the same rigid body. Position, velocity and acceleration analyses are carried out. The presented formulation in terms or this system of coordinates is simple and involves only elementary mathematics. The results of the kinematic analysis are presented and discussed.
In the present study, the unsteady Hartmann flow of a dusty viscous incompressible electrically conducting fluid under the influence of an exponentially decreasing pressure gradient is studied without neglecting the ion slip. The parallel plates are assumed to be porous and subjected to a uniform suction from above and injection from below. The fluid is acted upon by an external uniform magnetic field which is applied perpendicular to the plates. An analytical solution for the governing equations of motion is obtained to yield the velocity distributions for both the fluid and dust particles.
The unsteady Couette flow of an electrically conducting, V1SCOUS, incompressible fluid bounded by two parallel non-conducting porous plates is studied with heat transfer taking the Hall effect into consideration. An external uniform magnetic field and a uniform suction and injection are applied perpendicular to the plates while the fluid motion is subjected to an exponential decaying pressure gradient. The two plates are kept at different but constant temperatures while the Joule and viscous dissipations are included in the energy equation. The effect of the ion slip and the uniform suction and injection on both the velocity and temperature distributions is examined.
We obtain a relation between generalized Hausdorff and packing multifractal premeasures and generalized Hausdorff and packing multifractal measures. As an application, we study a general formalism for the multifractal analysis of one probability measure with respect to an other.
In this study, a recursive algorithm for generating the equations of motion of a chain of rigid rods is presented. The methods rests upon the idea of replacing the rigid body by a dynamically equivalent constrained system of particles. The concepts of linear and angular momentums are used to generate the rigid body equations of motion without either introducing any rotational coordinates or the corresponding transformation matrices. For open-chain, the equations of motion are generated recursively along the serial chains. For closed-chain, the system is transformed to open-chain by cutting suitable kinematic joints with the addition of cut-joints kinematic constraints. An example of a closed-chain of rigid rods is chosen to demonstrate the generality and simplicity of the proposed method.
In this paper, an efficient higher-order shear deformation theory is presented to analyze thermomechanical bending of temperature-dependent functionally graded (FG) plates resting on an elastic foundation. Further simplifying supposition are made to the conventional HSDT so that the number of unknowns is reduced, significantly facilitating engineering analysis. These theory account for hyperbolic distributions of the transverse shear strains and satisfy the zero traction boundary conditions on the surfaces of the plate without using shear correction factors. Power law material properties and linear steady-state thermal loads are assumed to be graded along the thickness. Nonlinear thermal conditions are imposed at the upper and lower surface for simply supported FG plates. Equations of motion are derived from the principle of virtual displacements. Analytical solutions for the thermomechanical bending analysis are obtained based on Fourier series that satisfy the boundary conditions (Navier's method). Non-dimensional results are compared for temperature-dependent FG plates and validated with those of other shear deformation theories. Numerical investigation is conducted to show the effect of material composition, plate geometry, and temperature field on the thermomechanical bending characteristics. It can be concluded that the present theory is not only accurate but also simple in predicting the thermomechanical bending responses of temperature-dependent FG plates.
The transient magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generalized Couette flow with heat transfer through a porous medium of an electrically conducting, viscous, incompressible fluid bounded by two parallel insulating porous plates is studied in the presence of uniform suction and injection and a heat source considering the Hall effect. A uniform and constant pressure gradient is imposed in the axial direction and an externally applied uniform magnetic field as well as a uniform suction and injection are applied in the direction perpendicular to the plates. The two plates are kept at different but constant temperatures while the Joule and viscous dissipations are included in the energy equation. The effect of the Hall current, the porosity of the medium and the uniform suction and injection on both the velocity and temperature distributions is investigated.
The steady hydromagnetic flow due to a rotating disk is studied with heat transfer considering the ion slip. The governing equations are solved numerically using finite differences. The results show that the inclusion of the ion slip has important effects on the velocity distribution as well as the heat transfer.
Chitosan is a promising flocculant for microalgae harvesting, but its scale-up application is not economically supported yet. Low solubility of chitosan in microalgae suspension demands high dosage (as a flocculant) to destabilize the cells, and thus, increases the cost of microalgae harvesting. This study identifies efficient solvents for the chitosan, and optimizes the concentration of solvents and chitosan dose to improve the harvesting efficiency. Chitosan was dissolved in different acids, and subsequently used as a flocculant. The flocculant efficacy was measured in terms of harvesting efficiency and reduction in chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the microalgae suspension. It was found that chitosan dissolved in 0.05 M HCl showed the highest harvesting efficiency (89 ± 0.87%) at only 30 mg/L of dosage. In comparison, 270 mg/L of FeCl<sub>3</sub>·6H<sub>2</sub>O was required to attain 86 ± 0.083% of the harvesting efficiency. H<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4</sub> dissolved chitosan required high flocculant dose (150 mg/L) and resulted in relatively low harvesting efficiency (77±0.11%). It was concluded that the efficacy of chitosan is solvent dependent, and the selection of proper solvent can decrease the dosage requirement for microalgae harvesting.