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      • KCI등재SCOPUS

        The Effect of Terpenes on Percutaneous Absorption of Tiaprofenic Acid Gel

        Alper,Okyar,Maksat,Nuriyev,Ayca,Yildiz,Zeliha,Pala-Kara,Narin,Ozturk,Engin,Kaptan 대한약학회 2010 Archives of Pharmacal Research Vol.33 No.11

        Tiaprofenic acid is a potent analgesic and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) and like any other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, oral administration of the conventional dosage forms of tiaprofenic acid invariably causes gastrointestinal side effects. In an effort to eliminate these side effects while enhancing the drug concentration at the target tissue, an epidermal application of tiaprofenic acid seems to be an effective alternative drug delivery modality. This study attempts to demonstrate the influence of different terpenes (d-limonene, menthol and nerolidol) in various combinations of preparations on the percutaneous penetration of tiaprofenic acid from Carbopol® 940 based gel formulations (1%) in an ex vivo experiment using Franz-type diffusion cells. The enhancement effect of terpenes on skin absorption of tiaprofenic acid was further evaluated by an in vivo method in rats. Amongst the terpenes used, d-limonene was the most outstanding penetration enhancer that was reference to penetration of tiaprofenic acid through rat skin ex vivo. In vivo penetration study shows that the AUC0-48h was increased by about 10 fold by the addition of 5% d-limonene to the formulation. Histological studies show that d-limonene causes disruption on the skin surface and is responsible for enhanced penetration of tiaprofenic acid. Since tiaprofenic acid is known to cause gastrointestinal disturbances following systemic administration, topical formulations of tiaprofenic acid in gel form including 5% d-limonene could be suggested as an alternative.

      • KCI등재SCOPUS

        The Gut-Brain Axis: The Missing Link in Depression

        Alper,Evrensel,Mehmet,Emin,Ceylan 대한정신약물학회 2015 CLINICAL PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY AND NEUROSCIENCE Vol.13 No.3

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        The gut microbiota is essential to human health and the immune system and plays a major role in the bidirectional communication between the gut and the brain. Based on evidence, the gut microbiota is associated with metabolic disorders such as obesity, diabetes mellitus and neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, autistic disorders, anxiety disorders and major depressive disorders. In the past few years, neuroscientific research has shown the importance of the microbiota in the development of brain systems. Recent studies showed that the microbiota could activate the immune and central nervous systems, including commensal and pathogenic microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract. Gut microorganisms are capable of producing and delivering neuroactive substances such as serotonin and gamma-aminobutyric acid, which act on the gut-brain axis. Preclinical research in rodents suggested that certain probiotics have antidepressant and anxiolytic activities. Effects may be mediated via the immune system or neuroendocrine systems. Herein, we present the latest literature examining the effects of the gut microbiota on depression.

      • KCI등재SCOPUS

        Boron removal by means of chemical precipitation with calcium hydroxide and calcium borate formation

        Alper,Erdem,Yilmaz,Recep,Boncukcuoglu,Serkan,Bayar,Baybars,Ali,Fil,Mehmet,Muhtar,Kocakerim 한국화학공학회 2012 Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering Vol.29 No.10

        Boron removal was investigated by chemical precipitation from aqueous solutions containing boron using calcium hydroxide. pH, initial boron concentration, amount of Ca(OH)2, stirring speed and solution temperature were selected as operational parameters in a batch system. The highest boron removal efficiency was reached at pH 1.0. Increasing initial boron concentration and amount of calcium hydroxide raised to boron removal efficiency. Boron removal efficiency was highest at a stirring speed of 150 rpm. The most important parameter affecting boron removal efficiency was solution temperature. Increasing solution temperature increased importantly boron removal. XRD analysis showed that CaB3O3(OH)5·4H2O, which is a borate mineral called inyoite, occurred between Ca(OH)2 and borate ions. As a result of the obtained experimental data, when the optimum operational conditions were selected, over 96% of boron removal efficiency was reached by this method. Boron removal was investigated by chemical precipitation from aqueous solutions containing boron using calcium hydroxide. pH, initial boron concentration, amount of Ca(OH)2, stirring speed and solution temperature were selected as operational parameters in a batch system. The highest boron removal efficiency was reached at pH 1.0. Increasing initial boron concentration and amount of calcium hydroxide raised to boron removal efficiency. Boron removal efficiency was highest at a stirring speed of 150 rpm. The most important parameter affecting boron removal efficiency was solution temperature. Increasing solution temperature increased importantly boron removal. XRD analysis showed that CaB3O3(OH)5·4H2O, which is a borate mineral called inyoite, occurred between Ca(OH)2 and borate ions. As a result of the obtained experimental data, when the optimum operational conditions were selected, over 96% of boron removal efficiency was reached by this method.

      • KCI등재SCOPUS

        Nonlinear Fiber Modeling of Steel-Concrete Partially Composite Beams with Channel Connectors

        Alper,Ozturk,Eray,Baran,Cenk,Tort 대한토목학회 2019 KSCE JOURNAL OF CIVIL ENGINEERING Vol.23 No.5

        A simplified nonlinear fiber-based finite element model of steel-concrete partially composite beams utilizing channel type mechanical shear connectors is developed in OpenSees framework. The interaction between steel beam and concrete slab is accounted for by introducing nonlinear zero length elements and rigid links. The channel shear connector response used in numerical models is based on the previously obtained experimental response from pushout tests. Accuracy of the numerical models in predicting the response of beams is verified with the results of the previously conducted composite beam tests. The numerically predicted response agrees well with the experimental results over the entire range of load-deflection curves for both the fully composite and partially composite beams. The numerical models are also able to accurately predict the interface slip between steel beam and concrete slab when compared to the experimentally determined slip values, as well as the closed form slip predictions. Analysis results allowed the investigation of how the influence of steel and concrete damage is reflected on the overall loaddeflection response of composite beams.

      • KCI등재

        Tectonic Geomorphology of the North Anatolian Fault Zone in the Lake Sapanca Basin (Eastern Marmara Region, Turkey)

        Alper,Gürbüz,Ömer,Feyzi,Gürer 한국지질과학협의회 2008 Geosciences Journal Vol.12 No.3

        In this study the spatial variations of the Plio-Quaternary tectonic activity and deformation of different fault segments of the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) in the eastern Marmara region around Lake Sapanca, are assessed using geomorphic, morphometric and bathymetric approaches. Lake Sapanca is an E-W-trending structure located in the zmit-Sapanca Corridor. This region is bounded to the north and to the south by the series of mountain ranges. Geomorphic and morphometric data provide evidence for variations between the two mountain front faults regarding levels of tectonic activity. These studies suggest a relatively high degree of tectonic activity along the Sapanca front in the south, in contrast with a low degree of tectonic activity along the E me front in the north of the study area. This pattern is also consistent with field evidence and seismic data of the study area. Bathymetric profiles of the lake show that the lake basin consists of different fault segments that slipped in the 1999 Kocaeli earthquake. All these data suggest that the zmit-Sapanca Corridor is an asymmetric pull-apart basin associated with displacement along the NAFZ in the Late Pliocene. Lake Sapanca also occurs as a pull-apart basin created by the cross-basin fault of the asymmetric pull-apart basin in the Middle Pleistocene.

      • KCI등재SCOPUS

        Fecal Microbiota Transplantation and Its Usage in Neuropsychiatric Disorders

        Alper,Evrensel,Mehmet,Emin,Ceylan 대한정신약물학회 2016 CLINICAL PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY AND NEUROSCIENCE Vol.14 No.3

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        Fecal microbiota transplantation has a 1700-year history. This forgotten treatment method has been put into use again during the last 50 years. The interest in microbiota-gut-brain axis and fecal microbiota transplantation is rapidly increasing. New evidence is obtained in the etiopathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disorders. There is a large number of experimental and clinical researches in the field of gut-brain axis. There is limited information on fecal microbiota transplantation. Despite this, initial results are promising. It is commonly used in the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases such as Clostridium difficile infection, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis. It is also experimentally used in the treatment of metabolic and autoimmune diseases. There are case reports that it is effective in the treatment of autism, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, chronic fatigue syndrome and irritable bowel syndrome. Its implementation is easy, and it is a cheap and reliable treatment method. However, the long-term risks are unknown. Additionally, standard application protocols have not yet been established. There are a lot of questions to be answered. A university in Turkey has got official permission this year, and started to apply fecal microbiota transplantation. In this review, neuropsychiatric areas of use of fecal microbiota transplantation have been discussed in the light of the current information.

      • KCI등재SSCISCOPUS

        Neuroinflammation, Gut-Brain Axis and Depression

        Alper,Evrensel,Barış,Ö,nen,Ü,nsalver,Mehmet,Emin,Ceylan 대한신경정신의학회 2020 PSYCHIATRY INVESTIGATION Vol.17 No.1

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        Psychiatric diseases are the manifestations that result from the individual's genetic structure, physiology, immunology and ways of coping with environmental stressors. The current psychiatric diagnostic systems do not include any systematic characterization in regard to neurobiological processes that reveal the clinical picture in individuals who got psychiatric diagnosis. It is obvious that further research in different areas is needed to understand the psychopathology. The problems in the functions of immune system and the correlation of neuroinflammatory processes with psychiatric disorders have been one of the main research topics of psychiatry in recent years and have contributed to our understanding of psychopathology. Recent advances in the fields of immunology and genetics as well as rapidly increasing knowledge on the effects of immunological processes on brain functions have drawn attention to the correlations between psychiatric disorders and immune system dysfunctions. There are still unfilled gaps in the biology, pathophysiology, and treatment of major depressive disorder, which is quite prevalent among the psychiatric disorders, can lead to significant disability, and frequently has a recurrent course. It appears that low-grade chronic neuroinflammation plays a key role in forming a basis for the interaction between psychological stress, impaired gut microbiota and major depressive disorder. In this review, the role of neuroinflammation in the etiopathogenesis of depression and the mechanism of action of the gut-brain axis that leads to this are discussed in the light of current studies.

      • KCI등재SCOPUS
      • KCI등재

        An investigation of cointegration between energy consumption and economic growth: Dynamic evidence from East Asian countries

        ALPER,ASLAN,HAKAN,KUM 연세대학교 동서문제연구원 2010 Global economic review Vol.39 No.4

        This paper aims to investigate the relationship between energy consumption and economic growth for 11 East Asian countries over the period 1971 2005 by taking into account their strong relationships. Based on fully modified ordinary least squares (FMOLS) and dynamic OLS (DOLS) approaches, while there exists a strong relation running from economic growth to energy consumption, it is observed that the strong relationship which runs from energy consumption to economic growth is overwhelmingly rejected for all cases except Indonesia and the Philippines. Moreover the inverse relation between two variables is observed for these two countries.

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