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Adriana,C.,Lambertucci,Rafael,H.,Lambertucci,Sandro,M.,Hirabara,Rui,Curi,Anselmo,S.,Moriscot,Tatiana,C.,Alba-Loureiro,Lucas,Guimarães-Ferreira,Adriana,C.,Levada-Pires,Diogo,A.,A.,Vasconcelos,Donald,F. PLoS ONE 2012 PLoS ONE Vol.7 No.12
Solar ultraviolet radiation (UV) is the major cause of nonmelanoma skin cancer in humans. Photochemoprevention with natural products represents a simple but very effective strategy for the management of cutaneous neoplasia. We studied the photoprotective activity of Calluna vulgaris and red grape seed (Vitis vinifera L, Burgund Mare variety [BM]) extracts in vivo in an SKH-1 hairless mice skin model. Fifty 8-week-old female SKH-1 hairless mice were randomly divided into 5 groups (n = 10 each): controls, UVB-irradiated, C. vulgaris plus UVB–irradiated, BM plus UVB–irradiated, and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) plus UVB–irradiated. A dose of 4 mg/mouse per ㎠ of skin area for both extracts was topically applied to the mice 30 minutes before a single-dose (240 mJ/㎠) UVB exposure. EGCG dissolved in phosphate-buffered saline (pH 6.6; 0.067 M) was administered at 2 mg/mouse per ㎠. Glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities, reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, and caspase 3 activity were determined in skin homogenates 24 hours after irradiation. A single dose of UVB increased GSH levels and glutathione peroxidase activity in the exposed skin. C. vulgaris and BM pretreatment significantly decreased GSH formation and glutathione peroxidase activity (P < .001) and inhibited UVB-induced lipid peroxidation (P < .0001) and nitric oxide production (C. vulgaris: P < .06). Topical treatments with C. vulgaris and particularly BM extracts (P < .002) significantly reduced caspase 3 activity, indicating that the cells were protected against apoptosis. These results suggest that C. vulgaris and BM extracts might be chemopreventive candidates for reducing UV-induced risk for skin cancer.
Hypoxia induces a wide range of deleterious effects at the cellular level due to an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Polyphenols from grape seeds, which are potent antioxidants might protect the brain against oxidative stress produced by hypobaric hypoxia. The brain effects of three doses of grape seed extract intraperitoneally (i.p.)administered in rats after exposure to hypobaric hypoxia corresponding to 5500m altitude were investigated. Some oxygen and nitrogen reactive species, inflammatory cytokine (IL-6) and molecules involved in angiogenesis (vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF], matrix metalloproteinase 2 [MMP2], and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase 1 [TIMP1]) were determined. Forty-two rats were divided in seven groups: group 1, control; groups 2, 3, and 4 were exposed to hypobaric hypoxia for 24 h in a hypobaric chamber; groups 5, 6, and 7 were exposed to hypobaric hypoxia for 5 days. After returning to normal atmospheric pressure, rats from groups 2 and 5 were sacrificed without other treatment. Animals from groups 3and 6 were i.p treated with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) vehicle and those from groups 4 and 7 were i.p. treated with grape seed extract (GSE) (50 mg gallic acid equivalents/kg body weight in 0.5mL CMC suspension/animal). The treatment was applied at 2, 24, and 72 h from returning to normoxia. Hypobaric hypoxia produced increased brain levels of ROS,nitric oxide (NO), IL-6, and VEGF after both time intervals (P < .05). The MMP2 concentration was significantly increased in groups treated only with vehicle, whereas TIMP1 was slightly changed. GSE produced a significant reduction of ROS and NO levels proving its antioxidant capacity. It also decreased IL-6 and MMP2 concentrations to values similar to controls. The VEGF concentration was also significantly reduced. These effects are indicative for anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenic properties of GSE.
( Adriana M. Rangel-rodriguez ), ( J. Adriana Sañudo-barajas ), ( Nagamani Balagurusamy ), ( Louise Wicker ), ( Rosabel Velez-de-la-rocha ), ( Juan Carlos Contreras-esquivel ) 한국키틴키토산학회 2018 한국키틴키토산학회지 Vol.23 No.2
In this work, the preparation and characterization of water-soluble polysaccharides from chitosan and Aloe vera was studied. The water-soluble polysaccharides were used to study polyelectrolyte complexes. The reaction time effect for chitosan hydrolysis by endo-chitosanase was studied at 40ºC and pH 5.00 to produce water soluble chitosan (WSCh). The physico-chemical characteristics of chitosan hydrolysates, water-soluble A. vera polysaccharides and polyelectrolyte complexes were determined. After 3 h of chitosan processing, a viscosity reduction of 90%, while only 2.3% of reducing sugars were released. A WSCh was recover by ultrafiltration (1 kDa) from chitosan hydrolysate after 12 h and was spray-dried with a yield of 9.7%. Cold-water extraction of A. vera mucilage from pulp gives a crude polysaccharide yield of 0.81 g/kg (wet basis) based on whole leaf weight. The water isolated mucilage is composed of a mixture of protein and mannan rich-polysaccharide. The results show WSCh's association capacity with A. vera mucilage by electrostatic interaction.
Quele,Adriana,Meneguetti,Mislaine,Adriana,Brenzan,Marcia,Regina,Batista,Roberto,Barbosa,Bazotte,Daniel,Rodrigues,Silva,Diógenes,Aparício,Garcia,Cortez 한국식품영양과학회 2011 Journal of medicinal food Vol.14 No.6
An extract from seeds of Chenopodium quinoa Willd. (quinoa), termed hydrolyzed quinoa (HQ), was obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis from seeds of the quinoa variety BRS-Piabiru. Analysis of the physical and chemical properties of quinoa and HQ showed that the hydrolyzed extract is rich in essential amino acids, particularly those with branched chains (leucine, isoleucine, and valine). In addition, we evaluated the biological effects of HQ, particularly the toxicological potential. For this purpose, male Wistar rats were assigned randomly to four groups: (1) sedentary supplemented group, which received HQ (2,000 mg/kg); (2) sedentary control group, non-supplemented; (3) exercised supplemented group (i.e., rats subjected to aerobic physical exercise that received HQ [2,000 mg/kg]); and (4) exercised control group (i.e., rats subjected to aerobic physical exercise, non-supplemented). After 30 days, all groups were analyzed for levels of serum glucose, cholesterol, triacylglycerol, total protein, albumin, uric acid, and urea and activities of the enzymes alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase. Body weight gain, dietary intake, and lipid deposition were also analyzed. The results showed no hepatic and renal toxicity of HQ. Moreover, decreased food intake, body weight, fat deposition, and blood triacylglycerol level were observed in the supplemented groups (sedentary and exercised supplemented groups). These results suggest a potential use of HQ in human nutrition.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the efficacy of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and digital intraoral radiography in diagnosing simulated small external root resorption cavities. Materials and Methods: Cavities were drilled in 159 roots using a small spherical bur at different root levels and on all surfaces. The teeth were imaged both with intraoral digital radiography using image plates and with CBCT. Two sets of intraoral images were acquired per tooth: orthogonal (PA) which was the conventional periapical radiograph and mesioangulated (SET). Four readers were asked to rate their confidence level in detecting and locating the lesions. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to assess the accuracy of each modality in detecting the presence of lesions, the affected surface, and the affected level. Analysis of variation was used to compare the results and kappa analysis was used to evaluate interobserver agreement. Results: A significant difference in the area under the ROC curves was found among the three modalities (P=0.0002), with CBCT (0.81) having a significantly higher value than PA (0.71) or SET (0.71). PA was slightly more accurate than SET, but the difference was not statistically significant. CBCT was also superior in locating the affected surface and level. Conclusion: CBCT has already proven its superiority in detecting multiple dental conditions, and this study shows it to likewise be superior in detecting and locating incipient external root resorption.
Adriana,Giongo,Taiana,Haag,Renata,Medina-Silva,Roberto,Heemann,Leandro,M.,Pereira,Priscilla,M.,Zamberlan,Fernanda,P.,Valdez,Rafael,R.,Oliveira,Eduardo,Eizirik,Adriano,R.,Viana,João,Marcelo,M.,Ketzer 한국지질과학협의회 2020 Geosciences Journal Vol.24 No.3
Deep subsurface microbial communities are more abundant in coarse-grained sedimentary rocks such as sandstones than in fine-grained mudstones. The low porosity and low permeability of mudstones are believed to restrict microbial life. Then, it is expected that distinct, isolated microbial communities may form in sandstones separated by mudstones. In this context, the connectivity between microbial communities in different sandstone units can be investigated to infer evolutionary patterns of diversification in space-time, which may potentially contribute with relevant data for analyses of hydraulic connectivity and stratigraphic correlation. In this work, we used high throughput DNA sequencing of a ribosomal 16S gene fragment to characterize the prokaryotic communities found in Permian sandstone samples of the same core that are separated by one mudstone interval, in the Charqueadas coal field, Parana Basin (Southern Brazil). Our samples were collected at ~300 m deep, in porous sandstones separated by a thick mudstone package. Differences in the bacterial community structure between samples were observed for the classified OTUs, from phylum to genus. Molecular biology might be further applied as a possible tool to help to understand the spatial and temporal distribution of depositional facies, and the efficiency of low permeability rocks to compartmentalize reservoirs. Ongoing studies aim to extend the present investigation into further analyses regarding lateral changes in microbial communities present in the same sandstone units.
Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between neuroticism, pain catastrophizing, and experimentally induced pain threshold and pain tolerance in a healthy adult sample from two regions of the country of Croatia: the island of Korcula and city of Split. Methods: A total of 1,322 participants were enrolled from the Island of Korcula (n = 824) and the city of Split (n = 498). Participants completed a self-reported personality measure Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) and pain catastrophizing questionnaire Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS), followed by a mechanical pain pressure threshold and tolerance test. We have explored the mediating role of catastrophizing in the relationship between neuroticism and pain intensity. Results: The results showed that pain catastrophizing partially mediated the relationship between neuroticism and pain intensity, suggesting the importance of pain catastrophizing in increasing vulnerability to pain. The results also indicated gender-related differences, marked by the higher pain threshold and tolerance in men. Conclusions: This study adds to the understanding of the complex interplay between personality and pain, by providing a better understanding of such mechanisms in healthy adults. (Korean J Pain 2018; 31: 16-26)
The microbiota is indispensable for human health and the regulation of various body functions, including energy metabolism. The harmonic crosstalk between the microbiota and the intestinal epithelial barrier determines gut homeostasis and health status in the healthy subject. Obesity and type 2 diabetes risk are, to some extent, explained by alterations in the microbiota. Since recent data indicate that the population of gut microorganisms can influence nutrient absorption and energy storage thus prevalence on obesity and metabolic disorders. Moreover, metabolic disease conditions, such as obesity, may be stimulated by genetic, environmental factors and by pathways that link metabolism with the immune system. On the basis of the above considerations, this review compiles the current results obtained in recent studies indicating the gut microbiota contribution to obesity development.