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      • 간호대생과 의대생의 간호사 이미지 비교

        구민진,김수영,방정민,서아영,양희진,윤소람,이윤재,이재은,이지연,정윤경,최수정 이화여자대학교 간호과학대학 2014 이화간호학회지 Vol.- No.48

        Purpose: This study aims to analyze the difference in the perception that nursing students and medical students have regarding the image of nurses. Method: The sampling group for this study was made up of 111 nursing students and 117 medicine students, conducted from the 19th August 2013 to 3rd September 2013. The tool used for this study is the “Nurse Image Scale”. The data is analyzed using the SPSS 21.0 program, technical stats, t-test and ANOVA with Scheffe test. Result: There was a notable difference in the results(t=6.94, p<001), with the average image perception score of nurses at 3.84±0.34 amongst nursing students being higher than the 3.50±0.38 amongst Medicine students. The average score of the 4 areas tested, “Qualification of a Nurse”, “Role of a Nurse”, “Social Participation of a Nurse” and “Interpersonal Skills of a Nurse” were all marked higher by the nursing students than the medicine students. The average score became notably higher as the period of practice became shorter with nursing students (F=4.21, p=.043). Furthermore, the average score for the “Qualification of a Nurse” was notably higher as the period of practice became shorter (F=3.98, p=.049). Medical students gave an average score for the “Qualification of a Nurse”(F=3.72, p=.027) and the “Interpersonal Skills of a Nurse”(F=4.11, p=.019) which was relative to the development of a nurse’s image, while the average score for the “Role of a Nurse” was notably higher with a longer period of practice(F=6.65, p=.011). Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that the image perception of a nurse can vary depending on the experience in period of practice. Therefore, together with this study conducted with nursing students and medicine students, there is a need for further studies conducted on image perception of nurses with various experience in period of practice.

      • KCI등재

        Synthesis of Pyranobenzopyran Derivatives as a Potent Antibacterial Agent

        A. C. Chaskar,V. V. Mulwad,B. P. Langi 대한화학회 2008 대한화학회지 Vol.52 No.6

        3-Formyl-4-hydroxy-2H(1)-benzopyran-2-one 1a-d on reaction with diethyl malonate in the presence of piperidine give ethyl-2H,5H-2,5-dioxopyrano[3,2-c] benzopyran-3-oate. 2a-d. Michael addition of 2a-d with ethyl aceto acetate gives ethyl 2,4-dihydroxy-5H, 12H- 5,12-dioxo [2] benzo pyrano [4,3-c] [1] benzopyran- 1-oate (3a-d). 3a-d on Pechmann condensation with ethyl aceto acetate gives 2-acetyl-1,6-dihydroxy-3H,7H,14H-3,7,14-trioxo-pyrano[2/,3/,5,6] [2] benzo pyrano [3,2-c] benzopyran 4a-d. Michael addition followed by cyclisation of acetyl acetone with ethyl-2H,5H- 2,5-dioxo-pyrano[3,2-c] benzopyran-3-oate 2 a-d in the presence of sodium methoxide in boiling methanol afforded1- acetyl-2-methyl-4H,5H,12H,4,5,12-trioxo-dipyrano[3,4-d;3/,2/-c] benzopyran. 5a-d. 마이클 첨가반응을 사용하여 ethyl 2,4-dihydroxy-5H, 12H- 5,12-dioxo [2] benzo pyrano [4,3-c] [1] benzopyran- 1-oate(3a-d)을 합성하였다. 3a-d와 베크만 축합반응물과 아세토 아세트산 에틸은 2-acetyl-1,6-dihydroxy-3H,7H,14H- 3,7,14-trioxo-pyrano[2/,3/,5,6][2] benzo pyrano[3,2-c] benzopyran(4a-d)이 되었다. 메톡사이드나트륨의 존재하에 끓는 메탄올에서 마이클 첨가에 뒤이어 아세틸 아세톤의 고리화 반응으로 ethyl-2H,5H-2,5-dioxopyrano[3,2-c] benzopyran- 3-oate(2a-d)을 사용하여 1-acetyl-2-methyl-4H,5H,12H,4,5,12-trioxo-dipyrano[3,4-d;3/,2/-c] benzopyran(5a-d.)을 합성하 였다.

      • KCI등재후보

        Further Evidence of Linkage at the tva and tvc Loci in the Layer Lines and a Possibility of Polyallelism at the tvc Locus

        A. K. Ghosh,P. K. Pani 아세아·태평양축산학회 2005 Animal Bioscience Vol.18 No.5

        Three lines of White Leghorn (WL) chickens (IWJ, IWG and IWC) maintained at Central Avian Research Institute,Izatnagar (UP), were used for chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and liver tumour (LT) assay. Eleven-day-old embryos of each line were partitioned into three groups and noculated with 0.2 ml of subgroup A, subgroup C and an equal mixture of subgroup A and C Roussarcoma virus (RSV). Subgroup virus receptor on the cell surface membrane for subgroup A is coded for by umour virus a (tva) locus and for subgroup C by tumour virus c (tvc) locus. The random association of the genes at the tva and tvc loci in IWJ and IWC line was assessed and the X2-values for phenotypic classes were found to be significant, indicating the linkage between the tva and tvc loci. The linkage value was estimated to be 0.09 on pooled sex and pooled line basis. On the basis of four subclass tumour phenotypes a 4-allele model was proposed for tva locus having as1, as2, ar1 and ar2 alleles and the frequencies were calculated as 0.47, 0.13, 0.13 and 0.27 for IWJ line, 0.31, 0.33, 0.14 and 0.22 for IWG line and 0.44, 0.11, 0.21 and 0.24 for IWC line, respectively. Similarly, for tvc locus the frequencies of four alleles i.e. cs1, cs2, cr1 and cr2 were calculated as 0.42, 0.20, 0.21 and 0.17 for IWJ line, 0.42, 0.17, 0.27 and 0.14 for IWG line and 0.30, 0.21, 0.16 and 0.33 for IWC line, respectively. The X2-values for all classes of observations were not significant(p>0.05), indicating a good fit to the 4-allele model for the occurrence of 4-subclass tumour phenotypes for tva and tvc loci. On the basis of the 2-allele model both tva and tvc locus carries three genotypes each. But, on the basis of the 4-allele model tva and tvc locus carries 10 genotypes each. The interaction between A-resistance and C-resistance (both CAM and LT death) was ascertained by taking the 10 genotypes of tva locus and 3 genotypes of tvc locus by pooling the lines and partitioning the observations into 3 classes. The X2-values for the genotypic classes of CAM (-) LT (+) and CAM (-) LT (-) phenotypes to mixed virus (A+C) infection were found to be highly significant (p<0.01), indicating increased resistance, which indicates the joint segregation of ar and cr genes, suggesting the existence of close linkage between the tva and tvc loci. Therefore, an indirect selection approach using subgroup C viruses can be employed to generate stocks resistant to subgroup A LLV, obviating contamination with the most common agent causing LL in field condition. Three lines of White Leghorn (WL) chickens (IWJ, IWG and IWC) maintained at Central Avian Research Institute,Izatnagar (UP), were used for chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and liver tumour (LT) assay. Eleven-day-old embryos of each line were partitioned into three groups and noculated with 0.2 ml of subgroup A, subgroup C and an equal mixture of subgroup A and C Roussarcoma virus (RSV). Subgroup virus receptor on the cell surface membrane for subgroup A is coded for by umour virus a (tva) locus and for subgroup C by tumour virus c (tvc) locus. The random association of the genes at the tva and tvc loci in IWJ and IWC line was assessed and the X2-values for phenotypic classes were found to be significant, indicating the linkage between the tva and tvc loci. The linkage value was estimated to be 0.09 on pooled sex and pooled line basis. On the basis of four subclass tumour phenotypes a 4-allele model was proposed for tva locus having as1, as2, ar1 and ar2 alleles and the frequencies were calculated as 0.47, 0.13, 0.13 and 0.27 for IWJ line, 0.31, 0.33, 0.14 and 0.22 for IWG line and 0.44, 0.11, 0.21 and 0.24 for IWC line, respectively. Similarly, for tvc locus the frequencies of four alleles i.e. cs1, cs2, cr1 and cr2 were calculated as 0.42, 0.20, 0.21 and 0.17 for IWJ line, 0.42, 0.17, 0.27 and 0.14 for IWG line and 0.30, 0.21, 0.16 and 0.33 for IWC line, respectively. The X2-values for all classes of observations were not significant(p>0.05), indicating a good fit to the 4-allele model for the occurrence of 4-subclass tumour phenotypes for tva and tvc loci. On the basis of the 2-allele model both tva and tvc locus carries three genotypes each. But, on the basis of the 4-allele model tva and tvc locus carries 10 genotypes each. The interaction between A-resistance and C-resistance (both CAM and LT death) was ascertained by taking the 10 genotypes of tva locus and 3 genotypes of tvc locus by pooling the lines and partitioning the observations into 3 classes. The X2-values for the genotypic classes of CAM (-) LT (+) and CAM (-) LT (-) phenotypes to mixed virus (A+C) infection were found to be highly significant (p<0.01), indicating increased resistance, which indicates the joint segregation of ar and cr genes, suggesting the existence of close linkage between the tva and tvc loci. Therefore, an indirect selection approach using subgroup C viruses can be employed to generate stocks resistant to subgroup A LLV, obviating contamination with the most common agent causing LL in field condition.

      • KCI등재SCIESCOPUS

        Solvothermal synthesis of high-performance Ni-Co layered double hydroxide nanofoam electrode for electrochemical energy storage

        Patel, R.,Inamdar, A.I.,Hou, B.,Cha, S.,Ansari, A.T.,Gunjakar, J.L.,Im, H.,Kim, H. ELSEVIER 2017 CURRENT APPLIED PHYSICS Vol.17 No.4

        <P>A nanofoam nickel cobalt layered double hydroxide (NiCo(OH)(2)) electrode film is fabricated on a stainless-steel substrate with the use of a simple one-step solvothermal process. The nanofoam NiCo(OH)(2) electrode exhibits a high specific capacitance of 2710.2 Fig at a current density.of 9.1 A/g, and a good capacity retention of similar to 70% after 2000 charge-discharge cycles at a high current density of 31.8 A/g. An energy density of 60.23 Wh/kg is obtained at a power density of 1.8 kW/kg. The excellent electrochemical energy storage performance of the NiCo(OH)(2) electrode is due to the synergetic effect of a significantly improved ionic diffusion and an effective charge transfer, which is linked to a well-dispersed interconnected nanofoam morphology and binder-free direct contact with the current collector. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</P>

      • KCI등재

        A 12-MHz CW RFQ for the AEBL Project

        D. L. Schrage,P. N. Ostroumov,A. Barcikowski,D. Fallin,A. A. Kolomiets 한국물리학회 2008 THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN PHYSICAL SOCIETY Vol.52 No.3

        The Advanced Exotic Beam Laboratory (AEBL) at the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) will provide a research facility for studies of nuclear phenomena by using beams of short-lived isotopes for research on the nature of nucleonic matter and the origin of the elements, for tests of the Standard Model, for applications in medicine and industry, and for other applied physics research. The proposed design of the AEBL driver linac evolved from the Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) project. The AEBL will be a CW linac capable of accelerating uranium ions up to 200 MeV/u and protons to 580 MeV with 400 kW beam power. The AEBL facility also includes a post-accelerator which is designed for acceleration of radioactive ions with charge-to-mass ratios in the range from 1/238 to 1/6. Very low charge-state ions can be most eciently bunched and accelerated by using normally-conducting radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) for the rst few MV of the post accelerator. A two-meter long, 12-MHz CW RFQ was designed, built, and tested in the late 1990s as the rst section of a three-section RFQ [18]. This RFQ achieved inter-electrode voltages of 110 kV CW (the peak surface eld was 15 MV/m) and accelerated beams with A/q as large as 132 (132Xe). The AEBL requires a similar RFQ for the post-acceleration of singly-charged unstable nuclides. Our plan is to replace the vanes of this RFQ with a design that incorporates a stronger focusing and that will achieve a higher peak surface eld (16 MV/m) at 82.2-kV inter-vane voltage. The objectives of this project are 1. to conrm the possibility of a low injection energy of 0.4 keV/u which signicantly reduces the voltage required for a high-voltage deck; 2. to test the highest possible peak surface eld on the RFQ electrodes designed for the lowest frequency of 12 MHz compared to existing RFQs worldwide; 3. to provide a technical base for the design of a post-accelerator for the future Advanced Exotic Beam Facility. At the present time, the design is complete, and the fabrication of the 12 MHz RFQ is scheduled to commence in October 2007 with testing planned in 2008. The physics and engineering design of the RFQ is discussed. The Advanced Exotic Beam Laboratory (AEBL) at the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) will provide a research facility for studies of nuclear phenomena by using beams of short-lived isotopes for research on the nature of nucleonic matter and the origin of the elements, for tests of the Standard Model, for applications in medicine and industry, and for other applied physics research. The proposed design of the AEBL driver linac evolved from the Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) project. The AEBL will be a CW linac capable of accelerating uranium ions up to 200 MeV/u and protons to 580 MeV with 400 kW beam power. The AEBL facility also includes a post-accelerator which is designed for acceleration of radioactive ions with charge-to-mass ratios in the range from 1/238 to 1/6. Very low charge-state ions can be most eciently bunched and accelerated by using normally-conducting radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) for the rst few MV of the post accelerator. A two-meter long, 12-MHz CW RFQ was designed, built, and tested in the late 1990s as the rst section of a three-section RFQ [18]. This RFQ achieved inter-electrode voltages of 110 kV CW (the peak surface eld was 15 MV/m) and accelerated beams with A/q as large as 132 (132Xe). The AEBL requires a similar RFQ for the post-acceleration of singly-charged unstable nuclides. Our plan is to replace the vanes of this RFQ with a design that incorporates a stronger focusing and that will achieve a higher peak surface eld (16 MV/m) at 82.2-kV inter-vane voltage. The objectives of this project are 1. to conrm the possibility of a low injection energy of 0.4 keV/u which signicantly reduces the voltage required for a high-voltage deck; 2. to test the highest possible peak surface eld on the RFQ electrodes designed for the lowest frequency of 12 MHz compared to existing RFQs worldwide; 3. to provide a technical base for the design of a post-accelerator for the future Advanced Exotic Beam Facility. At the present time, the design is complete, and the fabrication of the 12 MHz RFQ is scheduled to commence in October 2007 with testing planned in 2008. The physics and engineering design of the RFQ is discussed.

      • 정화조에서 배출되는 하수관악취 저감방안 연구

        조용모 ( Yong Mo Cho ),남미아 ( Mi A Nam ) 서울시정개발연구원 2009 연구보고서 Vol.2009 No.5

        Outline: Recently, the urban foul odor problem is frequently happening all around Seoul area; CBD, large apartment districts, and low-lying areas where a foul water running velocity is slow. Even though a life foul odor has not been regarded as a serious problem until now, cases of civil appeal are increasing for the sewer foul odor all around Seoul along with the improvement of standard of living and frequent rise of bad smell problems especially in large buildings. The purpose of this study is deliberating the way of reducing the sewer foul odor by examining the origin and process of the urban sewer foul odor generating throughout Seoul. 2. Main results of the study The result of the survey had performed for three years, during 2006~2008, shows that the generating spot of the life sewage foul odor is increasing every year; 1,442 cases in 2006, 2,067 cases in 2007, and 2,523 cases in 2008, total 6,032 cases had been reported. 608,205 Septic tanks including polluted water purifying devices had installed in Seoul, and 11,454 tanks among them are over 500 people capacity tanks. 2) Foul odor concentration examination in Seoul The foul odor in the circumference of Yeosung Green Castle apartment was examined to find the generating characteristics of the life sewage foul odor. Yeosung Green Castle apartment is located where about 10% gradient road is continued more than 500 meters. Foul odor is severly generated at the end of this road, the entrance of a path up a mountain. The sewage foul odor of Namhyun-dong neighborhood is generated from the foul odor of Septic tanks in the houses and apartments. The result of foul odor examination showed the degree of mixed foul odor at the 1 and 2 spots of rainwater receivers are individually 144 and 208 dilution rate, and they are far over 15 that is permissible level. Hydrogen sulfide was measured 15 times higher than the permissible level, 20.0ppb, at the each spots. Methyl mercaptan also was gauged as largely exceeding 2.0ppb, the permissible level. 3) Types of life foul odor The foul odor generated in Seoul could be largely classified into five types as follows; A. the foul odor adjacent to the large buildings, B. the foul odor of small water-purifiers in single-family housing districts, C. the foul odor of sewer system in upstream hilly sections, D. the foul odor of sewer system in low-lying areas, and E. the foul odor of Storm Overflow Diverging Tanks. 4) Problems of life sewage foul odor The problems of the life sewage foul odor are as follows; A. absence of the efficient alteration of sewage foul odor prevention, B. difficulty of a origin blockade in the Septic tanks, the main source of life sewage foul odor, C. absence of a provision for prevention of life sewage foul odor in the Foul Odor Prevention Law and D. difficulty of achieving the foul odor reducing effect by resetting the quality standard of Septic thank`s discharging water. 3. Policy recommendation: 1) Basic principles for reducing ife foul odor (1) Analyzing reality of life sewage foul odor generation The foul odor is inevitably generated in most Korean buildings when discharging water of a Septic tank is influented to the sewer system. However, the foul odor prevention with improving efficiency of a Septic tank has not only much difficulty of securing effectiveness but also lack of scientific approaches. (2) Establishing basic frame for life foul odor prevention The basic frame for life foul odor prevention is as follows, Firstly, introducing the public concept, the mandatory installation and management of Septic tanks and sewer systems, to reduce the sewage foul odor. Secondly, promoting the synthesized management that focuses on a sewer pipe; moving from point control to line control Thirdly, establishing a system by adding the life sewer foul odor provision in the Foul Odor Prevention Law or legislating a new law for the preventing life sewer foul odor, Fourthly, connecting the measure for reduction of Septic tanks and sewer pipe foul odor with the sewerage maintenance, Lastly, founding the effective reduction measure with considering limited effect of a rainwater receiver for the sewer foul odor prevention. (1) Process for managing life sewer foul odor The main contents of process for the life sewer foul odor management are as follows in the order named; A. recognizing the generation spot of the life sewer foul odor, B. examining the life sewer foul odor, C. selecting sewer systems for managing the life sewer foul odor, D. requiring the reduction facility to the large buildings discharging sewage to the sewer system and water-purifying tanks over 500 people capacity by law, E. establishing the synthesized reduction plan in the selected sewer system district, and F. installing the reduction facility for the life sewer foul odor. (2) Systemic improvement for reduction of sewer foul odor Adding the sewer foul odor section in the Foul Odor Prevention Law or Sewerage Law is necessary, and legislating the municipal ordinance for the life sewer foul odor in Seoul is required. It is necessary to make installing the foul odor facility into a mandatory requirement both new construction buildings installed Septic tank over 500 people capacity or larger than 1,500 floor area, and existing buildings located within the sewer foul odor sewer system area. (3) Efficient plan for reducing foul odor in building district ① Installing plan of the foul odor reduction facility for existing buildings in the urban building districts installing vertical outlets on the building side using existing sewer pipes as an induction pipe. ② New construction buildings in single-family housing districts systemizing installing the foul odor reduction facility as mandatory requirement in the buildings both have Septic tank over 500 people capacity and larger than 1500 floor area, ③ Indistinctive source of the sewer foul odor installing the "L"type induction pipe using a street light or telephone pole as a prop. (4) Establishing a plan for sewer four odor reduction Establishing the sewer foul odor maintenance and improvement scheme is required in each district of the sewer foul odor management, On top of that, the sewer foul odor reduction study should be proceeded with the whole region of Seoul, (5) Operating sewer foul odor counterplan party under the government of Seoul The foul odor counterplan party that is consisted with professionals and public service workers should be organized, and the solutions for the foul odor should be made such as a field study, reduction programs, the allotment of facility construction in the regions where the foul odor reduction measure is urgent.

      • KCI등재후보

        A characterization of normal subgroups via -closed sets

        A. Badawi 장전수학회 2012 Advanced Studies in Contemporary Mathematics Vol.22 No.2

        Let (G, *) be a semigroup, D ⊆ G, and n ≥ 2 be an integer. We say that (D, *) is an n-closed subset of G if a_1 * ... * a_n ∈ D for every a_1, ..., a_n ∈ D. Hence every closed set is a 2-closed set. The concept of n-closed sets arise in so many natural examples. For example, let D be the set of all odd integers, then (D, +) is a 3-closed subset of (Z, +) that is not a 2-closed subset of (Z, +). If K = {1, 4, 7, 10, ...} , then (K, +) is a 4-closed subset of (Z, +) that is not an n-closed subset of (Z, +) for n = 2, 3. In this paper, we show that if (H, *) is a subgroup of a group (G, *) such that [H : G] = n < ∞,then H is a normal subgroup of G if and only if every left coset of H is an n + 1-closed subset of G.

      • 화이트헤드의 유기체 철학과 쿼크

        임진아 ( Jin A Yim ) 한국화이트헤드학회 2013 화이트헤드 연구 Vol.26 No.-

        궁극적 물질은 무엇이며, 그 물질의 성질에 대해 연구하는 분야는 물리학 중에서도 소립자물리학의 연구영역이다. 소립자물리학이 궁극적 요소에 대한 사유에는 궁극적 요소는 물질이며, 파동이 아닌 입자적 특성을 가진 그 무엇이 아니겠는가 하는 가정이 전제되어 있다. 20세기 초반, 플랑크의 에너지 양자가설로 인해 촉발된 물리학의 혁명은 물리학이 연구하는 대상인 물질 그 자체에 대한 관점의 전환을 요구했다. 파동과 입자는 양립할 수 없는 물질의 양태이다. 그러나 물질의 이중성으로 잘 알려져 있듯이 파동은 입자의 성질을, 입자는 파동의 성질을 가지고 있다는 것이 드러났다. 또한 극미의 세계에서는 매우 많은 숫자의 소립자가 발견되었으나, 현재 물리학자들은 양성자와 중성자와 같은 핵자를 만드는 근본적인 물질로 간주하는 쿼크 및 전자를 이 세계를 구성하는 가장 근원적인 입자들로 생각 한다.이 글은 두 가지의 목적을 가지고 있다. 첫 번째, 20세기에 양자역학에서 시작된 물질의 이중성으로부터 쿼크가 가진 성질을 통해 전통적인 물질관에 대해 비판하고자 한다. 두 번째, 현재까지도 명쾌한 해답이 제시되지 않고 있는 물질의 이중성 및 쿼크의 실체성에 대한 의문을 화이트헤드의 유기체철학의 관점으로 고찰해보고자 한다. The ultimate matter is what , and an field to study for the property of the material is study are of the particle physics. The ultimate element is matter in the reason for the ultimate element particle physics, And it is to a prerequisite a home doing whether it is the what with the property of the particle that is not wave motion. The prompted physical revolution required the change over of the point of view for material itself which was the object which physics studied(grand prix) by Energy Quantum hypothesis of initial, Planck in the 20th century. Wave motion and a particle are appearance of the materials which they cannot balance. However, it appeared in the wave motion that the particle had a nature of the wave motion with the nature of the particle to be known for the duality of the material well. In addition, the elementary particle of a great many numbers was discovered in the particle physical world, but current physicists think about quark to consider to be a basic material making the nuclear particle which seems to be a neutron with a positive child and an electron with root-like particles to frame this world. This essay consider as two kinds of purposes. It thinks first to think to criticize it for outlook on traditional material through the nature that quark has from the duality of the material which began in quantum mechanics in the 20th century. It thinks to consider a shrug for the second, duality of the material that the answer that is clear to date is not shown and substantiality of the quark at a point of view of the organized body philosophy of A. N. Whitehead.

      • A novel mode of TRPML3 regulation by extracytosolic pH absent in the varitint-waddler phenotype

        Kim, Hyun Jin,Li, Qin,Tjon-Kon-Sang, Sandra,So, Insuk,Kiselyov, Kirill,Soyombo, Abigail A,Muallem, Shmuel Wiley (John WileySons) 2008 The EMBO journal Vol.27 No.8

        <P>TRPML3 belongs to the TRPML subfamily of the transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. The A419P mutation in TRPML3 causes the varitint-waddler phenotype as a result of gain-of-function mutation (GOF). Regulation of the channels and the mechanism by which the A419P mutation leads to GOF are not known. We report here that TRPML3 is a Ca(2+)-permeable channel with a unique form of regulation by extracytosolic (luminal) H(+) (H(+)(e-cyto)). Regulation by H(+)(e-cyto) is mediated by a string of three histidines (H252, H273, H283) in the large extracytosolic loop between transmembrane domains (TMD) 1 and 2. Each of the histidines has a unique role, whereby H252 and H273 retard access of H(+)(e-cyto) to the inhibitory H283. Notably, the H283A mutation has the same phenotype as A419P and locks the channel in an open state, whereas the H283R mutation inactivates the channel. Accordingly, A419P eliminates regulation of TRPML3 by H(+)(e-cyto), and confers full activation to TRPML3(H283R). Activation of TRPML3 and regulation by H(+)(e-cyto) are altered by both the alpha-helix-destabilizing A419G and the alpha-helix-favouring A419M and A419K. These findings suggest that regulation of TRPML3 by H(+)(e-cyto) is due to an effect of the large extracytosolic loop on the orientation of fifth TMD and thus pore opening and show that the GOF of TRPML3(A419P) is due to disruption of this communication.</P>

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