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The purpose of this study is to investigate the extent to which dental laboratories use proper materials, procedures, devices, and equipments to fabricate crown & bridge, PFM(Porcelain Fused to Metal) crown & bridge, partial denture, complete denture, and other prosteses. 100 laboratories in Seoul were selected for this investigation. Questionnaires were constructed focusing on five topocs:crown & bridge, PFM crown & bridge, partial denture, complete denture, and other prostheses. The results from this survey were as follows : 1. Most dental laboratories used old, inexpensive, and familiar materials rather than newly developed ones. 2. Most of the dental technicians did not stick to the standard procedures of handling materials, but to their own experiences. 3. Newly developed equipments to fabricate dental prostheses were possessed by nearly 30% dental laboratories. 4. About 80% of dental laboratories were using the procedures they had learned in the school : die trimming for accurate crown margin and softening heat treatment after RPD gold casting. But less than 30% of laboratories were shown to follow the boxing procedure to produce master cast and laboratory remounting in the process of complete denture. The findings show that dental laboratory procedures to fabricate dental prostheses are incomplete and inaccurate in some instances. So, further studies are neededs to clarify the causes of some inaccurate procedures, the better and more equipments should be supplied to produce the more accurate dental posthesis, and more efforts at enancing the appropriate use of dental materials and procedures should be made.
An aim of this study is to find out influenced factors of satisfaction degree on the clinical practice for the dental technology student and it can be provided the basic necessary data for the educational planning of the curriculum for the clinical practice. The target of study are selected form 7 junior health college students and colleges are located in around seoul form 14 junior health college throughout the nation. The questionnaries were distributed between 24th Feb to 30th July in 1997 to the 100 dental technicians who finished clinical practice and entered profession in 1997. All collected data were analysed by using SPSS/PC, Technical Statistic, One-Way ANOVA, Ttest, Person Correnlation Coefficient, Chrobach Alpha Coefficient and the result of the study is follow. 1) The satisfaction degree were classificated as 7 aspect and overall average score was 3.042. During that period satisfaction of personal relation aspect(M=3.737) shows highest level. Satsfiaction of clinical parctice(M=3.571) shows as second, Satisfiaction of environment(M=3.028), Satisfaction of guidance(M=2.915), satisfaction of subject are ordered of their scores. According to above study satisfaction's degree of subject show lowest level. 2) According to the result of verification of study. general character of student and satisfiaction degree has not much relation with sex, location of college, religion, period for enrolling college, teaching method of clinical practice. But the result show similar relation with following items. Satisfaction if subject and satisfaction of clinical practice(P=0.000), place of clinical practice and satisfaction of clinical practice(P=0.002), Academic record of college and satisfaction of clinical practice(P=0.000). 3) The relation of satisfaction(Subject, method of teaching, environment, period, rating, personal relation) of clinical practice and age of investigation's target Older student show higher satisfaction(P=0.040). Also method of teaching, environments, period, rating, personal relation has similarities with satisfaction. Therefore student who has higher satisfaction of clinical practice they also have higher rate for subject, environment, period, personal relation. 4) The result fo investigation, most interesting subject was crown & bridge and most difficult factor was too many simple-works to the student. One of ideal factor was discussing with counselor before they choose place for clinical practice. Third grade and first semester is most efficient time for clinical practice and 8 week is proper period for clinical practice. Clinical practice is absilutory mecessary and we find out most student rated positively. However we need more specific study about satisfcation of each subject. Because it shows lowest level and we need more pay attention for planning of clinical practice.
Jongmyojeryeak, the No. 1 of intangible cultural asset of Korea has all the 500-year history of Chosun Dynasty contained in it and is the cultural heritage of the highest value and cultural importance. The UNESCO conference held in Paris, France this year declared it as `the masterpiece of human words-of-mouth and intangible heritage,` placing it to the level of the world`s admiration. This study intended to reconsider and illuminate Jongmyoilmoo of Jongmyojeryeak, the No. 1 of intangible cultural asset of Korea, assuming this kind of work would shed another new and fresh interpretation of traditional culture. Unlike other Korean traditional dances, Jongmyoilmoo has its details recorded in 『Siyongmoobo』which is one of the most valuable historic documents concerning Korean traditional dances, thus enabling itself to be preserved and inherited correctly. It surely falls under the category of Korea`s cultural assets of a great historic and artistic value. An analysis was made on the composition systems of technical term and its arrangement found in「Botaepyunggimoo」in『Siyongmoobo』which consists of today`s irregular and regular long and short rhythms, in order to search for the ways to harmonize each performance of Jongmyojeryeak and Jongmyoilmoo, that is, to match the theories and the practices. The results of the study are as follows: 1. There should be `Haphyung(centering upon chest)` at Gochooksamsung following the first beat of beginning music. And `Hasu(let down)` with the right hand should be made in one note or two notes at the first dancing passage of the second beat. 2. `Jeomyoo` and `Hasu` with the left hand should both be made in two notes at the first dancing passage of development step. 3. `Yangsugeogyon(put both hands on shoulder)` must be made in four or three notes from the left side with both hands at the first dancing passage of conversion step. 4. `Bokpa(grasp belly)` to the front side with both hands should be made in two notes at the first dancing passage of conclusion step. 5. Every last technical term of each passage including `Hasu` of introduction step, `Hasu` of development step, `Yangsuhasu(let both hands down)` of conversion step, and `Haphyung` of conclusion step should be made in one note or two notes whether it`s an independent dancing passage or complex one. 6. Every technical term at the other middle dancing passage should have two core notes from which one + or - note will be made. 7. The most important and last step to harmonize dance and music as one is to decide the bar of three notes among the bars of three or four notes which can be an independent or a complex dancing passage in any piece.
본 연구의 목적은 한국 전통무용으로서 조선시대 궁중에서 실연되던 종묘일무의 심미학적 성격 및 구조를 역사적 관점에서 규명하는 것이다. 우리나라에서 가장 오래된 의식무인 종묘일무는 「시용무보」를 통해 그 명맥이 이어져 내려오고 있다. 종묘일무가 처음 만들어져 행하여 졌을 때의 모습을 정확하게는 알 수가 없다. 그러나 현존하는 「시용무보」를 통해 미학적 개념 및 형태에 대한 재해석을 시도하였다. 이 연구를 통하여 다음과 같은 결과를 도출하였다. 1. 종묘일무는 동양의 가장 중요한 철학적·종교적 개념인 `음양사상`과 그리고 `삼재사상`을 반영하였다. 2. 종묘일무의 심미적 구조 및 춤동작은 동양예술의 다양한 선, 색, 모양 등의 개념을 반영하고 있다. 3. 시용무보에 대한 명확한 재해석을 통한 춤사위의 복원이 요구된다는 것이다. 이는 우리 전통문화의 올바른 계승 작업에 관한 중요성이 담겨있다. 4. 종묘일무의 춤사위에 있어서 사상적 근원에 따른 미학적 구조뿐만 아니라 그것의 실용성 가치에 대한 지속적이고, 부가적 추적 작업이 요구된다. 종묘일무는 일종의 검술·호신 동작의 특성 때문에 무예의 시각에서도 조명해 볼 수 있다. 5. 종묘일무는 동야의 도덕적 개념의 존중, 미덕, 평판 그리고 유교의 촉진 등을 반영하고 있다. 6. 종묘일무의 구성체계는 삼궁(三宮)의 수리(8·8·6·9)를 가져다가 삼재절구법(三才絶句法)으로 구성하였으며 수법(手法)은 좌수와 우수로서 하는 단수식(單手式), 쌍수식(雙手式), 양수식(兩手式) 등 세 가지법을 모두 활용하여 음양의 조화를 꾀하고 종용의 도를 기하였다. The purpose of this study was to investigate aesthetic nature and structure of Ill-Mu which is a Korean traditional dance performed in court in Chosun Dynasty period, from the historical perspective. For doing this, Siyoungmubo which is a classic music and dance book in this period was reviewed critically to interpretate traditional version of Korean court dance concept and style. The followings were proposed as the result of this study: 1. Ill-Mu reflect the concept of Yin and Yang and Samjae which have been major philosophical and religious thoughts in Eastern Culture. 2. Aesthetic structure and movement in Ill-Mu reflect various Eastern art concepts which are line, color, shape etc. 3. Ill-Mu is consisted of music, song, and dance for ritual ceremony. 4. Movement and dance style in Ill-Mu were utilized as self-defense in a some sense. 5. Ill-Mu reflect Eastern ethical concept including respect, virtue, reputation and cultivation in Confucianism.
디스크 배열은 여러개의 디스크를 사용하여 I/O 성능을 향상시키기 위한 것으로, 본 논문에서는 I/O 요구 특성으로 평균 요구 크기, 평균 요구 도착률, 요청되어지는 평균 응답 시간이 주어질때에 이를 만족 시키는 디스크 배열 특성 변수를 결정하는 분석 모델을 제시한다. 결정된 디스크 배열 특성 변수는 최소 디스크 배열 구성 디스크 수, 디스크 배열 구조, 디크러스트링 수인데, 고려되는 디스크 배열 구조는 동기/비동기 디스크들이 조합된 혼합 구조로 동기화 디스크들로만 구성된 동기화 구조와 비동기 디스크들로만 구성된 비동기화 구조는 혼합 구조에 포함된다. 제시된 분석 모델은 시뮬레이션을 통해 검증되며, 검증결과 동기화 구조나 비동기화 구조보다 동기/비동기 디스크들이 조합된 구조가 더 작은 디스크 수로서 주어진 요구 특성을 만족함을 보이며, 요구 도착률이 낮을 때는 비동기화 구조보다 동기화 구조가, 요구 도착률이 높을 때는 동기화 구조보다 비동기화 구조가 더 작은 디스크 수로서 주어진 요구 특성을 만족함을 보인다. Disk array is an I/O system using multiple disks to improve the I/O performance. This paper considers general architectural models of disk array which include synchronized architectures consisting only of synchronized disks, asynchronized architectures consisting only of asynchronized disks, and hybrid architectures consisting of both types of disks. In order to design a disk array architecture which can meet a certain I/O workload, we have to analyze the performance of the disk array architecture. An I/O workload is given by an average request size, an average request rate, and the required mean response time. In this paper, we propose the analytic models of the synchronized, asynchronized, and hybrid systems for a given I/O characteristitics. The analytic models determine the minimum number of required disks, the degree of declustering, and the degree of synchronization for the underlying architecture models in order to satisfy a certain I/O characteristitics. Our analytic models are verified by the simulation. It is shown that the hybrid system requires the smallest number of disks for a certain I/O workload than synchronized system and asychronized system. We have shown that when the arrival rate is low, the synchronized system requires less number of disks than the asychronized system and when the arrival rate is high, the asynchronized system requires less number of disks than the sychronized system.
본 연구는 성적이 중위권에 속하는 고등학생 H군을 대상으로 시사만화 분석 학습을 실시하고 사회문제에 대한 학생의 이해능력과 비판적 해석능력이 변화하는 모습을 분석한 것이다. 의도했던 학습효과를 얻기 위하여 난이도가 적절한 시사만화를 선정하고 관련된 배경 지식과 시사만화의 기법 등에 대한 설명을 제공했으며, 학생이 분석 과정을 통해 사고력과 비판력을 단계적으로 훈련해 나갈 수 있도록 시사만화분석지를 활용하여 작업하도록 하였다. 연구 결과는 다음과 같다. 첫째, 시사만화 분석 작업은 H군의 사회문제에 대한 학습 동기를 유발시키고 흥미와 참여도를 높이는데 도움이 되었다. 둘째, 시사만화분석지를 활용하는 작업을 통하여 H군의 사회문제를 이해하고 비판적으로 분석하는 능력이 향상되는 것을 볼 수 있었다. 셋째, 시사만화분석지를 활용한 학습이 거듭될수록 H군은 시사만화 분석 작업에 자신감을 보이며 능동적이고 자기주도적인 학습 태도를 보였다. 이상의 연구를 통하여, 사회과 수업에서 시사만화를 수업자료로 적절히 활용하는 것이 중위권 학생의 사회문제를 이해해가는 전반적인 능력을 향상시키고, 나아가 자기주도적인 학습태도를 함양시키는데 도움이 되리라 예상할 수 있었다. 그러나 시사만화를 활용한 구체적인 수업모형을 만들어 실제 수업에 적용하는 것은 다음의 과제로 남겨두었다. Political cartoon placed in the daily newspaper can attract readers` attention with the vivid picture and conversational form of language. It can be understood easily with the complexity of picture and letter. These methods are known to be a highly effective way to enhance understanding and memorization. Political cartoons reflect the realities of the society of our times. They reveal the absurdities and contradictions in sharp satire and humor. The author presented the political cartoon to the 43 high school students, and then realized that political cartoon analysis would help middle level students to understand social problems. Hence, the author applied the political cartoon to one middle level student 7 times, and made a series of observations to catch the exchange of the student`s thinking to understand the social phenomenon. Because of the difficulties that political cartoon has, present study explains further about skilto one background knowledge. It intends to offer political cartoon analysis worksheet. Main findings of the study are as below: First, learning activities using political cartoons increased the student`s interest and participation. Second, political cartoon analysis improved the student`s ability to understand and criticize social phenomena. Third, lessons supported by political cartoon analysis had a positive influence on improving active learning attitude of students. Therefore, as a teaching-learning media, political cartoon have an affirmative possibility in promoting learner`s ability to understand social phenomenon in social studies.
본 연구는 네덜란드, 스코틀랜드, 중국 등이 자국 골프의 기원론을 주장하는 근거를 보다 깊이 고찰·정리한 다음 골프 기원론에 대한 정확한 설명의 방향을 잡을 수 있는 자료 확보를 위해 수행된 것이다. 세 국가의 골프 기원론을 고찰한 결과 현 골프의 기원은 안개 속에 가려져 있다는 결론을 얻었다. 근대적 골프는 스코틀랜드에서 조직화되어 세계화되었다. 그러나 목동의 게임과 15세기 골프의 연결고리가 되는 단서는 없었다. 네덜란드 콜벤이나 콜프의 존재는 명확하지만 그것이 스코틀랜드로 전해졌다는 근거 또한 없다. 차이니스 버전 골프 취완의 존재 근거는 명확하다. 그러나 그것 역시 유럽으로 전해진 근거가 없기 때문에 취완이 골프의 조상이라는 주장은 문제가 있다. 향후 골프 기원의 정설은 미싱 링크의 발굴 여부에 달려있다는 결론이다. This articles aims to find an accurate narrative for the prevailing theory behind the origin of golf, after considering, in depth, the said theory. After considering the theories behind the origins of golf from three different countries, it was difficult to come to a definitive conclusion. Modern golf became an organised sport in Scotland and subsequently became a global sport. However, there was no evidence to suggest that the "Shepherd`s game" had a link to 15th century Scottish golf. It is also certain that "Kloven" or "Kolf" did exit in the Netherlands, but there is no basis to say that this sport was exported to Scotland. The Chinese version of golf "Chuiwan"also clearly existed but there is no evidence to support the theory that "Chuiwan" found its way into Europe. Therefore, the definitive theory behind the origins of golf will depend on the discovery of the missing link. If the missing link is not found, then the idea that Golf had its genesis in Scotland, its modern home, will remain forever.
본 논문의 연구목표는 혜강 최한기(1803-1877)의 대외인식을 살펴보는 것이다. 먼저, 그의 대외인식의 토대를 이루고 있는 사상적 배경으로써 기학의 내용은 무엇인가? 둘째, 이러한 인식의 방향이 어떻게 변용되어 기학적 대외관념을 형성하는데 영향을 주고 있는가? 셋째, 최한기의 대외인식의 기본관념이 당시의 위정자들이 보여준 대외인식과 대응양식과 비교해 볼 때 어떤 차이가 있으며, 그 한계는 무엇인가? 넷째, 최한기의 대외인식이 갖는 한국사회사상사에서의 위치를 밝혀보고자 하였다. 19세기 조선사회는 대·내외적인 여러 요인으로 인해 위기의식이 팽배하던 시기로 많은 지식인들이 각기 독자적인 방식으로 현실을 인식하는 논리를 표출하였다. 조선조 말이라는 특수한 역사적 상황을 감안할 때 당시의 지식인들이 가졌던 대외인식은 중요한 의미를 갖는다. 특히 당시의 대외인식의 주체는 국가가 아닌 지식인 내지 사상가 개인이었다. 최한기는 학문적 호기심의 발로로써 대외관념을 적극 형성해 나갔던 만큼 그의 대외인식에 관한 연구결과는 조선후기 실학자들의 학문경향과 사상을 이해하는 데도 도움이 될 것으로 기대된다. 연구결과, 최한기의 대외인식의 특징은 19세기 중엽 조선사회의 내재적인 논리로 작용하던 전통적인 우주관에서 탈피하여, 자연과학적 지식을 토대로 근대적이면서도 과학적인 우주관을 표방하면서 전개한 개방적 대외인식이다. 최한기는 기학적 지리인식의 체계를 토대로 중국 중심의 대외관념인 화이론(華夷論)을 극복하고, 그의 독창적 사유체계인 ‘기학’을 바탕으로 지체(地體)에 대한 새로운 견해를 밝히고 있다. 최한기는 이를 근거로 神氣의 운화에 의한 국가 간의 대동(大同)을 주장하여 근대적인 세계관을 구축한 것이다. 따라서 최한기의 개방적인 대외인식은 우리나라가 근대에 들어와서 표방한 대외관계의 일단을 고찰하는데 중요한 역사적 시사를 제공해준 사례라 볼 수 있다. The purpose of the present study is to explore Choi, Hanki’s innovative ideas on external world. First, it is essential to understand fundamental elements of Chihak operating as a philosophical basis of his own recognition of external society. Secondly, the paper inquires how his perception and thoughts were developed into the further enrichment of the Chihak study on external world recognition. Then, I turn to differences between Choi’s ideal views on outer society and how political elites of the time actually thought and responded. Concurrently, it is worth analyzing limitations from this apparent disparity. Lastly, the present study clarifies ideological status of Choi’s ideas on external world in the modern Korean social thoughts. Chosun dynasty in nineteenth century faced various social and political crisis due to factors originated from home and abroad. Hence, intellectuals and philosophers of those times exhibited their own understanding on how they perceive internal disorder of the society. Considering a peculiar nature of historical circumstances in late Chosun dynasty, intellectuals’ ideas on external world get importance. It is interesting to note that individual thinker - not the state - was the main subject of such views. Choi’s academic curiosity resulted in further development of external perception. He inspired generations of realists during late Chosun dynasty. Therefore, studying on his thoughts in this regard helps to comprehend scholarly trend during that time. From thorough appreciation of his ideas, I conclude that his perspective is rooted from the scientific knowledge and enlightened, open vision toward the world. Choi’s Chihak escaped from the confines of China-centered world view, the China-centered views on external world. He introduced a new thought on the earth based on his creative speculation of Chihak. He constructed a modern understanding insisting harmonious between nations by Unwhachi. His innovative perspective on external world provides an ample viewpoint change regarding external relations in modern times of Korean history.
The culture of the car exorcism and the superstitious belief in modern society which are formed and handed down in the base of religious beliefs for supernatural being or power is the culture indicator which can classify the maintenance of tradition and the aspect of transfiguration in the modern urban folk culture as the newly interpreted and reorganized folk culture connected with material and human circumstances with the change of the times rather than it is the newly formed folk customs in the modem society. In this study, we are considering various aspects of the car exorcism and the superstitious belief which are formed and handed down between drivers of fire engines and ambulances. Based on that we are also clarifying the characteristic of the urban folk culture in this folk culture of cars. The purpose of the car exorcism in modern society is not that guarantee the car sanctity or present the guardian divinity. It is focused on the prayer for security of members and organs through preventing the car accident and driving with ease. The car exorcism seems to follow the religious ceremony in appearance but it is not only that the concept of the target spirit(spirit of car) is weak but also that the glory ceremony which is the essence of the religious ceremony, the ceremony of the calling spirit and the ceremony of the sending spirit are not fixed cleary. The procedure of the religious ceremony is reduced to just have the formal pattern and the point of the ceremony is on the incantational ceremony to contrive fortune using a sacrifice regarding evil god as the cause of accidents. This sacrificial aspect of the car exorcism is considered as a original limitation of urban folks related to modern products. According to the research omens which are handed down between drivers of fire engines and ambulances classified cases of estimations of a day's fortune based on specific experience which is experienced when they are driving and before driving and cases of estimations of persons transported a day and a day's fortune based on the type of the person who is transported first. Contrary to the case of the former, the case of the latter is presented to ambulance drivers restrictedly. Omens are constructed by experiences and association generally. Experiences and association which are clues of omens are controled by the traditional thought and the manner of living of the group. In this paper the formative background and the symbolic meaning of the urban folk customs which are newly formed in modern society are studied that it is focused on the omen culture shared by a fire company.
In Seongjong era of Koryo dynasty, the korean traditional rite of exorcism went through the great changes by earring out the royal rite of Daena or Daedong Narye on the model of Daena of the Tang age, namely Gona--the ancient Chinese Narye. Since then our royal rite of Daena in the end of the year had changed on account of our traditional view of exorcism. Ultimately these changes made for the formation of Korean Narye in early joseon just as chinese buddhism which had been introduced from India was brought in into Korea and formed korean buddhism by mixing our traditional folk belief. Comparing the features of Korean Narye formed in the middle age with those of ancient chinese rite, we can get a summary as follows: firstly, the Shibyisinsu(twelve gods and animals) was tranformed into the Shibyijisin(twelve gods). Secondly, the role of Jinja was turned from people who expel the spirit to spirit itself. Thirdly, there are some disguised characters such as Pangwan(the judge), Jowangsin(the kitchen god), and Somae(the unknown character up to now), which might be under the influence of Gumna, the Narye of Sung. Fourthly, in the year end Daena, they used the chicken which was believed to have the power of exorcising, reproduction and fertility. Among these four features, particularly the third and the forth allegedly have great effect on the formation of Korean Nahi as well as on the development of masked play.