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Objectives In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of Samhwangsasim-tang (S.H) on the allergic response caused by ovalbumin(OVA) sensitization and challenge in BALB/c mice. Methods The experimental animals were divided into five groups; 1) normal as negative control, 2) OVA-sensitized mice, 3) OVA-sensitized mice treated with 200 mg/kg of S.H 200, 4) OVA-sensitized mice treated with 400 mg/kg of S.H 400, and 5) OVA-sensitized mice treated with 5 mg/kg of Dexamethasone (Dex). Antigen sensitization for allergic mouse model was performed with twice injection of OVA for 2 weeks. After secondary injection, S.H was administrated orally into mice every day for 13 days and the inhibitory effect of S.H on allergic responses was evaluated. Results Treatment of S.H into allergic mice reduced significantly ear edema and infiltration of immune cells in ear tissues induced with OVA challenge in a dose-dependent manner. S.H reduced significantly the serum levels of Total Immunoglobulin(Ig)G and IgE, and particularly inhibited the production of OVA-specific IgE, but not OVA-specific IgG. The serum level of proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α and Th2-associated cytokine IL-4 also were significantly decreased by S.H adminstration in a dose denpendent manner. S.H attenuated OVA-induced secretion of IFN-γ, but not IL-12 which is a cytokine inducing the development of Th1 cells. It also reduced significantly the secretion of IL-4, which is a cytokine inducing the development of Th2 cells, after splenocytes were stimulated with OVA. However the secretion of IL-5 and IL-13 was influenced weakly or a little. Conclusions These results indicate that S.H could reduce the allergic response through inhibition of antigen-specific IgE and Th2-inducing cytokines. It suggest that S.H may be available clinically for the treatment of allergic patients. (J Korean Med Rehab 2014;24(3): 71-85)
ObjectivesThe aim of this study was to investigate anti-inflammatory activity of Mugi-hwan (MGH) Water Extract. MethodsCells were treated with 2 ug/ml of LPS 1 hour prior to the addition of MGH. Cell viability was measured by MTS assay. The production of NO was determined by reacting cultured medium with Griess reagent. The expression of COX-2, iNOS and MAPKs was investigated by Western blot, RT-PCR. The content of level of cytokines (PGE2, IL-6, in media from LPS-stimulated Raw 264.7 cells was analyed by ELISA kit. ResultsMGH inhibited the production of NO, PGE2, IL-6 as well as the expressions of iNOS, COX-2 in the murine macrophage, RAW 264.7 cells. MGH also had suppression effects of LPS induced MAPKs activation. ConclusionsThese results suggest that MGH has an anti-inflammatory therapeutic potential, which may result from inhibition of MAPK phosphorylation, thereby decreasing the expression of pro-inflammatory genes. (J Korean Med Rehab 2013;23(3):27-35) ObjectivesThe aim of this study was to investigate anti-inflammatory activity of Mugi-hwan (MGH) Water Extract. MethodsCells were treated with 2 ug/ml of LPS 1 hour prior to the addition of MGH. Cell viability was measured by MTS assay. The production of NO was determined by reacting cultured medium with Griess reagent. The expression of COX-2, iNOS and MAPKs was investigated by Western blot, RT-PCR. The content of level of cytokines (PGE2, IL-6, in media from LPS-stimulated Raw 264.7 cells was analyed by ELISA kit. ResultsMGH inhibited the production of NO, PGE2, IL-6 as well as the expressions of iNOS, COX-2 in the murine macrophage, RAW 264.7 cells. MGH also had suppression effects of LPS induced MAPKs activation. ConclusionsThese results suggest that MGH has an anti-inflammatory therapeutic potential, which may result from inhibition of MAPK phosphorylation, thereby decreasing the expression of pro-inflammatory genes. (J Korean Med Rehab 2013;23(3):27-35)
본 논문은 컴퓨터 비전 기술을 기반으로 자동 차량 감시 시스템을 제안하였다. 실시간 주행표시 시스템은 ITS의 필수 요건을 충족하면서, 자동 감시제어가 가능한 시스템이다. 이러한 장점은 확실한 자동차 추적에 대해 주요 장애물 처리 시스템 적용할 경우, 움직이는 물체에 대한 그림자 추적이다. 추적 차량 이미지에서 모든 종류의 정보를 획득하기 위해 차량을 확실하게 감시 화면에 나타나게 하였다. 시간이 지남에 따라 차량을 정밀 추적 제어 할 필요가 있고, 입체 모델 기반 접근 방식 또한 필요한 방식으로 적용하였다. 일반적으로 개체 또는 와이어 프레임 모델의 골격에 의해 차량의 각각의 유형을 나타내었고, 시스템이 실시간 실행되지 않더라도 차량 궤적은 3D기반 방식에서 높은 정밀도로 측정 될 수 있다는 점을 보여 준다. 본 논문에서는 차량, 배경, 그림자에 적용 가능하고, 도로 교통 감시의 시스템을 분할 방법을 역시 적용하였다. 과속 자동차의 속도 추적을 통해 낮은 레벨의 차량제어 추적기의 유효성 역시 실행 하였다. 결론에서 개발된 추적 제어시스템에서 향상된 자동차 추적의 방법을 개선하고자 하였으며 고속도로 감시제어 시스템을 개발하고자 하였다. In this paper, we has proposed an automatic vehicle monitoring system based on computer vision technology. The real-time display system has displayed a system that can be performed in automatic monitoring and control while meeting the essential requirements of ITS. Another advantage has that for a powerful vehicle tracking, the main obstacle handing system, which has the shadow tracking of moving objects. In order to obtain all kinds of information from the tracked vehicle image, the vehicle must be clearly displayed on the surveillance screen. Over time, it's necessary to precisely control the vehicle, and a three-dimensional model-based approach has been also necessary. In general, each type of vehicle has represented by the skeleton of the object or wire frame model, and the trajectory of the vehicle can be measured with high precision in a 3D-based manner even if the system has not running in real time. In this paper, we has applied on segmentation method to vehicle, background, and shadow. The validity of the low level vehicle control tracker was also detected through speed tracking of the speeding car. In conclusion, we intended to improve the improved tracking method in the tracking control system and to develop the highway monitoring and control system.
ObjectivesThe aim of this study was to investigate antimicrobial activity of Huanggeumjakyak-tang water extract against MRSA. MethodsThe antibacterial activities of Huanggeumjakyak-tang were evaluated against 3 strains of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and 1 standard Methicillin- susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) strain by using the disc diffusion method, minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) assay, colorimetric assay using MTT test, checkerboard dilution test and time-kill assay was performed under dark. ResultsThe MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) of Huanggeumjakyak-tang water extract against S. aureus strains ranged from 1,000 to 2,000μg/ml. So we confirmed that it has a strong antibacterial effect. Also the combinations of Huanggeumjakyak-tang water extract and conventional antibiotics exhibited improved inhibition of MRSA with synergy effect. ConclusionsThe results obtained in this study suggest that Huanggeumjakyak-tang water extract showed antibacterial effect against MRSA, and it also showed reducing effect on the side-effect problems that are the major weak points of traditional antibiotics. (J Korean Med Rehab 2013;23(3):15-26)
Backgrounds: β-catenin, a member of the catenin family, is an adhesion molecule normally present in the sub-plasmalemmal cell membrane. It is abnormally transferred to the nuclei when the adenomatous polyposis coli pathway, on which it depends, is altered. Abnormal β-catenin expression is documented in fibromatosis, intestinal polyps and endometrial carcinoma. The diagnosis of endometriosis is usually straightforward. However, it may be difficult to distinguish between endometriosis and other entities when the epithelial component is scare. There is currently no other marker that helps support the diagnosis of endometriosis. Design: This study aimed at: (a) determining whether β-catenin can identify normal endometrial tissue (proliferative phases and secretory phases), and (b) Validating the potential utility of β-catenin in identifying the stroma and glands in endometriosis. In addition to 22 cases of normal endometrial tissue. We tested 46 cases of endometriosis using β-catenin antibody (clone 14, transduction Labs) via immunohistochemistry. Results: 43 out of 46 cases of endometriosis showed Co-expression of β-catenin on both the gland and storma (either nuclear or membranous pattern). In the remaining 3 cases, β-catenin's expression was only focal. The stroma in 21 out of 22 cases of normal endometrium was detected by β-catenin, showing either a membranous or nuclear signal. In only 1 case, the signal distribution was very focal. No of the internal negative control tissues (ovarian stroma, myometrium) showed any significant levels of β-catenin expression. Conclusion: This study shows that β-catenin can successfully detect the glandular and stromal components of endometriosis, with a striking contrast to surrounding tissue, resulting in a very 'clean' background. β-catenin, thus, has the potential of identifying these lesions in morphologically equivocal situations. The mechanisms of abnormal expression of β-catenin on the stroma of endometriosis is unclear, and warrants further investigations.
Microamount of chromium(Ⅲ) reacts with an excess of Xylenol orange (XO) to from Cr-XO Complex compound of red color. The absorption maxima of chelate was found at wavelengt 565mμ. The former, which was used to the spectrophotometric determination of chromium, gives the maximum absorbance in the pH range 3.5 to 4.2. Under the conditions investigated, Beer's law is obeyed up to about 35㎍ of chromium in 25㎖. The sensitivity of the reaction in 0.002㎍ Cr per ㎤. Among the anions tested chelating agents such as nitrilotriacetic acid ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid seriously with the determination. The complex has a composition of 1 to 1 in the metal-ligand ratio at pH 3. 8.
Analysis of p21, p27 and β-catenin protein expression in the non cancerous, precancerous and cancerous epidermal skin tumors. Background: The epidermal skin tumors encompass a wide range of non cancerous, precancerous and cancerous conditions. The pathogenesis of seborrheic keratosis, keratoacanthoma, actinic keratosis, Bowen's disease and squamous cell carcinoma is not well understood. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of p21, p27 and β-catenin in this lesions. Methods: Immunoperoxidase staining methods were applied to analyze p21, p27 and β-catenin expression in a total of 61 cases, including 21 seborrheic keratosis, 9 keratoacanthoma, 8 actinic keratoses, 6 Bowen's diseases and 17 squamous cell carcinoma. p21 is thought to mediate p53 signaling, induced by a DNA-damaged status, to arrest the cell cycle, the mechanism that controls p21 expression has not been clearly elucidated yet. p27 is a member of cip/kip family of cydin-dependent kinase inhibitors, which include the p21, p27, and p57 protein, the p27 protein is present in quiescent cells are stimulated by growth factors, a decrease or an absence of p27 protein expression has been suggested to be a powerful negative prognostic marker in patients with various malignancies, including breast, colon, and esophageal cancers. Results: p21 was expressed in 85.7% (18/21) of seborrheic keratsis, 33.3% (3/9) of keratoacanthoma, 75% (6/8) of actinic keratosis, 33.3% (2/6) of Bowen's Disease and 76.5% (13/17) of squamous cell carcinoma An increased expression of p21 was found 85.7% (18/21) of seborrheic keratosis. p27 was expressed in 100% (21/21) of seborrheic keratosis, 11.1% (1/9)of keratoacanthoma, 25% (2/8) of actinic keratosis, 83.3% (5/6) of Bowen's disease and 82.4% (14/17) of squamous cell carcinoma An increased expression of p27 was found 100% (21/21) of seborrheic keratosis. β-catenin expressed in 100% (21/21) of seborrheic keratosis 100% (8/8) of actinin keratosis, 100% (9/9) of actinic keratosis, 83.3% (5/6) of Bowen's disease and 88.2% (15/17) of squamous cell carcinoma in conclusion. Expression for p21 are low in seborrheic keratosis, keratoacanthoma, actinic keratosis, Bowen's disease and squamous cell carcinoma. In the seborrheic keratosis, strong expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor. Our results support that p21, p27 protein and β -catenin play a role in keratinocyte differentiation and tumorigenesis of skin lesion.