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본 논문에서는 기존의 Table-driven 방식과 On-demand 라우팅의 장점을 접목시킨 2-tier 계층구조를 사용한 dynamic한 routing기법을 제안하며, 구조적으로 취약한 보안 위협 요소들에 대한 안정성을 제공하는 인증 알고리즘을 제안하고 네트워크와 클러스터 헤드의 관리를 위한 신뢰할 수 있는 키 분배 메커니즘을 고찰한다. 또한 기존의 3GPP서비스와의 상호 연동 가능성을 고려하여 클러스터 헤더의 재생성과 강력한 신뢰성을 제공할 수 있는 알고리즘을 제안한다.
The need to know the braking performance in vehicle has been acknowledged for many years since the invention of vehicles. Since there are numerous design variables as well as nonlinearities in the braking system, it is not easy to predict the braking performance accurately. In this paper, a computation program is developed to estimate the braking performance numerically. This synthetic braking performance program is dealing with pedal force, pedal travel and deceleration by including all braking parts such as master cylinder, booster, valves, brake pads, rotors, and hoses. In order to improve the accuracy of program, the semi-empirical model of braking system is developed by using the empirical test data of pad compression, hose expansion and friction coefficient between pads and rotors. The performance of estimation accuracy is evaluated by comparing with actual vehicle test results. The developed program is easy to operate for the engineers of brake system in developing new vehicles by incorporating the graphical presentation as well as exporting data in Microsoft Excel format.
Objectives : The purpose of present study is to investigate the influence of a spinal gamma-aminobutyric acid B (GABAB) receptor on a central regulation of blood pressure(BP) and heart rate(HR), and to define its mechanism in the spinal cord. Methods : In urethane-anesthetized, d-tubocurarine- paralyzed and artificially ventilated male Sprague-Dawley rats, intrathecal administration of drugs were carried out using injecton cannula(33-gauge stainless steel) through the guide cannula(PE 10) which was inserted intrathecally at lower thoracic level through the puncture of a atlantooccipital membrane. Results : Intrathecal injection of an GABAB receptor agonist baclofen(30, 60, 100 nmol) decreased both blood pressure and heart rate dose-dependently. Pretreatment with 8-bromo-cAMP(50 nmol), a cAMP analog or glipizide(50 nmol), a ATP-sensitive K+ channel blocker attenuated the depressor and bradycardic effects of baclofen (100 nmol) but not with 8-bromo-cGMP(50 nmol) a cGMP analog. Conclusions : The GABAB receptor in the spinal cord plays an inhibitory role in central cardiovascular regulation and that this depressor and bradycardic actions are mediated by the decrease of cAMP via the inhibition of adenylate cyclase and the opening of K+ channel.
Background/Aims: Prophylactic antibiotics are used in an attempt to avoid the septic complications of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). But, there is individual tendency to choose prophylactic antibiotics due to a lack of definite guidelines for prophylactic antibiotics. Therefore, the effectiveness of ciprofloxacin to prevent post ERCP infectious complications was evaluated. Methods: One hundred patients underwent 75 diagnostic ERCPs and 25, therapeutic ERCPs. They were classified randomly into a group of 51 prophylaxis (ciprofloxacin 200 mg i.v. 30 min before the procedure) and 49 controls. Pre- and post-ERCP blood cultures were prospectively performed and surveyed for infectious complications. Results: Sepsis was detected in 4 patients in each group (p>0.05). Two cases were related to diagnostic ERCP and the remaining six cases, therapeutic ERCP (p<0.01). Bacteremia was found in 6 cases, but only two cases (Escherichia coli, Citrobacter freundii) were clinically significant. Conclusis: The frequency of sepsis following ERCP was not significantly reduced by antibiotic prophylaxis (7.8% vs. 8.2%).