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식물 계절현상을 이용한 축제는 생태계서비스의 한 형태로서 생태계와 인간이 문화적 요소를 통해 서로 상호작용을 하는 예이다. 봄철 식물의 계절현상을 이용한 대표적인 축제는 창원시 진해 군항제가 있다. 본 연구에서는 1987 년부터 2013년까지의 벚나무의 계절학적 자료와 군항제 개최시기 및 방문자수를 조사하여 식물계절학과 지역축제와 의 상관관계를 파악하였다. 또한 행사기간 중 기상조건 (평균기온, 최저·최고기온, 강수량, 강수일수)과 행사시기특성(년도, 휴일수-토, 일요일 수, 행사기간일수, 행사시작일-개화일 차이)을 파악하여 군항제 방문객수에 영향을 미치는 환경요인을 찾기 위해 노력하였다. 시계열분석 결과 지난 26년 동안 벚나무의 발아일과 개화일의 주기성을 보이지 않 거나 나타나더라도 통계적으로 유의하지 않았다. 방문객의 수에 영향을 미치는 주요인으로는 기온, 일자(day), 강수요 인이 추출되었다. 군항제기간의 기온이 방문객수에 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났으나, 벚나무의 개화시기와 행사기간 이 불일치하더라도 방문객 수의 차이는 없었다. 따라서 확실성이 떨어지는 개화시기를 맞춰 축제기간을 설정하기 보 다는 행사기간을 고정하고 일부 유동적으로 실시할 수 있는 행사프로그램을 개발하고 실시하는 것이 군항제의 성공적인 운영에 도움을 줄 수 있을 것으로 보인다. Festivals using plant phenology is one of the examples can represent the ecosystem services. Changwon Jinhae Gunhangje is typical spring festival using cherry blossoms phenology. This research was done to define relationship between flowering of cherry blossoms and Gunhangje. Phenological data (Julian day) of cherry blossoms and visitor number of Gunhangje from 1987 to 2013 were collected. Differences of Phenological phase of cherry blossoms and duration of Gunhangje was analyzed. Trend analysis was performed to know changes of flowering and budding day of cherry blossoms. Correlations between visitor number of Gunhangje and environmental factors was defined by factor analysis and regression analysis. Results are showed that during the 26 years, periodicity of flowering and budding day was not identified or even identified it was not significant. Environmental factors effect on visitor numbers of Gunhangje were defined as temperature factor, day factor, and precipitation factor. Temperature factor was significantly correlated with visitor numbers of Gunhangje. Though Flowering day of cherry blossoms and festival duration was not matched, however, difference of visitor numbers was not showed. These results suggest that fixed duration of Gunhangje would be more effective to visitors than changing the festival duration following the phenological day changes of cherry blossoms.
The relationships between environmental factors and the dynamics of the microcrus-tacean community, including planktonic or epiphytic or epiphytic cladocerans and copepods, were studied at Upo Wetlands from 2001 to 2010.Among 10 identified cladoceran taxon, epiphytic cladocerans (Alona, Camptocercus, Simocephalus, Diaphanosoma, Sida)and planktonic claadocerans (Bosmina, Ceriodaphnia, Daphnia, Moina, Scapho-leberis) showed distinctive patterns in appearance throughout the year. Overall,epi-phytic cladocerans were more abundant during the aquatic plant development season (May to Nov.),planktonic cladocerans were similarly distributed throughout the sea-sons,but showed a lower density than epiphytic cladocerrans. The seasonal changes in copepods abundance showed a similar seasonal pattern when compared to epiphytic cladocerans. Planktonic cladocerans showed no significant relationship to rainfall and physic-chemical factors, while epiphytic cladocerans exhibited a distinct relationship with rainfall and water temperature(n=120,p<0.01),and a negative relationship with pH and conductivity (n=120,p<0.05).Among the epiphytic cladocerans, the Alona and Diaphanosoma showed a distinctive correlation with environmental factors, and their density was affected by rainfall and water temperature(n=120,p<0.01).Copepods had a positive relationship with rainfall(n=120,p<0.01)and water temperature(n=120,p<0.05).In conclusion, changes in rainfall and water temperature can affect the seasonal changes of microcrustacean community and abundance in Upo Wetlands.
The development of stream ecology, especially the progress of that field in North America, has been briefly reviewed, and stream studies in Korea were analyzed through literature survey. During the last two decades, theoretical advances in stream ecology and understanding of the structure and function of stream ecosystem were made from the studies mainly in North America. Early studies (1960-1970) focused on determination of the environmental factors controlling the distribution and abundance of organisms dwelling in streams. Introduction of conceptual development, such as the functional feeding concept, river continuum concept, and nutrient spiraling was notable in the late 70's and the 80's. For last 20 years, experimentation approaches to apply ecological principles were very fruitful in the understanding of community structure. Even though studies on the stream ecosystem is Korea have a long history, most of works were concentrated on limited subjects: water quality, abundance and distribution of aquatic insects and fishes. Basic ecological attributes of stream organi는 and test of ecological principles have rarely been a subject of research topics. We must concentrate our effort to enhance our understanding of stream and river ecosystem through qualitative, experimental and interdisciplinary approaches.
At the Jangheung multipurpose dam, which is on the Tamjin River, a trapping and trucking operation was established to maintain continuous upstream migration of fish,. To facilitate fish gathering, installation of an effective fishing trap was required. In this study, we evaluated the fish trap, established at the Jangheung dam, using PIT (Passive Integrated Transponder) telemetry. A total of 254 individuals from 15 species were monitored. Among these tagged species, 36 individuals from 6 species (Carassius auratus, C. cuvieri, Zacco temminckii, Z. platypus, Pungtungia herzi, and Pseudobagrus koreanus) were detected; a 14.2% detection rate. C. auratus recorded the highest detection rate of 44.2% while P. herzi was 14.3%. Z. temminckii and Z. platypus showed relatively low detection, 5% and 7.7% respectively. Some of individuals from C. auratus and Z. platypus did not pass through the antenna at the first attempt but were continuously detected on multiple days. There were no statistical differences in body size (total length, standard length and body weight) of individuals that did or did not swim into the trap (Mann-Whitney U test, p>0.05). Fish mainly swam into the trap during outflow of water from the dam (Mann-Whitney U test, p<0.001) and showed a higher detection frequency in daytime than nighttime (Mann-Whitney U test, p<0.001). Thus, for fish movement into the trap, external factors such as outflow from dam and time of day have important roles. Based on detection rate, not all fishes showed upstream migration but represented selective migration. Consequently, the establishment of flexible outflow strategies that take into consideration ecological characteristics of fishes should required for improving the efficiency of fishway.
이의행 ( Eui-haeng Lee ), 장광현 ( Kwang-hyeon Chang ), 서동일 ( Dong-il Seo ), 최종윤 ( Jong-yun Choi ), 주기재 ( Gea-jae Joo ), 김미리내 ( Mirinae Kim ), 신재훈 ( Jae Hoon Shin ), 손미선 ( Mi Sun Son ), 남귀숙 ( Gui Sook Nam ) 한국환경생물학회 2014 환경생물 : 환경생물학회지 Vol.32 No.4
본 연구는 부영양 농업용저수지인 전대지에서 2012년4월~11월까지 실시하였으며, 부영양화 특성, 어류 종조성 및 먹이망 특성을 살펴보았다. 전대저수지는 COD,Chl-a, TN, TP항목 모두 호소 생활환경기준 VI등급(매우나쁨)으로 나타났으며, 부영양화 단계는 과영양상태(Hyper-eutrophic condition)로, 유기물 오염 및 부영양화가 심각한 것으로 나타났다. 어류는 총 4과 9종 679개체가 출현하였고, 블루길(Lepomis macrochirus, 37.7%)과 치리(Hemiculter eigenmanni, 27.4%)가 우점종 및 아우점종으로 나타났는데, 이들은 수질오염 및 서식지의 질적저하에 대한 내성이 강한 것으로 알려져 유기물 오염과 부영양화가 심각한 전대저수지의 수환경 특성을 적절히 반영하는 결과로 사료되었다. 위내용물 분석에서 잉어과어류는 유기물 및 동물플랑크톤을 주로 섭식하였으며, 우점종인 블루길은 요각류와 지각류를 포식하는 것으로나타났다. 채집된 어류와 동물플랑크톤의 안정동위원소를 비교한 결과, 먹이이용을 나타내는 탄소 안정동위원소 비의 유사성이 동물플랑크톤과 블루길, 붕어, 참붕어,치리에서 높게 나타나 이들 어류는 저수지 내 동물플랑크톤을 주먹이원으로 이용하는 것으로 나타난 반면, 잉어, 갈문망둑 및 꾹저구는 저수지 연안지역의 유기물 및 저서생물을 주먹이원으로 이용하는 것으로 나타났다. Fish community was investigated in eutrophic Jeondae agricultural reservoir from April to November 2012. The food web structure of major fish species of Jeondae reservoir showed that due to serious organic pollution, thehyper-eutrophic condition with high chemical oxygen demand (COD), chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP), as estimated by stable isotope analysis. Total of 679 individuals were collected from the reservoir, and 9 species were identified. Interestingly, Lepomis macrochirus and Hemiculter eigenmanni known as less sensitive to pollution and water quality deterioration, dominated the reservoir, and their relative abundances were 38% and 27%, respectively. Further, the analysis of the stomach contents revealed that main food source of dominant L. macrochirus was high amount of zooplankton, which includes copepoda and cladocera, while Cyprinidae species mainly consumed organic particles with zooplankton preys. Stable isotope analysis also suggested that L. macrochirus, Carassiusauratus, Pseudorasboraparva, and H. eigenmanni are major zooplantivorous group in the Jeondae Reservoir.
We identified the diversity, geographical distribution, ecological characteristics of birds, trees, and flowers species designated as local government symbols as a means for understanding public awareness on biodiversity. A total of 114 species including 48 birds, 40 flowers, 36 tree species belonging to 40 orders 59 families 90 genus were designated as natural symbols. Pica pica (L.) in birds, Rhododendron schlippenbachii Maxim. among flowers, have also been designated as symbols. The tree Ginkgo biloba L. was designated with the highest frequency. Local governments located coastal area were selected bird species of the Laridae family and the tree species Camellia japonica L., of Pinaceae as their natural symbols. In contrast, local governments located inland have designated resident bird species such as P. pica and Columba rupestris (Pallas) and flower species from the Ericaceae as natural symbols widely distributed and easily observed throughout South Korea. However, many local governments have designated the same species as a natural symbol based on their size color and public appeal and popularity. The information about the popular species and their ecological traits are useful for establishing the criteria as flagship or iconic species selection and their roles in habitat conservation.