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본 논문은 스플라인 희귀모형에서 평활모수를 추정할 때 사전 작업으로 영향력 진단을 하는 문제를 다룬다. 평활모수의 추정방법으로 일반화최대우도함수법을 사용할 때, 얻어지는 추정 치에 영향을 주는 관측치를 진단하는 측도를 제안하고, 찾아낸 영향력 관측치를 수정하여 올바른 평활모수 추정치를 찾는 방법을 소개한다. When we are estimate the smoothing parameter in spline regression model, we deal the diagnostic of influence observations as posteriori analysis. When we use Generalized Maximum Likelihood Function as the estimation method of smoothing parameter, we propose the diagnostic measure for influencial observations in the obtained estimate, and we introduce the finding method of the proper smoothing parameter estimate.
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Objectives:Metadoxine is known to have accelerated the metabolism of alcohol in previous studies with Caucasian subjects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of metadoxine on alcohol pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in normal Korean adults according to the low-Km aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) genotypes. Methods:Twenty healthy male volunteers (half with active ALDH2*1/*1:active group, the other with inactive ALDH2*1/*2:inactive group) were selected by genotyping. In a double-blind, counterbalanced design, each subject ingested 0.5 g of alcohol per kg of body weight with pretreatment of metadoxine or placebo on 2 separate occasions. Blood alcohol concentration by breathanalyzer (BrAC), vital signs, negative physiological responses and performance function using a battery of tests (critical flicker fusion threshold:CFFT, choice reaction time:CRT, compensatory tracking task:CTT and digit-symbol substitution:DSS) were measured at baseline and repeatedly over a 3-hour period after intake of alcohol. Results:Among the pharmacokinetic parameters, Vmax and Km were significantly increased with pretreatment of metadoxine in both the active and inactive ALDH2 groups, but the ratio of Vmax/Km was decreased. In terms of pharmacodynamics, the pretreatment of metadoxine produced a significant improvement of performance such as CFFT and DSS in the active ALDH2 group, but did not in the inactive ALDH2 group. Conclusions:It may be concluded that metadoxine has little effect on alcohol metabolism in both groups with respect to pharmacokinetics on the basis of BrAC. The pharmacodynamic results, however, indicated that metadoxine might be partially effective in counteracting the impairing effects of alcohol on the performance in the active ALDH2 group.
Realistic deformation of computer simulated anatomical structures is computationally intensive. As a result, simple methodologies not based in continuum mechanics have been employed for achieving real time deformation of virtual reality. Since the graphical interpolations and simple spring model commonly used in these simulations are no based on the bio-mechanical properties of tissue structures, these “quick and dirty” methods typically do not accurately represent the complex deformations and force-feedback interactions that can take place during surgery. Finite Element (FE) analysis is widely regarded as the most appropriate alternative to these methods. However, because of the highly computational nature of the FE method, its direct application to real time force feedback and visualization of tissue deformation has not been practical for most simulations. If the mathematics are optimized through pre-processing to yield only the information essential to the simulation task, run-time computation requirements can be drastically reduced. To apply the FEM, We examined a various inverse matrix method and a deformed material-model is produced and then the graphic deformation with this model is able to force. As our simulation program is reduced by the real-time calculation and simplification because the purpose of this system is to transact in the real time.
This study defines, compares and analyzes the price risk measurement of agricultural products from the perspective of producers. The results of analyzing mandarine and carrot items in Jeju area for the last 10 years are as follows. First, we confirmed that the target price of current price support policy based on the market average price regardless of the average production cost does not offset the price drop loss of agricultural producers` point of view. Second, as a result of risk measurement of the target price of operation cost and production cost, it was judged that the target price of production cost is appropriate for price risk management of agricultural producers` point of view. Third, it was proved that measuring and managing by index of price downward risk based on the target price of production cost is more useful price support policy as the semi coefficient of variation for agricultural producers` management loss compensation.
This article investigates a farm income loss compensation policy based on target prices in Korea. Under the policy that is based on target prices, farms receive payments when the average market price falls below target prices. We theoretically explore how the target price based policy cannot fully compensate individual farm income losses. We, then, use the production cost data of 400 Satsuma farms in Jeju to empirically examine who would benefit from the target price based policy and how the payments from the target price based policy reduce losses in farm income. We find that the target price based policy reveals a significant level of basis risk. Our findings suggest that the target price based policy may not fully compensate the income losses of farms. The policy needs to be modified to reduce the level of basis risk.
소프트웨어 품질 평가를 함에 있어서 정량적이고 객관적인 소프트웨어의 품질 평가 방안을 제시하는 것은 상당히 중요하다. 현재 진행 중에 있는 소프트웨어 품질 평가 국제 표준 ISO/IEC 25000 프로젝트에서 제시하고 있는 품질 측정 프리미티브를 제시하고 이와 같은 품질 측정 프리미티브를 활용하여 소프트웨어 품질 평가를 실행할 수 있는 방안을 제시하려 한다.