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In order to promote the value of the flowers as new agricultural products, we investigated the biological activities of rape, arrowroot, and rose extracts. Biological activities investigated included antioxidant activity and the effects on 3T3-L1 fibroblast cells. When each flower was extracted with methanol, the antioxidant index and electron donating activity of roses was the highest (IC_(50) of rose extract was 17.6 ㎍/㎖). When 3T3-L1 fibroblast cells were treated with extracts made with hexane, ethyl acetate, and ether, the rape extracts had a cytotoxic effect on the cells. 12.2% of cells survived when treated with a 3㎎/㎖ ether extract while those treated with the same concentration of hexane and ethyl acetate had survival rates of 76.2% and 78.6% respectively. In contrast to rape, the ether extract of arrowroot and rose stimulated the growth of 3T3-L1 cells. The effect of rose extracts was much bigger than those of other extracts. Although every rose extract stimulated the growth of the 3T3-L1 cells, the ether extract stimulated growth up to 168.6% compared to the control at the concentration of 0.3㎎/㎖, and 148.3% at the concentration of 1㎎/㎖. The toxicity on cells treated with H₂O₂ of 450μM was decreased with the addition of rose extract. The survival rate after treatment with rose extract at the concentration of 100㎍/㎖ was increased to 71% compared to the 32% survival rate of control.<br/> From these results, it can be concluded that the extracts of arrowroot and rose seem to stimulate cells, whereas the extract of rape has a cytotoxic effect. Biological activities of ether extract were the strongest compared to those of other extracts at the tested concentrations.
The antimutagenic and anticancer effects of baechu cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp pekinensis [Lour.] Rupr.) cultivated in Noji and Tunnel in spring were investigated under in vitro and cellular system using HT-29 human colon carcinoma cells. Proximate composition, mineral and vitamin contents of baechu cabbages (Noji and Tunnel) were evaluated. Antimutagenicity were measured in Ames test using N-methyl-N`-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). The viability and growth of HT-29 cells were evaluated by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol)-2,5-diphnyltetrazolium bromide) assay and growth inhibition test, respectively. The gene and protein expressions of apoptosis-related proteins such as Bax, Bcl-2, p53 and p21 were investigated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot. The contents of carotene, Ca, K in Tunnel baechu cabbage (Tunnel) were higher than those of Noji baechu cabbage (Noji). The methanol extract from the spring baechu cabbage particular cultivated by Tunnel method effectively reduced mutagenicity induced by MNNG. The Tunnel also showed higher antimutagenic effects against AFB1 than the Noji. The HT-29 cells showed the significant decreases in cell viability by the treatment of the Tunnel with dose-dependence in MTT assay. The Tunnel also inhibited on the growth of HT-29 cells in a time-dependent manner. The baechu cabbage induced apoptosis in HT-29 cells were associated with the decreased expression of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and increased expression of p53, p21 and Bax. The present study suggests that the baechu especially the Tunnel would have increased antimutagenic effect and anticancer activity through induction or repression of apoptosis. (Cancer Prev Res 13, 122-129, 2008)