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하천에 유입된 오염물질은 다양한 환경 조건에 의하여 수체 및 퇴적물의 상호작용에 따라 수체의 수질에 영향을 미친다. 특히 최근 수체의 수리학적 체류시간이 상대적으로 긴 정체수역 내에서는 퇴적물의 축적량이 증가하고 있어 퇴적물과 수체 내에서의 물질적 거동특성 파악은 중요한 수질적 관점 요소이다. 본 연구에서는 하천 내 pH, 이온종류 및 농도, 퇴적물의 점토함량에 따라 불소의 거동이 어떻게 변화하는지 검토하기 위하여 경기도에 위치한 중소하천을 대상으로 조건별 실험을 실시하였다. pH에 따른 흡착 및 용출특성 실험결과, pH가 높을수록 불소의 흡착량이 감소하였고, 용출되는 불소량은 증가하는 경향을 나타냈다. 이온농도 및 종류에 따른 흡착 및 용출특성 실험결과, Cl<SUP>-</SUP>, SO₄<SUP>2-</SUP> 이온은 불소의 흡착능에 큰 영향을 주지 않는 것으로 나타났으나, 불소와의 활발한 이온경쟁효과를 지닌 OH<SUP>-</SUP>와의 반응에서는 흡착량이 줄고, 용출량이 늘었음을 알 수 있었다. 퇴적물의 성분에 따른 흡착 및 용출특성 실험 결과 상대적으로 입경이 작은 Silt와 Clay 성분이 많이 포함된 시료에서 불소의 흡착량이 많고 용출되는 불소량이 줄어드는 것을 알 수 있었다. 이는 수체의 환경조건이 퇴적물 내 불소의 흡착 및 용출에 크게 영향을 미치기 때문에, 퇴적물 내 불소를 적절하게 관리하기 위해서는 수체의 환경조건에 대한 이해가 선행되어야 한다는 것을 의미한다. Water quality is affected by the pollutants flowing into rivers since the interaction between water bodies and sediments in various environmental conditions. Especially, accumulation of sediments increases in the stagnant water areas due to a relative long hydrological retention time in the water bodies. Therefore, it is an important factor of water quality to understand characterization of the material behavior in water bodies and sediments. In this study, the objective of the conditional experiments was small and medium sized streams located in Gyeonggi-do. To estimate how the changes of fluoride behavior, depending on the pH, ion type, concentration, and clay contents. The pH results showed a trend that adsorption amount of fluorine decreased and the dissolution of fluorine increased following by pH increasing. The concentration and type of ions results showed that Cl<SUP>-</SUP> and SO₄<SUP>2-</SUP> ions had no significant effect on the adsorption ability of fluorine, the amount of dissolution was increased because OH<SUP>-</SUP> ion had active competition with fluorine in the reaction. The ingredient of sediment results showed that the amounts of fluoride adsorption and dissolution were reduced in samples, which contain relatively large amounts of Silt and Clay components. This means that the environmental conditions of water bodies greatly affect the adsorption and dissolution of fluoride in the sediments, so that proper management of fluoride in the sediments must precede an understanding of the environmental conditions of the water bodies.
We conducted a comprehensive monitoring for freshwater food web in a wetland system (Jangcheok Lake), from May to October, 2011. Monthly sampling for zooplankton, fish as well as organic matters, was implemented. In order to understand the food web structure and energy flow, we applied stable isotope analysis to the collected samples, based on δ13C and δ15N values of epiphytic particulate organic matter(EPOM) and particulate organic matter (POM), epiphytic and planktonic zooplankton, fish (Lepomis macrochirus). In the study site, epiphytic and planktonic zooplankton was 24 and 30 species, respectively, and coincidence species between epiphytic and planktonic zooplankton were 20 species. Epiphytic zooplankton were more abundant during the spring and early summer (May to July); however, planktonic zooplankton were more abundant during the autumn (September to October) season. Stable isotope analysis revealed that fish and epiphytic zooplankton had seasonal variations on their food sources. EPOM largely contributed epiphytic zooplankton in spring (May), but increasing contribution of POM in autumn (September) was detected. However, planktonic zooplankton depended on only POM in both seasons. Fish utilized both epiphytic and planktonic zooplankton, but small sized (1~~3 cm), fish preferred epiphytic zooplankton, where as larger sized (4~~7 cm) fish tended to consume planktonic zooplankton, and epiphytic zooplankton had important role in energy transfer. This pattern was clear when results of spring and autumn stable isotope analysis were compared. From the results of this study, we confirmed that wetlands ecosystem supported various epiphytic and planktonic zooplankton species, they depend on other food items, respectively. L. macrochirus also showed a difference of food source according to the body size, they depend on seasonal density change of zooplankton. In particular, epiphytic zooplankton was very important for growth and development of young fish in the spring.
이진웅 ( Jin Woong Lee ), 윤주덕 ( Ju Duk Yoon ), 김정희 ( Jeong Hui Kim ), 박상현 ( Sang Hyeon Park ), 백승호 ( Seung Ho Baek ), 장광현 ( Kwang Hyeon Chang ), 장민호 ( Min Ho Jang ) 한국하천호수학회(구 한국육수학회) 2015 생태와 환경 Vol.48 No.4
To secure water resources, dams are normally constructed on the upper - middle part of streams, and it generates physical disturbances such as habitat alteration and stream fragmentation. Such construction can restrict movement of aquatic organisms, especially for freshwater fish which is one of top predator in aquatic ecosystem, and cause genetic fragmentation and community change. In this study, to investigate impact of habitat alteration after dam construction on freshwater fish, we monitored fish community changes, and compared fish fauna between dam reservoir and inflows. Additionally, movement characteristics and habitat boundaries of four species were identified by radio telemetry method. The study was conducted in the Gunwi Dam which was constructed in December 2010. Radio telemetry was applied to Pungtungia herzi, Zacco platypus (living lotic and lentic), Silurus asotus (lentic preferred species) and Zacco koreanus (lotic preferred species). The number of species was remarkably decreased (4 family, 10 species) comparing with before the dam construction (7 family, 15 species). Specifically, Coreoleuciscus splendidus, Niwaella multifasciata, Liobagrus mediadiposalis, Coreoperca herzi and Odontobutis platycephala that inhabit in the lotic environment were not collected in the study area. A total of 8 species were caught in both the dam reservoir and tributaries except 2 species (C. auratus and S. asotus). Sorenson``s similarity between the reservoir and its tributaries was high (0.842). All of the radio tagged species stayed in the reservoir except S. asotus which moved to the tributary. These species mainly utilized the shallow littoral zone as a habitat. These results could be useful as a baseline data for efficient management of fishes in lakes.
Acoustic telemetry is used to obtain a relatively continuous record of fish movement. This method has several advantages for studying migrating fish populations that are moving from large rivers. The Nakdong River is the longest river in South Korea and the main stream has faced a change, which consists of the installation of the large weirs. In this study, we applied acoustic telemetry to monitor the movement pattern of Erythroculter erythropterus (family Cyprinidae) and identified home range and movement distance in the Nakdong River. A total of fourteen individuals were released at three different locations and around 80 km section from the estuary barrage was investigated. Eight individuals were tagged and released at estuary barrage (N02) utilized up to 15.9 km (home range) upstream from the release site as home range. Four individuals were tagged and released at Samrangjin (N07), most fish moved and stayed within 9.7 km (home range) downstream area, except E12, which did not show any movement. Two individuals were tagged and released at Changnyeong- Haman weir (N10), and all individuals migrated downstream from the release site. Especially, E14 recorded the longest accumulated detected distance, 36.7 km downstream during 32 days after release. There was no correlation identified between movement (accumulated detected distance and home range) and standard length (Spearman rank correlation, p¤0.05). Although, this technique could be an available method to monitor behavior and ecology of freshwater fish effectively, increment of number of receivers and tags are required for more detailed results of fish migration.
이의행 ( Eui-haeng Lee ), 장광현 ( Kwang-hyeon Chang ), 서동일 ( Dong-il Seo ), 최종윤 ( Jong-yun Choi ), 주기재 ( Gea-jae Joo ), 김미리내 ( Mirinae Kim ), 신재훈 ( Jae Hoon Shin ), 손미선 ( Mi Sun Son ), 남귀숙 ( Gui Sook Nam ) 한국환경생물학회 2014 환경생물 : 환경생물학회지 Vol.32 No.4
본 연구는 부영양 농업용저수지인 전대지에서 2012년4월~11월까지 실시하였으며, 부영양화 특성, 어류 종조성 및 먹이망 특성을 살펴보았다. 전대저수지는 COD,Chl-a, TN, TP항목 모두 호소 생활환경기준 VI등급(매우나쁨)으로 나타났으며, 부영양화 단계는 과영양상태(Hyper-eutrophic condition)로, 유기물 오염 및 부영양화가 심각한 것으로 나타났다. 어류는 총 4과 9종 679개체가 출현하였고, 블루길(Lepomis macrochirus, 37.7%)과 치리(Hemiculter eigenmanni, 27.4%)가 우점종 및 아우점종으로 나타났는데, 이들은 수질오염 및 서식지의 질적저하에 대한 내성이 강한 것으로 알려져 유기물 오염과 부영양화가 심각한 전대저수지의 수환경 특성을 적절히 반영하는 결과로 사료되었다. 위내용물 분석에서 잉어과어류는 유기물 및 동물플랑크톤을 주로 섭식하였으며, 우점종인 블루길은 요각류와 지각류를 포식하는 것으로나타났다. 채집된 어류와 동물플랑크톤의 안정동위원소를 비교한 결과, 먹이이용을 나타내는 탄소 안정동위원소 비의 유사성이 동물플랑크톤과 블루길, 붕어, 참붕어,치리에서 높게 나타나 이들 어류는 저수지 내 동물플랑크톤을 주먹이원으로 이용하는 것으로 나타난 반면, 잉어, 갈문망둑 및 꾹저구는 저수지 연안지역의 유기물 및 저서생물을 주먹이원으로 이용하는 것으로 나타났다. Fish community was investigated in eutrophic Jeondae agricultural reservoir from April to November 2012. The food web structure of major fish species of Jeondae reservoir showed that due to serious organic pollution, thehyper-eutrophic condition with high chemical oxygen demand (COD), chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP), as estimated by stable isotope analysis. Total of 679 individuals were collected from the reservoir, and 9 species were identified. Interestingly, Lepomis macrochirus and Hemiculter eigenmanni known as less sensitive to pollution and water quality deterioration, dominated the reservoir, and their relative abundances were 38% and 27%, respectively. Further, the analysis of the stomach contents revealed that main food source of dominant L. macrochirus was high amount of zooplankton, which includes copepoda and cladocera, while Cyprinidae species mainly consumed organic particles with zooplankton preys. Stable isotope analysis also suggested that L. macrochirus, Carassiusauratus, Pseudorasboraparva, and H. eigenmanni are major zooplantivorous group in the Jeondae Reservoir.
호소의 경관성을 향상 시킬 수 있은 자연정화법인 인공식물섬을 설계하고 수질개선 효율을 향상시키기 위하여 여재, 식생과 물벼룩을 혼용하는 방법을 개발하였다. 따라서 조류 제거 효율을 알아보기 위한 각 혼합시스템은 G-BD-여재와 물벼룩, G-OB-식물과 여재, G-BOD-여재 식물과 물벼룩, G-C-대조군으로 실험 및 평가하였다. 각 혼합시스템 현장적용성을 평가하기 위하여 chl-a, TN과 TP의 제거효율을 조사 하였고, 그 결과 G-BD의 평균제거 효율은 69.24%, 16.61%, -0.61%; G-OB는 평균 68.39%, 14.11%, 10.52%; G-BOD는 평균 78.30%, 6.69%, 25.09%; G-C는 평균 35.42%, -3.47%, -25.18%로 조사되었다. 결과에 따라 제안하면 여재, 식생과 동물플랑크톤을 혼용한 시스템이 조류제어방면에서 효율적으로 나타났다. 하지만 영양염류 제어관리에서는 식생과 여재를 혼합한 시스템이 가장 효율적이다. Media (bio-stone), aquatic macrophytes (Oenanthe javanica) and herbivorous cladoceran (Daphnia similoides) have been used in artificial floating island (AFI) systems for water pollution control. Efficiency in chl-a concentration controlling of AFI was tested using different combinations of each device: G-BD-mixture bio-stone and Daphnia similoides, G-OB-mixture Oenanthe javanica and bio-stone, G-BOD-mixture bio-stone, Oenanthe javanica and Daphnia similoides, and the out-put water quality improvement was compared with G-C-control (no device was applied). We analyzed removal efficiency of chl-a concentration and nutrient concentrations in the artificially eutrophic water in the laboratory experimental facility. The results showed average removal rates of Chlorophyll a, TN and TP for different four groups: 69.24%, 16.61%, -0.61%; 68.39%, 14.11%, 10.52%; 78.30%, 6.69%, 25.09%; 35.42%, -3.47%, -25.18%, respectively. The results have suggested that the mixture of media, plants and zooplankton is the most efficient combination for Chlorophyll a control, while the mixture of macrophytes and bio-stone have better efficiency nutrient control.