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        • KCI등재후보

          택지개발지구 내 상업용지 토지이용계획 수립방안

          이희수(Lee, Hee Soo), 안유정(Ahn, Yoo Jeong), 이만형(Lee, Man Hyung) 韓國不動産學會 2010 不動産學報 Vol.42 No.-

          '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

          1. CONTENTS (1) RESEARCH OBJECTIVES The objective of the research is to provide land use planning strategies of commercial lands within residential land development districts. (2) RESEARCH METHOD This study focuses on analysis of sale price in commercial lands. The research includes the followings: examining the properties of districts and calculation methods of sale price in commercial land. In addition, this study is interested in the change in profitability according to the allocation types in commercial land and suggests several planning guidelines on considering consumer preferences in commercial land. (3) RESEARCH FINDINGS The sale price difference becomes almost double reflecting preference of individual district in commercial lands. Therefore, it is necessary that land use planning in commercial land are required in preparing plans related to properties of consumer prices.

        • SCOPUS

          장출혈성대장균 감염증의 역학적 특성 및 관리대책

          이상원(Sang-Won Lee), 이복권(Bok-Kwon Lee), 이용제(Yang-Jae Lee), 이희수(Hee-Soo Lee), 정석찬(Suk-Chan Jung), 곽효선(Hyo-Sun Kwak), 최보율(Bo-Youl Choi) 한국역학회 2005 Epidemiology and Health Vol.27 No.1

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          E. coli is a bacterium that is commonly found in the gut of humans and warm-blooded animals. Most strains of E. coli are harmless. But some strains such as Enterohaemorrhagic E. coli(EHEC), can cause severe food borne disease. It is transmitted to humans primarily through consumption of contaminated foods, such as raw or undercooked ground meat. There is no widely agreed definition of when a shiga-toxin producing E. coli is considered to be an EHEC. But in Korea, the word "EHEC", "STEC", "VTEC" are often used as same meaning, which refer to the E.coli those producing shiga-toxin. We suggest the term STEC refers to those E. coli produce one or more shiga-toxins(stx), and the term EHEC refers only to STEC that cause a clinical illness. EHEC infection were designated as the class 1 notifiable disease in Korea in 2000. Although EHEC/STEC cases were not common in Korea, the number of STEC infection cases reported has increased since 2001. From 2001 to 2004, the number of STEC infection cases in Korea were 11, 8, 52, 118 respectively. These cases included 17 due to E. coli O157, 136 due to E. coli, serogroup non-O157, and 15 due to E. coli that were not serogrouped. The most common serotype implicated is E. coli O91 without virulent factor and clinical symptoms. But those cases involve in one epidemic in primary school in 2004. STEC infections in Korea occur in all age groups, with the highest frequencies in children less than 5 years old. Healthy cattle are the main animal reservoir for STEC and they harbor the organism as part of the bowel flora. The proportion of STEC in E. coli in animal feces was examined by using stool samples from 283 Korean beef cattle on 27 farms, 169 milk cattle on 28 frams, 455 swine on 50 farms. As determined by culture and toxin assay, the proportion of STEC was 25.8%(16 STEC/62 E. coli) in milk cattle, 18.8%(19 STEC/lOl E.coli) in Korean beef cattle, 14.0%(25 STEC/178 E. coli) in swine. Effective surveillance of EHEC/STEC in humans is essential in order to protect the public health. EHEC infection is notifiable in many countries including USA, Japan, and Belgium. Finland, Italy, Netherlands, and the United Kingdom(UK), have sentinel systems. England, Wales, and Scotland have comprehensive national laboratory reporting schemes for STEC. And there has been an increase in the number of reported cases and outbreaks during the past decades in many countries Prevention of STEC infection requires control measures at all stages of surveillace, investigations and special pathogen tracing such as PulseNet.

        • KCI등재

          이슬람 전통 교육기관 마드라사의 사회적 역할과 역사적 변천

          이희수(Lee, Hee-Soo) 명지대학교 중동문제연구소 2014 중동문제연구 Vol.13 No.4

          '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

          This paper is focused on the social function and educational philosophy of the madrasah in the Muslim world from the Abbasid to the Ottoman period. Also it aims at supplying pivotal sources for comparative studies with “Seowon” of the Joseon dynasty in Korea which was a sanctuary and educational institute based on Confucian tenets. The Korean Seowon is now under preparation to be designated as the World Cultural Heritage of UNESCO. The madrasah in the Muslim world in general means any type of educational institution, whether secular or religious, Muslim or non-Muslims and male or female. As a cultivating center of state elites, the madrasah functioned until the 20th century as a theological seminary and law school. In the contemporary Muslim world, however, it means an Islamic high school in many countries. Another important function of the madrasah is to admit orphans and poor children in order to provide them educational opportunity. Furthermore most madrasahs in non-Arab countries were open to female students who studied and were trained separately from the men. The curriculum of the madrasah mainly consists of teachings of Qurʾān, Ḥadīth, Tafsīr, Kalām, Fiqh, Falsafa, and Sharīʿah together with such secular subjects as genealogy, treatises of first aid, training of horse-riding, art of war, handwriting and calligraphy, athletics and martial arts. Overall, social life and the madrasah were closely linked. Contrary to the opinion of Bernard Lewis who insists that the madrasah in its classical form appears to date from the 11th century (Bernard Lewis 1993, 190), the first institute of madrasah education was established at Ṣafā Hill, where Prophet Muhammad was the teacher and the students were some of his followers. There are many historic madrasahs in Muslim world since the first era of Islamic advent. Established in 859, Jāmiʿ at al-Qarawīyīn in Morocco, is considered the oldest university in the world. Al-Azhar Mosque and Madrasah of Cairo in 959 might be the second one. Later it was much more like an organized college with a syllabus and timetable of study, a permanent faculty in receipt of stipends, and funds and facilities for student support (Bernard Lewis 1993, 190-191). The educational system well established in the Muslim world, transmitted to Europe and contributed to the higher educational development. However, after 9-11 western society tends to perceive the madrasah as the breeding ground of radicalism, terrorism and anti-Americanism. The west defines the madrasah as an Islamic religious school, now often Saudi-funded and teaching a most rigid interpretation of Islam, Wahhabism (Melissa Rossi 2008, 185). Madrasahs in the Muslim world, through a long history, have contributed a lot to education as“schools” and does not imply a political or religious affiliation, radical or otherwise.

        • KCI등재

          미국 무슬림의 현황과 정체성 연구

          이희수(Lee Hee-Soo) 한국중동학회 2004 韓國 中東 學會 論叢 Vol.24 No.2

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            Islam has a long history in America. There is a strong possibility that Muslims visited and perhaps even lived in the Americas some 500 years before Christopher Columbus arrived off the shores of South America in 1492. Although Muslims now come to America in freedom, there was a time when Muslims were brought against their will as captured slaves. Today they consist of African American Muslim group, the biggest Muslim community in USA. In addition, the first wave of Muslim immigrants from Arab region began in the late 1870s. After WWII a new group of immigrants, mostly students came to USA for better education.<BR>  Many blacks feel Muslim traditions reflect their African ancestry. So, they have had a strained relationship with the Nation of Islam(NOI), a radical movement that has had a major impact on African Americans. The NOI founded by Wallace Fard and followed by Elija Muhammad, Malcom X, Louise Farrakan, contributed greatly to Muslim society and black community in USA by ways of organized struggle for civil right and black power. Now 8 million Muslims with 1200 mosques every corner of American society accepted new identity harmonizing their role and responsibility as US citizens and Muslims as well.

        • KCI등재
        • 이슬람

          이희수(Lee, Hee-Soo) 전남대학교 종교문화연구소 2007 종교문화학보 Vol.3 No.-

          아라비아라는 척박한 생태조건에서 두터운 문화적 하부구조를 갖지 못한 상태에서 발아한 이슬람은 활짝 열린 용광로 속에 주변문화를 적극적으로 수용하고 그것을 자기화함으로써 급속한 발전을 거듭하였다. 다른 문화를 받아들이는 포용력과 융화력이야말로 이슬람문화의 가장 큰 특징이라 할 수 있다. 문화적 자양분을 공급한 한 축은 페르시아 제국의 이란지역이고 또 다른 한 축은 로마와 비잔틴 제국의 동부 지중해였다. 아라비아 반도에서 출발한 이슬람은 그후 1세기 채 안되는 시기에 서남아시아, 중앙아시아, 인도, 아프리카는 물론 남서부 유럽에 이르는 거대한 세력권을 형성하였다. 이슬람교가 철저한 일신교로서 참신앙에 대한 긍지가 강했고, 새 정복지에서 살육과 직접통치보다는 공납과 간접통치를 선호함으로써 무혈의 정복사업은 대성공을 거두었다. 불행히도 아무런 역사적 근거도 없는 “한 손에 칼, 한 손에 코란” 이란 용어는 지난 1세기 동안 서구인은 물론 한국인의 이슬람에 대한 인식세계를 지배하던 망령이었다. 이슬람의 이민족에 대한 정책은 기본적으로 관용과 상생이었으며 이슬람 1400년 역사기간 동안 딤미제도와 밀레트 제도를 총해 확인되었다. 딤미는 인두세를 내는 조건으로 소수민족의 고유한 신앙과 문화적 전통을 보호해주었으며 밀레트도 오스만 제국이 다양한 종교공동체를 인정해 주던 제도였다. 공존과 상생의 원리를 찾아 종교간의 화해를 모색하고자 하는 오늘 이슬람의 역사적 역할을 재조명되어야 한다. Through 1400 years" Islamic history, the culture of tolerance is the hallmark of Islam. This peaceful and gradual Islamization gave valuable opportunity to the global communities cosmopolitan, openminded, tolerant and amenable to cultural diversity. Islamic civilization usually respects the rights of others and freedom and has a positive attitude toward other religions. In addition, through history, Islam played a central mediating role by introducing East Asians to the highest scientific and academic achievement of Muslims. At the same time, East Asian technology and philosophy penetrated into Muslim world through the Silk Roads. In this sense, the traditional concept that Islam was spread by force is baseless in history. For centuries, both worlds of Islam and Christianity in general interacted with each other in a positive framework except certain limited period. This was essential point for mutual cooperation for peaceful coexistence among different culture and religions.

        • KCI우수등재
        • KCI등재
        • KCI등재

          Fathnāmah-i Sind(신드征服記)의 사료적 가치와 신라관련 부분의 분석

          이희수(Lee, Hee-Soo) 명지대학교 중동문제연구소 2012 중동문제연구 Vol.11 No.1

          '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

          The primary objective of preparing this article is to re-interpretate some of the Silla related parts of Fathnāmah-i Sind(The Arab Conquest of Sind), which are reported mainly on the authority of Abu al-Hasan Ali b. Muhammad al-Madā'ini(752~839) and then translated into Persian by Ali b. Hamid b. Abubakr Kufi in 1216. “The King of ‘Jazīrat al-Yaqūt (ﺕﻮﻗﺄﻴﻟﺃ ﺓﺮﻳﺰﺟ)(Island of Ruby)' himself had sent to Hajjaj(The Governor of Basra, Iraq), the orphan children and wives born in his territories. They were the family members of Muslim merchants who had died there, the king did so in order to establish close cordial relations.....” Fathnāmah-I Sind(FN) deals with earlier accounts and the final conquest of Sind led by the Arab commander, Muhammad b. Qasim. Besides this, the FN contains considerable information on geographical locations and close maritime relations between Iraq and the neighboring areas and beyond. Although Jazīrat al-Yaqūt, literally meaning “Island of Ruby” in FN is regarded as Serendib(Ceylon, modern Sri Lanka) in general by many medieval and modern historians, it is more likely Silla(Korean kingdom) of the early 8th century. Of course there are some obvious reasons for identifying Jazīrat al-Yaqūt as Ceylon, because the Arab merchants had frequented Ceylon from pre-Islamic times for trade and political relations. In addition, Ceylon has been a Jazīrat al-Yaqūt in its literal sense in so far as it was also a ruby producing island. But, rather, Biruni named Jazīrat al-Yaqūt not because of its rubies but because of the beauty of its women. Despite the above arguments, we should consider the fact that Madā'ini and his student Baladhuri who were the earliest and most trustworthy authorities on FN did not equate Jazīrat al-Yaqūt with Serendib(Ceylon). Moreover, Biruni,the well-known geographer of the medieval Islamic world, also discussed that Jazīrat al-Yaqūt is not related to Serendib, but is placed in the extreme east of the inhabited world. Furthermore supporting Biruni's geographical ideas, Ibn Khurdadhbih(886 died), Ibn Sa'id(1214~1286), Abu'l Fida(1273~1331), Ibn Rustah(914 died) and Al-Najdi(15th C.) who all mentioned Silla in their books had placed it ‘east of the equator', ‘to the far east of the ocean', ‘‘to the extreme end of China', etc. We already know the plentiful manuscripts written in Arabic-Persian that show Muslims' residence in Silla between the 9~16th centuries. Masu'di(957 died) significantly identified some of Muslims living in Silla as Iraqis. And recently Kushnameh, an ancient Persian epic described in detail the coming of the Persian royal families to Silla to make residence for a while and then they returned to Baghdad through sea routes. Taking all these facts into consideration, it safely can be said that the country name of Jazīrat al-Yaqūt in FN is Silla, not Ceylon.

        • KCI등재

          인류문명의 시원인 유프라테스

          李熙秀(Lee Hee-Soo) 부산경남사학회 2009 역사와 경계 Vol.71 No.-

          The Tigris-Euphrates Rivers were the cradle of the early Mesopotamian civilizations and irrigation made it possible for the locals to develop agriculture. This resulted in the development of great ancient civilizations, where water played an important starting role. Mesopotamia, the land between the Euphrates and the Tigris, remained as the center of many different civilizations and gave life to millions of inhabitants. The GAP utilizing the two rivers, is a multi-sectoral and integrated regional development project based on the concept of sustainable development. Its basic aim is to eliminate regional development disparities by raising people's income level and living standards: and to contribute to such national development targets as social stability and economic growth by enhancing the productive and employment generating capacity of rural sector. The project area covers 9 provinces in the Euphrates-Tigris basins and Upper Mesopotamia plains(Adiyaman, Batman, Diyarbakir, Gazientep, Kilis, Mardin, Siirt, Sanliurfa and Sirnak) of Turkey. Bordered by Syria to the south and Iraq to the southeast, the GAP region extends over an area of 9.7% of the total territory of Turkey. Therefore, GAP project also creates a great deal of resentment from Syria and Iraq, the other riparians of the basin. The tensions over the waters of the basin have reached internationally acknowledged levels, and a lack of cooperation among the riparians confronted the world with a new potential conflict area. This situation threatens the delicate political stability in the Middle East, and further polarization in the region continues with Turkey and Israel's alliance against Syria, Iran, and Iraq. Another important disaster being caused by the GAP project is the environmental and cultural demage in the region. By the construction of many dams and change of water flow of two rivers since 1976, about 400 villages have been submerged totally or partly and 200,000 villagers have been faced to abandon their home town. In addition, such historic relics as Zeugma, important Greek-Roman city and Hasankeyf, 10,000 years ancient city are also faced to disappear. These cases give contradictory example for peoples how to harmonize between social development and preservation of cultural heritage. The Euphrates-Tigris basin is one of the most important waterways in the world and plays an extreme important role in the future of water availability in the Middle East. The article is an in-depth analysis about socio-cultural-economic influence of the GAP project in Turkey and neighbour countries in the Middle East.

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