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The yellow base polymer light emitting diodes(PLEDs) with double emission and hole blocking layers were prepared to improve the light efficiency. ITO(indium tin oxide) and PEDOT : PSS[poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) : poly(styrene sulfolnate)] were used as cathode and hole transport materials. The PFO[poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene)] and MEH-PPV[poly(2-methoxy-5(2-ethylhe xoxy)-1,4-phenylenevinyle)] were used as the light emitting host and guest materials, respectively. TPBI[Tpbi1,3,5-tris(N-phenylbenzimidazol-2-yl)benzene] was used as hole blocking layer. To investigate the optimization of device structure, we prepared four kinds of PLED devices with different structures such as single emission layer(PFO : MEH-PPV), two double emission layer(PFO/PFO : MEH-PPV, PFO : MEH-PPV/PFO) and double emission layer with hole blocking layer(PFO/PFO : MEH-PPV/TPBI). The electrical and optical properties of prepared devices were compared. The prepared PLED showed yellow emission color with CIE color coordinates of x = 0.48, y = 0.48 at the applied voltage of 14V. The maximum luminance and current density were found to be about 3920 cd/$m^2$ and 130 mA/$cm^2$ at 14V, respectively for the PLED device with the structure of ITO/PEDOT : PSS/PFO/PFO : MEH-PPV/TPBI/LiF/Al.
We propose a real time personalized recommendation algorithm on the mobile device. We use a unified collaborative filtering with reduced data. We use Fuzzy C-means clustering to obtain the reduced data and Konohen SOM is applied to get initial values of the cluster centers. The proposed algorithm overcomes data sparsity since it extends data to the similar users and similar items. Also, it enables real time service on the mobile device since it reduces computing time by data clustering. Applying the suggested algorithm to the MovieLens data, we show that the suggested algorithm has reasonable performance in comparison with collaborative filtering. We developed Android-based smart-phone application, which recommends restaurants with coupons and restaurant information.
ITO 투명전극을 양극으로 사용하고 PEDOT:PSS 고분자 물질위에 PVK와 Ir(ppy)3를 각각 host와 dopant로 사용하여 고분자 발광다이오드를 제작하였다. 전자 수송층의 역할로 TPBI, 음극으로 Al을 증착하여 최종적으로 ITO/PEDOT:PSS/PVK:Ir(ppy)3/TPBI/LiF/Al 구조를 갖는 녹색 인광 고분자 유기발광 소자(PhPLED)를 제작하였다. 제작 된 소자의 발광부 dopant인 Ir(ppy)3도핑 농도에 따른 전기적 광학적 특성을 평가하였다. PVK:Ir(ppy)3를 host와 dopant system으로 dopant Ir(ppy)3의 도핑 양을 0.5 wt%에서 2.5 wt%까지 씩 변화시키면서 최적의 농도를 찾고자 하였다. TPBI를 전자 수송층으로 사용 하였을 경우 최대 휘도는 약 8600 cd/m2 (at 8V)이고, 전류밀도는 337mA/cm2 를 나타내었다.
ZnO thin films were prepared on a glass substrate by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering without intentional substrate heating and then surfaces of the ZnO films were irradiated with intense electrons in vacuum condition to investigate the effect of electron bombardment on crystallization, surface roughness, morphology and hydrogen gas sensitivity. In XRD pattern, as deposited ZnO films show a higher ZnO (002) peak intensity. However, the peak intensity for ZnO (002) is decreased with increase of electron bombarding energy. Atomic force microscope images show that surface morphology is also dependent on electron bombarding energy. The surface roughness increases due to intense electron bombardment as high as 2.7 nm. The observed optical transmittance means that the films irradiated with intense electron beams at 900 eV show lower transmittance than the others due to their rough surfaces. In addition, ZnO films irradiated by the electron beam at 900 eV show higher hydrogen gas sensitivity than the films that were electron beam irradiated at 450 eV. From XRD pattern and atomic force microscope observations, it is supposed that intense electron bombardment promotes a rough surface due to the intense bombardments and increased gas sensitivity of ZnO films for hydrogen gas. These results suggest that ZnO films irradiated with intense electron beams are promising for practical high performance hydrogen gas sensors.