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Jung Hwan Lee(이정환), Joo Han Lim(임주한), Lucia Kim(김루시아), Chul Soo Kim(김철수), Hyeon Gyu Yi(이현규), So Yun Nah(나소연), Seong Hyun Kim(김성현), Ji Joong Jeong(정지중), Myung Dong Lee(이명동), Jea Ho Ye(예재호), Moon Hee Lee(이문희) 대한두경부종양학회 2011 대한두경부 종양학회지 Vol.27 No.2
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에크린 한공암종은 흔하지 않으며, 전이성 에크린 한공암종은 매우 드문 암이다. 에크린 한공암종은 표피내 한관에서 기원하는 피부 부속기 악성 종양으로, 대부분 에크린 한공암종은 항암치료와 방사선치료에 효과가 없으며, 따라서 유일한 치료방법은 전이되기 전에 국소 및 광범위 절제술을 시행하여야 한다. 본 환자는 두피에 발생한 에크린 한공암종이 점점 진행하여 피부, 림프절, 폐 등으로 전이하였고, 다수의 광범위 절제술에 이어 항암치료와 방사선치료를 받았지만, 결국 폐전이가 악화되어 사망하였다. 본 저자들은 항암치료와 방사선치료에 불응한 에크린 한공암종 1예를 치료에 대한 문헌고찰과 더불어 보고하는 바이다.
The principle of proportionality is to claim 'a state action that is appropriate for the statutory goal, and its most important function is to realize 'justice in individual legal cases' via concretely discerning the correct balance between the restriction imposed by a corrective measure and the severity of the nature of the prohibited act. In this regard, the principle raises both questions: 'Whether or not 'all' the basic human rights could be the subject of restriction in the sense of paragraph 2 of article 37 of the constitutional law?' and 'Whether or not general legal reservations and the principle of proportionality could be applied to basic human rights?' Since the above article prescribes "it is possible to restrict basic human rights if necessary", the subjects of restriction seem to be only the rights of freedom of which restriction must be undergone three-step reviews, such as the scope of protection of basic human rights, the restriction of the scope of protection of basic human rights, and the constitutional justification of restriction of basic human rights. Therefore, the paragraph 2 of article 37 of the constitutional law could be applied to the rights of freedom in principle. On the other hand, the conscientious objection to the military service seems to be 'the freedom of omission-based realization of conscience.' However, to guarantee the freedom of conscience does not mean to give individuals the right to the rejection of obedience to law and order on the grounds of conscience. According to this logic, to measure the freedom of conscience in comparison with public interests through the principle of proportionality and relativize it in order to realize public interests are not compatible with the nature and characteristic of the freedom of conscience. If the decision of conscience is narrowed to satisfy public interests in the course of comparatively measuring the benefit and protection of the law or its contents are distorted or perverted, it is no longer 'conscience.' When conscience and law & order are in collision, the principle of proportionality, due to its characteristic, must choose one of the two, namely fully accepting one and completely rejecting the other. And therefore the principle is not compatible with the value system of the constitutional law. In this regard, it is necessary to invent the method of review that allows the benefit and protection of both laws in collision to be harmoniously realized on the premise that both of them are constitutionally protected. Since there are special issues in the comparative measurement of the benefit and protection of the law, the principle of proportionality could not be applied to the guarantee of the freedom of realization of conscience. Furthermore, the colliding legal benefit and protection against the conscientious objection to the military service have not only the simple meaning of public interest, namely national security, but also the characteristic of constitutional duty, namely people's fulfillment of military duty. In this vein, if the freedom of conscientious action is restricted in order to simply maintain the public interest of national security, the principle of proportionality must be applied to it in order to guarantee basic human rights maximally. However, if the freedom of conscientious action is restricted according to the need of people's fulfillment of military service, it is the issue of collision between the constitutional right and the constitutional duty and therefore its criteria of judgment must be different. In other words, the freedom of conscientious action must be judged not by the principle of proportionality prescribed in the paragraph 2 of article 37 of the constitutional law but by the comparative measurement of the constitutional right and the constitutional duty.
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The interest in court auction and public auction markets where many people believed to be able to buy real estate at low prices is very high and growing. In the past, public auction was mainly used as a measure of the forced sale of property under the National Tax Collection Act, but a meaning of public bidding by public institutions has been widely used recently. This study summarizes the meaning and type of public auction, and using an empirical analysis of the relationships among confidence index of public auction, public auction competition rate, and bid price rate. The results of the above multiple regression analysis showed that the confidence index of public auction(the survey results of participants) in the public sale market were significant enough to have a significant impact on the competition rate of each type. And, the confidence index of public auction also had a statistically significant impact on the price rate of the KAMCO public auction and the price rate of the KAMCO public sale, except on the price rate of open bid held by a public institution through ONBID It was confirmed statistically that the price rate of each type of public auction increased as the competition rate of each type increased. In addition, the competition rate of the KAMCO public auction has an impact on the ratio of KAMCO public sale price, and competition rate of the KAMCO public sale has an impact on the ratio of the KAMCO public auction price. Predicting the price rate of a public auction using the confidence index of public auction and public auction competition rate is useful as a method for responding to the public auction market. It is necessary to expand the public disclosure about information related to public auction, including the confidence index of public auction, which is now only opened to a public institution. There is a possibility that the public auction market expansion in connection with the private sector"s real estate transactions or the court auction could have a synergy effect.
Purpose - This paper examines the explanatory power of the agency theory in the determination of cash holdings for Korean retail firms. If the agency theory holds, a firm with strong corporate governance structure tends to have low cash holdings. A strong governance structure makes the CEO of this firm to behave in the interests of shareholders and thus the CEO has low incentive to stockpile cash holdings, which can be easily diverted for the CEO's own managerial purposes. We investigate this relationship between corporate governance structure and cash holdings, by using corporate governance scores as a proxy variable that captures the effectiveness of corporate governance mechanism. Research design, data, and methodology - We adopt the sample of publicly listed retail firms in KOSPI market from 2005 to 2013. Financial and accounting statements are gathered from the WISEfn database. We also use the corporate governance scores published by Korean Corporate Governance Service. The relationship between the corporate governance scores and cash holdings is cross-sectionally estimated based on the ordinary least square method. This estimation method is widely accepted in the existing literature. The sample of large conglomerates, Chebol, and the remainder firms are separately examined as well, to account for the distinctive internal financing environment in these large conglomerates. Results - We mainly contribute to the extant literature by providing empirical evidence against the agency theory of cash policy. Unlike the prediction of agency theory, we confirm statistically insignificant or even positive correlations between the set of corporate governance scores and cash-asset ratios. Almost all the major corporate governance attributes including total score, shareholder rights, board structure, and the quality of information disclosure do not show negative correlations with cash holdings, which poses a strong challenge to the validity of the agency theory in the determination of retail firms' cash holdings. Conclusions - This study presents interesting empirical results with respect to the cash policy in Korean retail firms. Consistent to prior studies, I verify that the agency theory only limitedly explains the level of cash holdings. Future studies may obtain more robust results by examining a longer sample period.