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폐쇄형 묘생산 시스템에서 청색LED, 적색LED, 백색형광등을 인공광원으로 이용한 가운데 파프리카의 육묘시 생장 특성과 정식 후 생장 및 초기 수량을 분석하고자 본 연구가 수행되었다. 폐쇄형 시스템에서 파프리카 육묘용 환경조건은 광주기 16/8h, 평균 PPF 204μmol · m<SUP>?2</SUP> · s<SUP>?1</SUP>, 기온 26/20℃, 상대습도 70%이었다. 육묘 후 21일째에 백색형광등과 LED 하에서 생장된 파프리카 묘의 엽장, 엽폭, 엽면적 등 잎 관련지표뿐만 아니라 지상부 생체중과 건물중, 엽록소함량등이 자연광 처리구에 비해서 크게 나타났다. 청색LED, 적색LED 및 자연광 처리구에서의 엽면적은 대조구인 형광등 처리구와 비교할 때 각각 63%, 63%,28%에 해당하였다. 또한 청색LED, 적색LED 및 자연광 처리구의 지상부 건물중은 각각 대조구의 64%,50%, 22%로 나타났다. 정식 후 18일째에 엽수는 대조구에서 44매로 가장 크게 나타났다. 적색LED, 청색LED 및 자연광 처리구의 엽수는 대조구에 비해서 각각 86%, 81%, 48%로서 정식 시기와 비교할 때 엽수의 차이가 줄어들었다. 정식 후 114일째에 초장은 청색LED와 적색LED 처리구에서 상대적으로 작게 나타났다. 이러한 결과는 단색LED 하에서 육묘된 파프리카의 줄기 신장이 정식후에 억제된 것으로 판단된다. 초기 4주 동안 수확된 파프리카는 청색LED 3.5개/plant, 적색LED 3.3개/plant, 자연광 1.0개/plant으로서 대조구 2.2개/plant에 비해서 각각 159%, 150%, 45%로 나타났다. 초기수량은 적색LED 453g/plant, 청색LED 403g/plant, 자연광 101g/plant으로서 대조구 273g/plant와 비교할 때 각각 166%, 148%, 37%로 나타났다. 한편 적색 LED 처리구에서의 평균 중량은 136g으로서 다른 처리구와 비교할 때 상대적으로 큰 과실이 생산되었다. 한편 정식 후 온실에서의 재배기간이 길어짐에 따라 인공광 처리구와 자연광 처리구에서 수량 차이가 없었다. 이러한 결과를 종합하면 LED 또는 형광등을 인공광원으로 이용한 조건에서 육묘된 파프리카의 정식 후 초기 생육이 양호하였으며, 초기 수확이 자연광 처리구에 비해서 1주 정도 빠르게 이루어졌음을 알 수 있다. 따라서 LED 또는 형광등과 같은 인공광원이 파프리카 육묘에 이용될 경우 묘소질의 향상, 조기 수확 및 초기 수량의 증대가 기대된다. This study was conducted to analyze the seeding quality of paprika and the growth and early yield after transplanting of paprika nursed under artificial light and natural light. In this study, blue LED, red LED, and white fluorescent lamps (FL) were used as artificial lighting sources. Photoperiod, average photosynthetic photon flux, air temperature, and relative humidity in a closed transplants production system (CTPS) were maintained at 16/8 h, 204 μmol · m<SUP>?2</SUP> · s<SUP>?1</SUP>, 26/20oC, and 70%, respectively. Leaf length, leaf width, leaf area, top fresh weight and dry weight of paprika seedlings, and chlorophyll content in paprika leaves nursed under LED and fluorescent lamps for 21 days after experiment were significantly affected by light treatments. As compared with the control (white FL), leaf area of paprika grown under blue LED, red LED, and natural light was decreased by 63%, 63%, and 28%, respectively. Top dry weight of paprika grown under blue LED, red LED, and natural light was 64%, 50%, and 22%, respectively, compared with the control. Number of leaves on 18 days after transplanting showed with red LED, blue LED, and natural light by 86%, 84%, and 48%, respectively, compared with the control. On 114 days after transplanting, paprika nursed under blue LED and red LED had relatively short plant height. This result might be caused that the elongation of its internodes was suppressed by the illumination of sole blue or red light. Average number of fruits per plant harvested during 4 weeks after first harvest was 3.5 with red LED, 3.3 with blue LED, 1.0 with natural light, and 2.2 with control, respectively. Early yield of paprika nursed under red LED, blue LED, natural light, and control were 453 g/plant, 403 g/plant, 101 g/plant, and 273 g/plant, respectively. Larger fruit of 136 g was harvested with red LED treatment. Even though the early yield of paprika was greatly increased with artificial lighting, but total yield was almost similar as the harvest period after transplanting in greenhouses was lengthened. From the above results, we could understand that paprika nursed under white FL, blue LED, and red LED showed good growth after transplanting and was early harvested by a week as compared to the natural light. Therefore, the white FL, blue LED, and red LED as the artificial lighting sources in CTPS could be strategically used to enhance the seedling quality, to shorten the harvest time, and to increase the yield of paprika.
The study intends to examine changing patterns of spatial clustering or hotspots of major office buildings developed between 2003 and 2012 in the Seoul. It also investigates the impacts of factors on the location of hot spots. To achieve them, a database of major office buildings is built up based on Geographic Information System. Major findings are as follows. First, total floor area has augmented by 4 percent per annum. Total floor area of prime office buildings are inclined to grow faster than that of others. Second, they tend to be located in three major urban centers. Hotspot analysis represents extensive hotspot areas around them in 2003. In 2012, hotspots in the urban centers are maintained or expanded; various metropolitan and region centers are spatially stretched out. Third, Logit model shows that employment density, employment density of FIRE sector, proportion of redevelopment zone, proportion of commercial zone, proportion of subway-oriented area have significantly positive impacts on the chance of hotspot area. It implies both physical infrastructure and public planning initiatives are important for promoting urban centers. It is needed to establish an official database of office buildings and monitor land use changes.
This study intends to examine the supply condition and locational patterns of major accommodations between 2003 and 2012 in Seoul. It also aims to make policy suggestions for meeting increasing tourism demand based on short-term supply-demand forecasting. Major findings are as follows. First, total floor area of major accommodations of 1,000 sq. meter and over has increased by 2 percent p.a. from 2.22 sq. kilometer in 2003 to 2.61 sq. kilometer in 2012. In 2012, major accommodations tend to be located in three CBDs in Seoul, which becomes clearer when compared to their locational patterns in 2003. Also, it is expected that additional 5,000 rooms for lodging p.a. are needed based on the short-term forecasting that the demand for accommodation increases by 52,000 rooms by 2015 in Seoul. Therefore, it is necessary to make good use of underutilized stocks in addition to new supply in order to meet the additional demand for accommodation. Last, policies and strategies suitable for regional supply and locational characteristics should be prepared to vitalize and manage major centers including CBDs and metropolitan centers.
The study intends to suggest planning and policy recommendations to improve current supply system of the Public Sports service facilities in Seoul. To achieve the goal, a geographic database was built, while focusing on the social and elderly Public Sports service facilities. It is found that the number of facilities provided has sharply increased around 1995; then it has been decreasing mainly due to the lack of local public finance. The level of Public Sports service has been continuously improved. However, the service gap among local governments still exists although it has been smaller. Also, the levels of spatial service overlapping and exclusion are relatively serious. In light of the findings, two policy directions and six measures are proposed in order to improve current planning and supply system in Seoul. Fist, more systematic and planning-oriented policies are needed. They include the construction of comprehensive database system, a guideline and general plan for provision and management prepared by Seoul and local governments, and enhanced roles of current local welfare consultative group. Second, efficient and fair ways to supply new facilities in response to increasing demand for public services. Functional changes among them should be considered, and multi-use public facilities and contributions of public facilities by the private sector should be encouraged through institutional and planning reforms.
430-470㎚의 청색광 영역과 630-670㎚의 적색광 영역을 5㎚ 간격으로 세분화한 LED를 인공광원으로 사용하고, 냉백색형광등을 대조구로 사용한 가운데 적치마상추(Lactuca sativa L. ‘중생종', 흥농씨앗)의 생장 및 안토시아닌 함량에 미치는 적색광 또는 청색광 LED의 피크파장에 따른 광질조사 효과를 분석하였다. 페쇄형 시스템 내에서 생장된 상추의 재배조건은 광주기 16/8h, 기온 22/18°C, 습도 70%, CO₂ 농도 400μ㏖ㆍ㏖<SUP>-1</SUP>로 설정하였고, 베드 면에서의 PPF를 201 ± 2μ㏖ㆍm<SUP>-2</SUP>ㆍs<SUP>-1</SUP>로 조절하였다. 정식 후 21일째에 측정된 상추의 생장 특성과 안토시아닌 함량은 청색광 또는 적색광 LED의 피크파장에 따라 유의차가 다르게 나타났다. 본 연구에서 처리된 LED의 피크파장 가운데 R1 처리구(피크파장 634㎚)와 R6 처리구(피크파장 659㎚)가 엽폭, 엽면적, 지상부 생체중 및 광합성속도의 증가에 효과적이었다. 한편 안토시아닌의 축적에 B5 처리구(피크파장 450㎚)가 효과적이었다. 상추 잎의 안토시아닌 함량은 엽색의 hue 값이 작아지거나, 또는 SPAD 값이 커질수록 직선적인 관계를 이루면서 증가하였다. 결론적으로 본 연구에서 얻어진 피크파장 634㎚와 659㎚의 적색광, 450㎚의 청색광은 엽채류의 생산량 증대와 안토시아닌 함량의 증진에 필요한 광질로서 활용될 것이다. Growth and anthocyanins of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L., ‘Mid-season') grown under LED lamps with blue light in the range of 430-470 ㎚ or with red light in the range of 630-670 ㎚ were analyzed in this study. Cool-white fluorescent light was used as the control. P hotosynthetic photon flux, p hotoperiod, air temperature, relative humidity, and CO₂ concentration in aclosed plant production system were 201 ± 2 μ㏖ㆍm-2ㆍs-1, 16/8 hours (day/night), 22/18℃, 70%, and 400 μ㏖ㆍ㏖-1, respectively. At 21 days after light quality treatment, growth characteristics and anthocyanins content of lettuce as affected by the peak wavelength of blue or red LED were significantly different. Among peak wavelengths treated in this stusy, R1 treatment (peak wavelength 634 ㎚) and R6 treatment (peak wavelength 659 ㎚) were effective for increasing leaf width, leaf area, shoot fresh weight, and photosynthetic rate of lettuce. B5 treatment (peak wavelength 450 ㎚) and B4 treatment (peak wavelength 446 ㎚) increased the anthocyanins concentration and chlorophyll content in lettuce leaves, respectively. Anthocyanins in lettuce leaves increased linearly with decreasing hue value of leaf color and with increasing SPAD value of lettuce leaves. From these results, it was concluded that the red LED with peak wavelengths of 634 ㎚ and 659 ㎚ and the blue LED with peak wavelengths of 450 ㎚ can be used as potential light spectra for increasing the yield and anthocyanins accumulation of leafy vegetable.
This study build up a database of major office buildings based on Geographic Information System between 2003 and 2012 in Seoul Metropolitan Area. It investigates supply characteristics and changing patterns of spatial clustering of the buildings. It then aims to present policy and planning implications for promoting and managing urban centers. Between 2000 and 2012, total floor area of major office buildings has increased by 4 percent per annum. Major office buildings are inclined to be located in three major urban center. Global clustering analysis of the buildings' total floor area within census tracts shows that the spatial clustering pattern is statistically significant for both 2003 and 2012. Local clustering analysis identifies extensive office hotspot areas around three major urban centers in 2003. It also indicates that metropolitan centers including Yongsan and Jamsil, and regional centers including Mapo and Gongdeok and Mokdong. In 2012, hotspot areas around three major urban centers are maintained or expanded. A variety of metropolitan and region centers are spatially stretched out. It is necessary to establish an official database of the office buildings in Seoul to set up effective strategies for promoting urban centers. It is also needed to monitor land use changes of urban centers in Seoul.
This study aims to investigate the patterns and determinants of residential mobility in the Seoul Metropolitan Region over the past decade since 2000. Based on the data from 66 local governments within the region, this study analyzes the factors shaping household's mobility from Seoul to Incheon & Gyeonggi-do for move-out households and from Incheon & Gyeonggi-do to Seoul for move-in households. First, the findings show that residential mobility in both directions decline rapidly as the distance increases. Second, move-out households are likely to move into areas with higher educational attainments and larger numbers of private institutes. Move-in households tends to move out of and into areas with similar levels of educational attainments. Third, move-out households are likely to move to areas having accessible public transportation system. Fourth, move-out households tend to move in areas having the similar housing market fluctuation and the price level. Fifth, move-out households are likely to move to places having larger numbers of cultural amenities. Further research is suggested to explore household's mobility within the metropolitan area in relation to life-cycle stages and intra-urban mobility for urban and regional planning.