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In this paper, we proposed a method to detect and track vehicles efficiently under the AVM camera environment, which was characterized by a wide viewing angle and serious lens distortion. The algorithm was designed for the FVSA(Forward Vehicle Start Alarm) function, a newly required ADAS function. We created independent nearby and distant detectors to compensate for the massive appearance variation of a vehicle because of distance between the target vehicle and the camera. The proposed detectors were designed with Haar-Like Adaboost and tested against independent nearby and distant data. To reduce false positive among the candidates caught by the detector, a pre-generated mask was used in filtering. Next, the candidate vehicle was verified with nearby and distant classifiers. The classifier was a tested HOG(Histogram of Oriented Gradients) feature of SVM(Support Vector Machine). Tracking is then used to extract a particular car within a video, and if nearby and distant candidates were extracted at the same time, a correct candidate would be created by a Selection and Merge process through a calculated IOU value. To evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm, we selected 20 test videos from 130 videos of actual road conditions, and extracted 1,640 frames.
In this paper, we integrated hydrogel-poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate nanotips on silicon cantilevers. This hydrogel nanotips were used in atomic force microscope for topographical imaging. Due to the soft material property, hydrogel can be worn while it scans a hard substrate. For maintaining the performance of hydrogel nanotips, wear characteristics were analyzed with harsh imaging conditions. Worn nanotips did not make high-resolution topographical images, so we propose novel method to regenerating hydrogel nanotips as countermeasure of wear. Hydrogel nanotip can make the silicon cantilever reusable by tip regeneration.
The inspection machine in SMT (Surface Mount Technology) line detects the assembly defects such as missing, misalignment, loosing, or tombstone. We propose a new method to classify the defect types of chip components by processing the image of PCB. Two original images are obtained from horizontal lighting and vertical lighting. The image of the component is divided into two soldering regions and one packaging region. The features are extracted by appling the PCA (Principle Component Analysis) to each region. The MLP (Multilayer Perceptron) and SVM (Support Vector Machine) are then used to classify the defect types by learning. The experimental results are presented to show the usefulness of the proposed method.
면역세포는 외부 병원체 감염 자연적 순환에 대하여 형태변화를 수반한다. T세포는 염증 면역감시 이동 그리고 혈관통과를 위해 uropod filopodia lamellipodia 및 microvilli를 생산한다. 짧고 손가락 처럼 생긴 microvilli는 순환하고 있는 포유동물 면역세포 표면을 덮고 있다. 단핵세포와 호중구의 세포표면은 많이 다른데 membrane ruffle을 함유하고 있다. 본 연구는 T세포의 microvilli에 대하여 actin cytoskeleton과의 연관성에 대하여 탐구하였다. Actin 파괴자인 cytochalasin D 처리 후 SEM관찰을 통해서 Jurkat T세포의 microvilli를 보면 빠르게 사라지는 것을 알 수 있었다. 이와는 대조적으로 RhoA의 activator인 PMA는 LIMK와 cofilin 신호 전달을 통해서 microvilli 두께가 확장되는 것을 관찰하였다. 또한 cytochalasin D 처리는 EL4 T세포의 극성을 사라지게 하는 것으로 보아 F-actin은 T세포의 극성 유지에도 영향을 미친다. 이상의 결과는 Actin cytoskeleton은 T세포에서 microvilli와 극성 유지에 관여하고 있는 것을 제시한다. Morphological changes in immune cells occur due to pathogen infection and natural circulation. T cells produce uropod filopodia lamellipodia and microvilli for inflammation immunosurvelliance migration and diapedesis. Short finger-like microvilli cover the surfaces of circulating mammalian immune cells. The surface features of monocytes and neutrophils are quite different containing membrane ruffles as their predominant structure. In this study we present the involvement of actin cytoskeleton regarding T lymphocyte microvilli. From analysis of scanning electron micrographs Jurkat T lymphocyte microvilli was observed to rapidly disassemble when exposed to the actin-sequestering molecule cytochalasin D. In contrast to cytochalasin D treatment we found that median microvillar thickness was enlarged on Jurkat T lymphocytes treated with PMA via Lin-11 Isl-1 Mec-3 Kinase (LIMK) and cofilin signaling. In addition actin cytoskeleton was involved in polarity formation in EL4 T lymphocytes. These results suggest that microvilli formation or polarity of T lymphocytes are involved in actin cytoskeleton dynamics.
To develop an autonomous valet parking system, the empty parking space detection method should guide the vehicle's direction. In this paper, we propose an empty parking space detection method based on the around-view monitoring system. The proposed method can detect available parking spaces by creating a map of parking line features. First, we create a map of parking line features using line filters and detect parking line candidates using the Hough transform on the feature map. Since there exist valid and invalid lines among the parking line candidates, we analyze the lines' density and connectivity to select valid lines. Several valid lines can be represented as a one-line model created by clustering. Using the features of the parking area (width and height of the parking space) among the line models can remove useless lines and extract the sideline of the parking space. A feature map of the parking lines is used to ensure the robustness of the sideline model. Finally, we can detect the parking space using sideline models. The proposed method was evaluated with 634 images logged in a real parking lot.
피부재생에 대한 지방줄기세포 배양상등액(ADSC-CM)의 효능에 대한 연구를 진행하였다. ADSC-CM이 피부재생에 기여하는 기작은 명확하지 못하지만, ADSC-CM은 다양한 분비물을 포함하고 있고 따라서 피부트러블 처리를 위한 훌륭한 재료이다. 저 산소 상태에서 생산된 ADSC-CM, 즉 advanced adipose-derived stem cell protein extract (AAPE)는 피부재생에 보다 좋은 재료이다. 본 연구는 피부 재생에 결정적 역할을 하는 인체 primary 세포인 섬유아 세포(HDF)와 케라티노사이트(HK)를 이용하여 AAPE의 효능을 검증하였다. 0.32 μg/ml AAPE에서 콜라겐 합성이 관찰 되었으며 AAPE는 stress fiber 형성을 강화하였다. DNA microarray 결과에서는 세포증식, 세포이동, 세포부착, 상처반응에 관여하는 133개의 유전자 발현이 조절되는 것을 알았다. Antibody array를 통해 CD54, FGF-2, GM-CSF,IL-4, IL-6, VEGF, TGF-β2, TGF-β3, MMP-1, MMP-10, 그리고 MMP-19와 같은 MMP, 성장인자, 사이토카인등25개의 알려진 단백질이 포함되어 있다는 것을 알았다. 따라서, AAPE는 HK의 세포생물학적 기능을 활성화 할 수있다고 사료되며 HDF에서는 콜라겐 합성을 유도하였다. 이러한 결과는 AAPE가 피부재생에 임상적 적용이 가능하 리라는 것을 의미한다. The beneficial effects of adipose-derived stem cell conditioned media (ADSC-CM) for skin regeneration have previously been reported, despite the precise mechanism of how ADSC-CM promotes skin regeneration remaining unclear. ADSC-CM contains various secretomes and this may be a factor in it being a good resource for the treatment of skin conditions. It is also known that ADSC-CM produced in hypoxia conditions, in other words Advanced Adipose-Derived Stem cell Protein Extract (AAPE), has excellent skin regenerative properties. In this study, a human primary skin cell was devised to examine how AAPE affects human dermal fibroblast (HDF) and human keratinocyte (HK), which both play fundamental roles in skin regeneration. The promotion of collagen formation by HDFs was observed at 0.32 mg/ml of AAPE. AAPE treatment significantly stimulated stress fiber formation. DNA gene chips demonstrated that AAPE in HKs (p<0.05) affected the expression of 133 identifiable transcripts, which were associated with cell proliferation, migration, cell adhesion, and response to wounding. Twenty five identified proteins, including MMP, growth factor and cytokines such as CD54, FGF-2, GM-CSF, IL-4, IL-6, VEGF, TGF-β2, TGF-β3, MMP-1, MMP-10, and MMP-19, were contained in AAPE via antibody arrays. Thus, AAPE might activate the HK biological function and induce the collagen synthesis of HDF. These results demonstrate that AAPE has the potential to be used for clinic applications aimed at skin regeneration.