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본 연구의 날갯짓 초소형 비행체는 실제 생명체의 날개를 모방하여, 매우 유연한 재질의 캠버날개를 활용한다. 캠버 날개는 생명체와 유사하게 앞전, 시맥, 박막과 같이 특성이 서로 다른 세 가지 재질로 구성되어 있고 다양한 방식으로 구속되어 있다. 날개의 유연성을 활용한 수동 회전(passive rotation) 방식은 앞전과 시맥의 재질이 날갯짓 궤적에 매우 큰 영향을 미치는 요소이기 때문에 적절한 유연성을 갖는 재질의 선정이 필수적이다. 이러한 날개의 재질들과 복잡한 형상을 사실적으로 모델링하여 정밀하게 해석할 수 있는 유체-구조 연성해석 프로그램을 개발하고, 날개의 앞전과 시맥의 탄성 계수의 변화에 따른 공력탄성학 효과를 정밀하게 분석하였다. 결과적으로 재료의 탄성 계수 변화만으로도 날개의 비틀림각 궤적을 적절히 발생시킴으로써 날갯짓 비행체의 추력 및 효율을 크게 증가시킬 수 있음을 보였다. The flapping-wing micro air vehicle (FW-MAV) in this study utilizes the cambered wings made of quite flexible material. Similar to the flying creatures, the present cambered wing uses three different materials at its leading edge, vein, and membrane. And it is constrained in various conditions. Since passive rotation uses the flexible nature of the wing, it is important to select an appropriate material for a wing. A three-dimensional fluid–structure interaction solver is developed for a realistic modeling of the cambered wing. Then a parametric study is conducted to evaluate the aerodynamic performance in terms of the elastic modulus of leading edge and vein. Consequently, the elastic modulus plays a key role in enhancing the aerodynamic performance of FW-MAVs.
The existing models for evaluating user's satisfaction the subway line no. 1~8 not consider qualitative items and indexes properly, and also does not diversify the evaluation items to follow the change of subway environment. Therefore in this study the evaluation items and indexes that can reflect of the subway users' characteristics are examined and synthesized. Then the two qualitative service evaluation models are developed for the senior subway system users and junior subway system users that are classified with the cluster analysis. Based on the developed evaluation models, main variables affecting the subway customer satisfaction and their influences are derived finally. The result of the study shows that service should be differentiated by the each line's features to improve the customer satisfaction for the subway system. Therefore the evaluation model should consider the qualitative items and the each line's specialities also.
This study intends to develop a service evaluation model and compare service characteristics as a basic study to establish differentiated service strategy between lines for the users of the Busan Subway Lines No. 1 and 2. The study results showed different service satisfaction level from the lines as a whole, indicating transfer step (OA71), waiting step (0.373), moving step (0.313), and accessing stage (0.272) in order for the Line No. 1 while moving step (0.621), transfer step (0.299), waiting step (0.260), and accessing stage (0.180) in order for the Line No.2. For effects on the services of each transferring process, in the case of accessing step, pedestrian conditions from origination to the subway station (0.317) has the largest effect for the Line No.1 while approaching time from origination to the subway station (0.408)has the largest effect for the Line No.2. In case of waiting step, both Line No. and 2 have showed convenience of the waiting facilities (0.530, 0.852). In case of moving step, amenity inside the passenger coach (0.443) has the largest effect for the Line No. 1 while facility convenience within the passenger coach (0.443) for the Line No.2. In case of transfer step, provision of guidance information for transition (0.425) has the largest effect for the Line No. 1 while congestion inside the transition zone (0.408). As we can see from the results of this study, in order to increase service satisfaction of the users of the Busan Subway, it is required to establish the improvement plan considering charicteristics of each line and movement stage reflecting moving behaviors of the users and provide distinguished services.
'스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.
부분비만 환자에게 약 2개월간 냉각요법을 병용한 도침치료를 시행한 결과, 신체둘레 감소를 확인할 수 있었다. The aim of this study is to report clinical progresses on localized fat. We devised the method of treat localized fat using acupotomy with selective cryolysis. We selected 4 subjects among the patients who maintained their body weight (within 5%) to minimize effects of losing weight. We practiced acupotomy with selective cryolysis therapy on 4 lesion of abdominal fat, 2 lesion of upper arm fat, 5 times for 2 month. All subjects had loss of abdominal circumference, and 1 subject had significantly loss of upper arm circumference. And there was no adverse effects. It shows that method of using acupotomy with selective cryolysis may be effective on localized fat.
본 논문에서는 자연지진음과 인공지진음 특성 분석을 위해 스펙트럼 기울기 파라미터 추출을 위한 알고리즘을 제안하였다. 신뢰성을 높이기 위해 다양한 지역에서 실험을 실시하였고 제안한 알고리즘을 이용하여 실험 데이터로부터 자연지진음과 인공지진음의 기울기 지수를 추출함으로써 특성을 분석하였다. 실험 및 분석결과 자연지진음이 인공지진음보다 스펙트럼에서 고주파 감쇠가 크고 저주파대역에 집중되어 있어 자연지진음의 기울기 지수가 인공지진음의 기울기 지수보다 높은 것으로 나타났다. This paper proposed an algorism for extracting spectrum gradient parameter to analyze the characteristics of natural seismic sounds and artificial seismic sounds. The experiment was performed in various area to raise the reliability. The characteristics of natural seismic sounds and artificial seismic sounds were analyzed by extracting gradient indexes of artificial seismic sounds and natural seismic sounds from the data of experiment by using the proposed algorism. As a result of the experiment and the analysis, gradient indexes of natural seismic sounds were higher than that of artificial seismic sounds because natural seismic sounds had higher attenuation at high-frequency than artificial seismic sounds did and natural seismic sounds were concentrated in low-frequency band.
Three cases of simple exanthematous eruption were suspected during Sumsu (Bufonis Venenum) pharmacopuncture (SP) topical anesthesia for acupotomy. Patients had skin rash with pruritus on both ankle, posterior neck, and left shoulder after 11, 12, and 7 times of SP treatment, respectively. There were no cases of systemic manifestations or changes in vital signs. As a result of using the World Health Organization-Uppsala Monitoring Centre (WHO-UMC) causality assessment, all the cases were evaluated as 'unlikely'. However, the results of using the Korean algorithm for assessing the causality of drug adverse reactions version 2.0 were evaluated as 'possible'. This report is the first case report on adverse events suspected of occurring after SP treatment. Although the causal relationship between suspected intervention and the adverse event is not clear, there was a difficulty in completely excluding the possibility. Additional safety studies will be required to make SP more widely available. (J Korean Med Rehabil 2018;28(3):119-124)
본 논문에서는 지하 암반을 타고 전달된 인공발파음 특성을 규명하기 위해 제안한 알고리즘에 대해 기술한다. 지하 암반 매질을 통과한 인공발파음은 다중전달경로 현상과 지질의 불균일 등으로 인해서 거리증가에 따라 고주파 대역에서 감쇠가 발생한다. 본 논문에서는 제안한 알고리즘 성능검증을 위해 지하터널에서 발파 실험을 하였고 수집한 데이터를 가지고 지하암반을 통과한 채널에서 특징 파라미터를 추출하여 수치적으로 정량화함으로써 인공 발파음 특성을 규명하였다. This paper stated the proposed algorism to certify the characteristics of artificial explosion sounds traveled through underground bedrock medium. Artificial explosion that travel through underground bedrock had an attenuation within high frequency bands in increase of a distance with multiple transmission paths phenomenon and inhomogeneity of geological status. In this paper, explosion experiment was made in underground tunnel to verify efficiency of proposed algorism. We could certify the characteristics of artificial explosion sounds as extracted and numerically quantified the characterized parameter with collected sound sample that traveled through underground bedrock channel.
This study aims to determine the community patterns of benthic macroinvertebrates and analyze the relationship between the communities and the water quality in the Pungyeongjeong Stream. We collected the samples four times by season. The number of species was 28 and the dominant species were Cheumatopsyche brevilineata, Hydropsyche kozhantschikovi, Baetis fuscatus, Chironomidae spp., and so on. The range of the dominant index was 0.54 to 0.93 and the mean was 0.77. The range of the diversity index was 0.94 to 2.54, and of the mean index it was 1.75. The ratio of filtering-collectors and clingers got lower, but the ratio of gathering-collectors and sprawlers got higher as collection progressed from the upper stream to the lower stream. The results of the Pearson correlation analysis showed COD, SS, TOC and total coliforms were highly related with biotic indices of benthic macroinvertebrates. The results of cluster analysis and non-metric multidimensional scaling ordination showed that the survey sites and periods were divided into three groups. The survey sites were divided into upper stream and middle-lower stream. The survey periods were divided into winter season and other seasons. Distribution of benthic macroinvertebrates showed some characteristics according to various influence factors; however long-term and regular investigations were thought to need analysis and prediction with various statistical methods.