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The purpose of this article is to explore a feature of writing scenario, which have been considered as writing novel. Properly the movie is formated with two aspects; the one is narrative aspect and the other is image aspect. Until now the study of genesis of meaning in movie has been biased toward the former that is similar with the study of novel. But image generates the meanings in itself too, which is the basic of ontology of image. Ontology of image is not metaphysics, but semiology which concerns on signification. Therefore the analysis of scenario must be proceeded on two ways; analysis of narrative and analysis of image. And it is a matter of course that analysis of relations with narrative and image must be proceeded. In this study I gave emphasis on image aspect. This strategic emphasis is adequately reasonable. The study on narrative aspect in movie has pressed the study on image aspect. As a result, the study on scenario is fixed on the study on traditional narrative which is same Hollywood narrative. Therefore emphasis on image is released from press of narrative aspect. In conclusion, the writing scenario is a praxis of image, not narrative. The use of 'praxis' is reflected on the such situation. But the theory of praxis of image in writing scenario must be reserved and recomposed. The situation is radically changed. The changed situation is the raising of digital media in media environment. It is fair and proper that digital media forces to change the relations with image and narrative in analogy media environment. Therefore it is important to stress the next step; it must be explore that what is digital image and how recompose the praxis of image.
Purpose: Blunt trauma can cause a wide range of ocular injuries. This study was performed to describe the prevalence of severe intraocular injuries (SIOI) and their correlation with the severity of blunt orbital trauma. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 117 eyes of 107 patients with orbital wall fractures who visited the emergency room at Konyang University Hospital from July 2006 to June 2008. Clinical features such as age, sex, causes of injury, revised trauma score (RTS), type of orbital wall fractures were recorded. The patients were divided into two groups: blowout fracture with severe intraocular injuries (SIOI) and blowout fracture without SIOI. We compared the clinical and the injury-related characteristics between two groups and analyzed the SIOS-related factors. Results: Among the 107 patients (117 eyes) with blowout fractures, 29 (27.1%) patients with 32 eyes (25.6%) had complicated severe intraocular injuries. Retrobulbar hemorrhage (14.5%), hyphema (13.7%), traumatic optic nerve injury (4.3%), and sustained loss of visual acuity (4.3%) were the most common SIOI disorders. A logistic regression analysis revealed that loss of visual acuity (odds ratio=4.75) and eyeball motility disorder (odds ratio=7.61) were significantly associated with SIOS. Conclusion: We suggest that blowout fracture patients with loss of visual acuity or eyeball motility disorder are mostly likely to have severe intraocular injuries, so they need an ophthalmologic evaluation immediately. (J Korean Soc Traumatol 2009;22:97-102)
Jae Hoon Shin(신재훈), Sung Gu Han Jin Kwon Jim Boo Wook Kim Joo Hwan hwang Jong Seong Lee Ji Hyun Lee JinEe Baek Tae Gyu Kim KeunSoo Kim Heon Sang Lee Nam Woong Song Kangho Ahn Il Je Yu) 대한직업환경의학회 2015 대한직업환경의학회 학술대회 논문집 Vol.2015 No.11
We investigated the effect of regular aerobic exercise on colon tumorigenesis associated with inflammatory factors, such as interleukin-1β(IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), monocyte chemoatractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), in azoxymethan/dextran sulfate sodium (AOM/DSS) -administrated mice. ICR mice (5 weeks o ld) were divided into three g roups of 10 animals each, consisting of a control group (CON), an AOM/DSS treatment group (AOM/DSS), and an AOM/DSS treatment plus exercise group (AOM/DSS+Ex). The AOM/DSS+Ex group performed five times per week, for a total of 45 minutes, at a speed of 20 m per minute, using a treadmill with a gradient of 5% for 12 weeks. To investigate the effects of regular aerobic exercises on inflammation and formation of colorectal cancer, we carried out colorectal histopathologic analysis, colon tumor number counting and tumor-related inflammatory cytokine analysis. The number of colon tumors in the AOM/DSS+Ex group was approximately 25% lower than in the AOM/DSS group, but no statistically significant. In colon weight and length, there was no significantly difference between AOM/DSS group and AOM/DSS+Ex group. On the other hand, there were significant reductions in tumor-related inflammatory cytokines, IL-6 and TNF-α(P<.05) between AOM/DSS group and AOM/DSS+Ex group, but not in IL-1β and MCP-1. In conclusion, this exercise protocol resulted in partial anti-inflammatory and -tumor effects. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out further studies by diverse exercise protocols to establish colon cancer prevention program.
조선 후기에 빈번하게 발생한 가장 대표적인 문제인 산송 문제는 조선시대에 성행한 음택풍수의 성행과 연관이 깊다. 특히 음택풍수의 성행은 조선왕실에서 풍수를 신뢰하고 왕릉의 遷葬에 활용된 정황을 통해 확인할 수 있다. 게다가 풍수지리학에 대한 유교적 친연성과 매장법의 성행으로 인해 음택풍수는 더욱 성행하게 되었다. 하지만 음택풍수는 조선 전기부터 지적되었듯이 음양오행설과 같은 유교에서 금기시하는 잡설과 합쳐져서 이념적으로나 사회적으로 문제시되기도 하였다. 특히 조선 후기에 성행한 산송의 발생과 사회적 문제로의 확장은 정약용과 같은 유교적 이념과 예법에 투철한 학자에게 있어 비판적인 대상이 되었다. 그 결과 정약용은 평소 『목민심서』와 『경세유표』 등에서 산송에 대한 문제를 꼬집어 비판했고 풍수지리학을 이단잡설 중 하나인 오학에 포함시켜 비난하였다. 또 『풍수집의』를 저술하여 유교적 매장법의 성행과 연관된 풍수지리학의 잘못된 적용에 대해 고증하여 학자적 면모를 보였다는 점에서 주목된다. 이 글은 이 같은 문제의식을 기반으로 하여 정약용이 살아간 18세기 후반부터 19세기 사이에 왕실에서의 풍수 신뢰 양상과 산송 사건이 확대 재생산되는 정황을 집중 분석해 보았다. 이후 정약용의 『풍수집의』를 집중 분석하여 그의 풍수지리학에 대한 인식과 견해를 살피고 산송 사건의 확대 재생산에 대한 그의 개혁안이 무엇인지를 살핌으로써 당대의 풍수지리학의 성행과 산송의 확대가 어떤 연관성을 갖고 있는지를 살펴보고자 한다. 이를 통해 음택풍수에 대한 조선 지식인의 인식이 어떠했으며 그로 인해 산송이 얼마나 확대 재생산되었는지를 살펴볼 것이다. Numerous court litigations over auspicious gravesite during the late Joseon dynasty is closely related to the practice of grave geomancy which were prevalent throughout Joseon period. Widely spread practice of grave geomancy is reflected in the fact that Joseon court officers and royal family accepted it, and moving royal tomb was based on the theory of it. Futhermore, grave geomancy became more popular because Confucianism have close affinity with geomancy and many people were obsessed with burying practice at that time. However, geomancy was criticized for its close relation with Yin-Yang and the Five Agents theory and miscellaneous doctrine. For example, Confucian scholar Chengyagyong, who is one of the rigorous Confucian thinkers and ritualists, criticize the practice of geomancy because it caused numerous court litigations and various kinds of social problems. In his works like Admonitions on Governing the People (Mokminsimseo in Korean) and Gyeongseyupyo, he points out problems of court litigations and criticizes geomancy by putting it into ‘five learning' (ohak in Korean), one of heretical doctrines. Also, he wrote Pungsujibue, which shows his historical research into wrong combination of prevalent Confucian burying practice and geomancy. This study addresses how royal family accepted the practice of geomancy and court litigations over auspicious gravesite happened and increased during late eighteenth century to nineteenth century. This study also analyzes Pungsujibue, his understanding on geomancy and his reform plan to solve social problems caused by conflicts over auspicious gravesite. This work enable to investigate the relationship between prevalent practice of geomancy and court litigations over auspicious gravesite during the late Joseon dynasty. The ultimate goal of this paper will be to investigate Joseon literati's understanding on geomancy and how court litigations over auspicious gravesite increased during late Joseon dynasty.
Chatter is caused by the dynamic instability of a machining system. Chatter causes a variety of economic damages, including reduction of tool life, and damage to the machine tools and workpieces. In this study, we propose a method for detecting chatter in head-tilting 5 - axis machine tools. A sensor attached to a fixed part is considered, located at a remote place from the spindle. This study aimed to detect chatter without any prior knowledge of the involved dynamic system, such as tools, machine tools and workpieces. First, the acceleration signal under various machining conditions was analyzed: no change was observed to interfere with the chatter detection. However, with chatter occurring, beating of the acceleration signal was confirmed by two or more adjacent frequency components, which could be the basis of a very good chatter detection approach. Finally, using this concept, a mode diagram was proposed for chatter detection.