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Objectives: This study was performed to assess the comorbidity and associated emotional and behavioral manifestations in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder(ADHD) subjects, and the parenting stress and sense of competence in their mothers. Method: To investigate the comorbid conditions of ADHD, 102 ADHD patients(82 males, 9.58±2.65) and their caregivers visiting outpatient clinic were interviewed using the Korean version of Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Present and Lifetime. The Korean-Child Behavior Checklist, Children`s Depression Inventory, and Revised Children`s Manifest Anxiety Scale(RCMAS) were used to measure the psychopathologies in the subjects. The Parenting Stress Index/Short form and Parenting Sense of Competence Scale were also applied to the caregivers of ADHD patients. Results: Eighty-four(82.4%) of ADHD subjects had comordid psychiatric disorders. Comorbid oppositional defiant disorder, anxiety disorders, tic disorders, and elimination disorders were accompanied with ADHD in 54.9%, 24.9%, 19.6%, and 12.7%, respectively. Mean scores of Social Problems, Total Behavior Problems, and RCMAS were significantly higher in comorbid ADHD group than pure ADHD group. Parents of ADHD patients with comorbidity reported higher parenting stress and lower parenting sense of competence. Conclusion: Majority of ADHD patients had comorbid psychiatric conditions, and more psychopathologies and related parenting complications were associated with comorbidity.
Loss of favorable habitats for species due to temperature increase is one of the main concerns of climate change on the ecosystem, and endangered species might be much more sensitive to such unfavorable changes. This study aimed to analyze the impact of future climate change on endangered wild animals in South Korea by investigating thermal sensitivity and vulnerability to temperature increase. We determined thermal sensitivity by testing normality in species distribution according to temperature. Then, we defined the vulnerability when the future temperature range of South Korea completely deviate from the current temperature range of species distribution. We identified 13 species with higher thermal sensitivity. Based on IPCC future scenarios RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5, the number of species vulnerable to future warming doubled from 3 under RCP4.5 to 7 under the RCP8.5 scenario. The species anticipated to be at risk under RCP 8.5 are flying squirrel (Pteromys volans aluco), ural owl (Pteromys volans aluco), black woodpecker (Dryocopus martius), tawny owl (Strix aluco), watercock (Gallicrex cinerea), schrenckʹs bittern (Ixobrychus eurhythmus), and fairy pitta (Pitta nympha). The other 10 species showing very narrow temperature ranges even without normal distributions and out of the future temperature range may also need to be treated as vulnerable species, considering the inevitable observation scarcity of such endangered species.
LPI fuel filter has a high reliability related component that has direct influence on performance, safety, and durability of engines. Even under mileage 10,000㎞, the current LPI fuel filters can lead to sudden engine stop, engine control problem, and engine stat problem. In oder to lower the chocking problem, an external type LPI fuel filter is developed for wider filtration area and increased collection volume. Because of the tight requirement of the reliability, various evaluation technologies are developed. The evaluation technologies include gas tight test, different pressure test, vibration test, filtration test, pressure test, static electricity test, fuel corrosion test, etc.
In this paper, we propose sliding mode velocity controller based on singular perturbation for induction motors to improve velocity tracking performance. By using singular perturbation theory, we design input voltage to ensure that the boundary-layer system is globally exponentially stable. The reduced-order model is obtained by using the quasi-steady state. Then, sliding mode velocity and flux control are proposed to improve velocity and flux tracking performance. Simulation results validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
This study examined the phenomenon that the main policy maker of tourism in China has shifted from the central government to local governments after the reform and opening. China"s tourism policy before the reform and opening had focused on formal guests such as political figures, and the central government was the main actor implementing tourism policy. However, China"s tourism policy maker has changed due to decentralization after the reform and opening. Each local government started to establish its own tourism policy in order to increase their tourism revenue. The competition among local governments became fierce, which made them an political actor against the central government in terms of tourism policy. As a result, Chinese tourism market expanded rapidly.
2017년 10월 개최된 제19차 중국공산당 전국대표대회에서 시진핑은 사이버 안보의 중요성을 피력하며, 사이버 강국을 향한 정보·통신기술의 발전을 집권 2기 우선순위로 삼았다. 실제 2018년 중국의 국가별 네트워크준비지수는 138개 국가 중 36위에 불과해, 중국이 인터넷 대국이지만, 사이버 강국이 아님을 만천하에 드러냈다. 그간 중국은 급속한 인터넷 발달에 맞물려 사이버공간의 내부 통제와 첩보활동에 방점을 두고 사이버 기술을 발전해온 결과, 국외로부터의 안보전략은 부재했다. 하지만 시진핑 집권 후 중국은 공세적인 도메인 확보와 자국 기술의 네트워크확산 정책을 펼침으로써, 전 세계 사이버 장악력 확대를 꾀하고 있다. 이런 배경에서 이 연구는 중국이 내부 인터넷 통제에서 외연을 확장해 사이버 안보에 천착하게 된 동인을 사이버 공간의 취약성 차원에서 규명했다. At the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China held in October 2017, Xi Jinping emphasized the importance of cyber security, presenting the advancement of information and communications technology as one of the priority policy tasks for his second term. Indeed, as of 2018, China ranked 36 out of 138 countries in the Network Readiness Index, and this demonstrates that although it is an Internet powerhouse, China is not as powerful as expected in terms of cyber security. In the meantime, the Chinese government has been developing cyber technologies focusing on cyberspace internal controls and espionage, along with the explosive growth and advancement of the Internet, but there has been no cyber strategy against external threats. Since President Xi took power, however, the country has been adopting aggressive policies to secure domains and spread networks based on its proprietary technologies, aiming to reinforce and expand its control over the cyber world across the globe. Ultimately, this paper examines what motivated the Chinese government to pursue an external extension from the internal controls of the Internet and to prioritize cyber security.