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In the beginning of the Korean modern literature since 1910's, Kim Eok played a crucial role as a translator for foreign literature and theory. During the acceptance of foreign literature, Kim realized the importance of translation and he is considered an intellectual who, as opposed to other contemporary translators, performed a bulk of translations from various countries. He was in the lead of balancing content and form, reforming he literary circles of translation in which there was abundance of arbitrary interpretations and content-concentrated translations. However, Kim Eok's translated works have been devalued by reason of erroneous and liberal translation of original works and inapt understanding. Researchers generally examine original and translated texts in tandem, after which they point out problems of the translations and attribute them to the translators' lack of capacity. The study of this paper presupposes that in-depth understanding of translated texts can be carried out only when the theory and practice of translation go in parallel. It argues that the negative evaluation for Kim's translations can be reconsidered through the study of theory. Kim argued for 'creative liberal translation,' and this paper investigates the formation and characteristics of this standpoint. This paper particularly looks into how symbolism, which Kim embraced, influenced Kim's view on translation. The acceptance of symbolism and the theory of translation are discussed in regard to the theory of translation maintained by Bejamin, a German literary critic who lived around the same time, in his book The Task of the Translator. The paper also examines Kim Eok's theory of translation in the sense that the act of translating foreign languages expands and deepens a mother tongue, which provides an opportunity to form and develop the self-identity. Kim's viewpoint on translation, which searches for the nature of poems, found modern poetic language for the Korean poetry, which was possible due to his exploration into language that represents this nature. Translating the western poems in the initial stage of modern literature implies admission and conveyance of heterogeneous culture, beyond simple written text, and creation of new culture. Kim Eok's translated works shows the creativity of cultural translation that is generated at the intersection of internal and external cultures. The literary world after 1920's, via translations, could realize the identity of modern literature by means of dialogue with others, i.e. dialogue between tradition and the West. Furthermore, it could have a foundation in creation of new culture. Along these lines of modern literature, Kim Eok's theory of translation presented ‘creative liberal translation' and ‘creative translation' as the task and direction for those who do the translation, including himself. It was an aspect of cultural action that Kim's theory evidently showed through translation.
Der koreanische Dichter Hyon-seung Kim bekennt sich zu einem erheblichen Einfluß Rilkes auf seine Weltanschauung, insbesondere wegen Rilkes ernsthafter Haltung gegenu¨ber Leben und Kunst. In diesem Zusammenhang steht Kim unter dem starken Einfluß von Rilkes fru¨hen Werken wie Das Stunden-Buch und Das Buch der Bilder. Diese Werke behandeln wichtige Themen, die auch bei Kim ihren Niederschlag finden, das heißt Gott, Einsamkeit und Dichtung. Die Haltung des lyrischen Ichs bei Kim ist der Geba¨rde des lyrischen Ichs in Das Stunden-Buch sehr a¨hnlich. Der russische Mo¨nch in Rilkes Werk spricht aufs Knie fallend vor Gott Gebete, malt Ikonen und schreibt daru¨ber hinaus Verse. Diese fromme Haltung pra¨gt auch die des lyrischen Ich bei Kim. Ferner besteht große A¨hnlichkeit zwischen beiden Dichtern darin, dass die beiden in ihrer fru¨hen Zeit durch Gebet, also aus der Sehnsucht nach Gott, Verse schaffen. Man kann niemals bei Kim von der Einsamkeit im Herbst als literarischer Kulisse sprechen, ohne sich as Rilkes 「Herbsttag」zu erinnem. Trotzdem konnte Kim abda¨mmend gegen Rilkes Einfluß seine eigene Welt dadurch bewahren, dass er an der ihm eigentu¨mlichen Einsamkeit festha¨lt. Sein literarischer Verdienst findet sich dort, wo er mit Hilfe der Dinge und Ausdru¨cke solider Art seine existentielle Einsamkeit zu einem reinen poetischen Thema hat reifen lassen. Kims fester Glaube an die reine Einsamkeit entsprang seit Mitte der 1960er Jahre aus dem Mißtrauen gegen die christliche Gottheit und die fro¨mmelnden Christen. Unter diesen Umsta¨nden hatte er keinen anderen Weg, als nur auf das selbsta¨ndige Ich angewiesen zu sein. Zugleich hat er, wie seine Gedichte 「Absolute Einsamkeit」 und 「Solide Einsamkeit」zeigen, seine Einsamkeit positiv verarbeitet und ihr so einen Sin gegebenletzten Endes zu einer Ewigkeit, anders als Rilke, der auf jeden Fall seine Einsamkeit nur als Vorraussetzung fu¨r das Dichten betrachtet hat. Gerade hier hebt sich die originelle Seite der Einsamkeit von Kim gegen Rilke ab. In Hinsicht der sprachlichen Behandlung grenzen Kims Gedichte der absoluten Einsamkeit an Rilkes Dinggedichte in Neue Gedichte . Dieses Resultat ergibt sich daher, dass Kim seine dichterische Sprache wie ein Steinmetz meißelt, so dass er seine bloße Idee mit den soliden Ausdru¨cken bekleidet. Und dass Kim auf der Suche nach poetisch solider Gestaltung immer wieder auf sprachliche Pra¨chtigkeit und gefu¨hlvolles Pathos verzichtet hat, also dass er nach der "Poetischen Nu¨chternheit" gestrebt hat, bringt ihn noch mehr in die Na¨ch von Rilkes Dinggedichten. Aber Kim kehrte endgu¨ltig zu dem christlichen zuru¨ck, nachdem er Bluthochdruck erlitten hatte. Nach diesem Zwischenfall bereute er, dass er bisher - Gott aus dem Blick verlierend - zu dichterisch geneigt war. Natu¨rlich kann man auch in der literarischen Phase, wo er nur die absolute Einsamkeit verfolgt hatte, eine grundlegende Haltung mit Pra¨gung durch das christliche Ethos finden, Dies bedeutet, dass zu ihm die Einsamkeit eine Art Religion war. Also war seine Einsamkeit ein Prozess des christlichen Selbsterwachens. Wenn man die Tatsache in Betracht zieht, dass fu¨r ihn der Prozess der Einsamkeit eine Forsetzung des Dichtens war, so scheint seine Einamkeit ihr eigenes literarisches Dasein gefu¨hrt, moderne menschliche Bedingungen untersucht, und dadurch fu¨hlten sie sich menschlich gesteigert.
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It is becoming significant for individuals to find their own individual identities, as the today's ongoing globalization has become much more complicated. A similar situation occurred when the British Empire influenced the world politically, economically, and culturally in the nineteenth century. In order to grasp human intrinsic identities, my thesis aims to use postcolonial theories to examine characters' identities in a nineteenth-century British novel, Kipling's Kim (1901). In Kipling's Kim, I examine Kim, an Irish boy who experiences racial identity confusion by living in British India. Kim's identity is ambiguous as his background is complicated: his parents are Irish, Kim was born in India, he was educated in a British school, and he participated in the Great Game. It would prove inadequate to try to see Kim's identity based on binary oppositions, as Kim's identity is neither British nor native Indian. Aside from simply being a person named Kim, Kim's identity consists of being someone who has cultural hybridity. Through the main character of Kim, Kipling suggests that a Brit who understands the local Indian culture and society, as Kim does, would govern India with ease. Overall, Kipling's Kim elaborates on why or how India should be governed by Britain and also seems to justify the British rule of India. In Kim, Kipling creates the main character of Kim, who has cultural hybridity and whose process of personal growth throughout the novel depicts Kipling's ideas on how to govern India easily. In order to justify British rule in India, Kipling also depicts how British-Indian society was developed by Britain, also through the character of Kim. Looking into characters' identities throughout nineteenth-century British novels helps modern readers who live in this complicated world to grasp human intrinsic identities.
The Theory of Dotong(道統) has reigned The understanding of Confucian history in Choseon Dynasty. Therefore, the existing studies of Kim Going-pil(金宏弼), an Confucian scholar in 15thcentury, has been strongly affected by the Theory of Dotong. This misunderstanding about Kim Going-pil was due to lack of critical apparatus. Recently there are some new researches interpreting the life of Kim Going-pil and his acadmic achivements in different way from the Theory of Dotong. This article is to summary existing studies and seek the way to overcome the Theory of Dotong for understanding Kim Going-pil. The existing studies about Kim Going-pil has called his thought as Moral Philosophy(道學) and called him as the progenitor of Moral Philosophy. However this view has caused the problem of subjectivity. Since the concept of Moral Philosophy had been existed before Kim Going-pil, and it can be interpreted in various ways. Therefore, this article would suggest that his thought should be interpreted in historical context of Moral Philosophy. 『SoHak(小學)』 is one of the most important subject to explain Kim Going-pil`s Moral Philosophy. The point is the difference between his 『SoHak』 and the 『SoHak』 before his study. 『SoHak』 had been emphasized as textbook for KwaGeo(科擧) and for children`s education. In opposition, Kim Going-pil`s 『SoHak』 had no relationship with KwaG대 and he studied 『SoHak』 for his lifetime. 『SoHak』 had so large part of Kim Going-pil`s study that most researches on him leaned toward 『SoHak』. In the result of those biased studies, Kim Going-pil has been seen that he only focused on moral training(修己) instead of governing(治人). But, this article insist of the view that 『SoHak』 and 『DaeHak(大學)』 were connected in his Moral Philosophy organizationally would be appropriate. Kim Going-pil`s personal relations are also useful way to understand his academic and political position in history of Chosun Dynasty. The relationship between Kim Going-pil and Kim Jong-jik(金宗直), his master, is very important part to understand Kim Going-pil. Most researches about them has focused on the differences rather than common ground between them. And the researches have insisted that those differences created conflict. But recent studies has revealed that the conflict between Kim Jong-jik and Kim Going-pil made progress in The Theory of Chulcheo(出處) which is core concept of Neo-Confucianism. Meanwhile, Jo Kwang-jo(趙光祖) has been regarded the only disciple of Kim Going-pil. Besides him, however, there were a few more literary men who had to be noticed. The researches on Kim Going-pil`s literary men are very insufficient. This paper would review advanced researches on Kim Going-pil`s life and studies, and suggest that follow-up studies find out the new meaning of Kim Going-pil in Confucian history of Chosun-Dynasty. 사에 대한 인식은 더욱 그러하며, 15세기 후반기에 활동한 金宏弼에 대한 인식 역시 마찬가지이다. 최근에 김굉필에 대한 역사학계의 연구가 진행되면서 도통론의 영향을 벗어날 수 있는 기초가 마련되었다. 그러나 그 연구의 양은 그리 많지 않다. 자료의 한계라는 근본적인 제약 때문이다. 이글에서는 김굉필에 대한 역사학계의 연구 성과를 정리하면서 그 제약을 넘어설 수 있는 방법을 모색하고자 했다. 김굉필을 연구한 거의 모든 글은 그의 학문을 道學이라고 부르며, 그가 도학을 처음으로 정립한 인물이라고 한다. 그러면서 도학 역시 성리학이라는 범주 속에 포함되며, 김굉필 이전에도 도학이라는 개념이 사용되었다는 사실도 인정한다. 이 문제를 해결하기 위해 이제까지는 주로 도학의 개념을 어떻게 정의할 것인가에 초점을 맞추어왔다. 그러나 먼저 도학의 개념을 규정하고, 이 개념에 맞추어 김굉필의 학문·사상을 이해하는 방법은 한계가 있다. 도학의 개념 규정이 주관적일 수 있는 위험이 항상 있기 때문이다. 이 보다는 15세기에 도학이라는 개념이 다양한 의미로 사용되었다는 사실, 그리고 그 개념이 역사적 변화를 겪었다는 사실을 살피는 것이 우선이다. 그리고 그 변화 속에서 김굉필의 도학을 살피는 것이 바람직해 보인다. 김굉필의 도학에 관한 설명에서 가장 중요하게 취급되는 내용이 『小學』공부이다. 그러나 『小學』을 중시한 것은 이미 성리학 도입 초기부터이다. 따라서 김굉필의 『소학』공부가 그 이전과 어떤 차이가 있는지를 밝혀야 한다. 기왕의 연구를 통해 김굉필 이전의 『소학』은 어린 아이들이 읽어야 하는 책으로, 혹은 과거 시험을 준비하기 위해 읽어야 하는 책으로 강조되었음이 밝혀졌다. 이에 반해 김굉필의 『소학』공부는 과거공부와는 아무런 관련이 없었고, 또 평생의 공부였다는 사실도 밝혀졌다. 그러나 김굉필의 『소학』공부가 그 이전과 다른 점이 이 정도에 그치지는 않는 것 같다. 그 차이를 밝혀나가는 것은 앞으로의 과제이다. 김굉필의 도학에서 『소학』공부가 차지하는 비중이 워낙 커다보니 대부분의 연구는 그 방면에만 관심을 집중하였다. 그 결과 김굉필은 성리학 공부의 두 가지 측면인 修己와 治人 가운데 수기에만 관심을 둔 것처럼 보였다. 그러나 최근 김굉필의 도학에서 『소학』과 『대학』이 유기적으로 연결되어 있다는 연구가 이루어져 그의 학문에 대한 새로운 이해를 기대할 수 있게 되었다. 김굉필에 대한 연구에서 빠지지 않고 거론되는 사실이 그의 스승인 金宗直과의 관계인데, 대부분의 연구는 그 두 사람의 공통점보다는 차이점에 주목한다. 그리하여 학문적 차이나 정치적 견해의 차이 때문에 결국 두 사람이 갈등을 겪게 되었다고 이해한다. 최근의 연구는 이 두 사람의 갈등 속에서 出處論이 정착되어가는 모습을 발견하고 있다. 출처론은 성리학의 이념체계 속에서 핵심적인 내용이다. 그러나 이제까지 이 이념에 대해 주목한 연구는 거의 없다. 성리학 도입 이후 출처론이 어떻게 받아들여졌고, 출처론의 전개 과정 속에서 김굉필의 출처론이 어떤 의미를 갖는지 살피는 것은 앞으로의 과제이다. 김굉필이 조선시대의 유학사에서 차지하는 위치를 설명하기 위해서는 그의 門人에게도 관심을 기울일 필요가 있다. 기왕의 연구는 그의 문인 가운데 趙光祖에게만 관심을 집중하였다. 그 외에 거론되는 문인으로는 김안국 정도를 들 수 있을 뿐이다. 그러나 실제 김굉필의 문인 가운데는 이들 이외에도 중요하게 취급되어야 할 인물들이 있었다. 그들에 대한 연구 역시 앞으로의 과제로 남아있다. 김굉필의 문인과 관련된 또 하나의 문제는 그의 문인으로 거론되는 인물들 가운데 師弟관계를 확인하기 힘든 인물이 있다는 점이다. 특히 김굉필 연구에서 중요한 자료로 취급되는 <寒氷戒>와 관련이 있는 潘佑亨이라는 문인은 자세한 검토가 필요한 인물이다.
본 연구의 목적은 상해 경험이 있는 무용수가 Kim's body conditioning program 후 무용동작 수행 시 무용수의 신체 움직임 느낌을 통해 프로그램의 효과를 규명하고자 하였다. 본 연구의 목적에 따라 연구대상자들은 2007년 ADF(America Dance Festival)에 참석한 무용수들 중 Kim's body conditioning program 수업에 참석한 60명 중 6주간 수업에 결석하지 않은 31명을 대상으로 설문조사를 실시하였다. 연구 대상자들의 평균 연령은 22.06(±1.590)이며, 무용경력은 3년 미만이 54.8%로, 3년 이상이 38.7%이다. 조사 설문 내용은 무용전문가 3명과 의학전문가 1명, 설문조사 전문가 1명 등 5명으로 구성되어 설문조사 문항을 위해 협의, 의논하여 문항들을 선택하였으며, 자료 분석 방법으로는 기술통계의 빈도분석과 X2 분석 방법이 사용되었으며, 분석결과는 다음과 같다. 첫째, 전체적인 움직임에 대해 Kim's body conditioning program 수행 후 무용동작 수행 시 보다 편안함을 느낄 수 있으며, 원활하게 움직일 수 있다는 것으로 응답하였다. 둘째, 무용의 기본 동작에 대해 기본 브러쉬(brush) 동작, 그랑 바뜨망(grands battements) 동작, 데벨로뻬 (develope) 동작, 쁠리에 (plie) 동작, 아라베스크(arabesque) 동작에서 움직임 수행 시 편안함을 느꼈으며, 관련된 근육들에 움직임에서 원활하게 움직일 수 있었다고 응답하였다. 셋째, 무용수들의 Kim's body conditioning program 평가에서 이 프로그램은 전체적인 근력 및 하지의 유연성을 강화할 수 있다고 응답하였으며, 무용 동작 수행 시 움직임에 도움을 줄 수 있는 것으로 무용수들에게 도움이 된다고 응답하였다. 또한 이 프로그램이 무용수들뿐만 아니라 비전공자들에게도 필요한 프로그램이 될 수 있다고 응답하였다. 그러나 무용 표현 기술적인 측면에서는 높은 동의를 얻지 못했다. 이와 같은 결론을 통해 Kim's body conditioning program이 상해를 가진 무용수들에게 재활의 프로그램 중 하나로 제시될 수 있다. The purpose of this study was investigating about previously injured dancers' execution of movements and comfortableness after Kim's body conditioning program. 31 participants joined the six weeks of ADF of the year 2007 after undergoing Kim's body conditioning program. Contents of research were examined by three dance expertise, one medical doctor, and one research expertise. Frequency of descriptive statistics and X2 were used to analyze the collected data. The results were as follows. First, the 31 participants answered they were comfortable executing their movements and greater control over their muscle movements after Kim" body conditioning program. Second, they responded that they could comfortably execute their basic movements then previous to participating in Kim's body conditioning program and move their muscles more readily. Third, after undergoing Kim's body conditioning program, the participants answered Kim's body conditioning program can improve muscular power, become more flexibleness and help execution of movements. In addition, Kim's body conditioning program can help people who are not dance major. Kim's body conditioning program, however, cannot improve executing difficult dance movements. In conclusion, Kim's body conditioning program could be a rehabilitation program for previously injured dancers.
Kim Su-yeon (1405-1455), who is from Naju, South Jeolla Province, made a contribution of Northern settlement during the reign of King Sejong. Kim Tak, a great-grandfather of Kim Su-yeon, retired to the countryside, in Naju due to the establishment of the new Joseon dynasty. There he began the Sijungtakpa branch of the Gimhae Kim clan. While Kim Su-yeon worked as a military officer in the early part of the reign of King Sejong, he took the alseongsi examination in military science in September 1434 (16th year of the Sejong era). He excelled in military arts and in the classics, finishing in first place, showing his dual capacity in literature and war. The scarlet certification, or hongpae (issued by royal edict to such qualifiers at the time), is still maintained by his descendants today. This material is extremely rare and carries immense significance. It also works as an aid in understanding the Gyeongguk Daejeon (Great Book of State Service), the tasks of old bureaucrats and royal seals and so forth. Immediately after passing, Kim was selected to be Choi Yun-deok's official of the army. In January of 1435 (17th year of Sejong's reign), 2,700 Jurchen cavalry soldiers invaded Yeoyeon fortress. Kim successfully defended the castle, subsequently led a squad of crack troops and successfully pursuing enemy forces without being caught in any ambushes. In 1438, while working under Kim Jong-seo in the 6 jin (outposts) area, Kim Su-yeon ruled over the Gyeong-heung area. In 1443, High General Kim Su-yeon won acclaim for meritorious deeds in the Battle of Bocheong Riverbanks (Bocheong-po) at Jongseong. In August 1455 (first year of Sejo), while in charge of frontier areas as a commanding general, Kim met his fate. As an adept student and capable officer, Kim Su-yeon readily passed the national examinations, going on to work in the North and Northeast, at the Sagun-Yukjin area(literally, “four counties, six outposts”). Kim, working with Choi Yun-deok and Kim Jong-seo, was instrumental in implementing King Sejong's plan for the settlement of the North. Further studies of their work and that of other officers and generals bureaucrats are hoped to yield yet more concrete details on the implementation of the Northern Settlement Campaign.
This article attempts to explore some autobiographical elements in the three novels written by Richard E. Kim: The Martyred (1964), The Innocent (1968), and Lost Names (1970). A diaspora writer, Kim finds his subject matter in the major historical events of Korea. In his first internationally acclaimed novel, Kim draws much on some incidents in his own personal and family history; its protagonist the Reverend Shin, for example, is modelled on his maternal grandfather, the Reverend Hak Bong Lee, who were not only persecuted but also executed by the North Korean Communists. Kim's active involvement with the Korean Army as a liaison officer during the Korean War, as well as the military coup detat led by General Park in 1961, provide material for his second novel. In the third novel, Kim borrows the characters, incidents and settings not only from his family history but Korean history as well. His own childhood experiences under the Japanese colonial occupation and the strong nationalist sentiments of his father, play a pivotal role in the third and last novel. At his best, however, Kim explores universal themes that are far beyond geographical as well as temporal limitations.
This study is to examine 'Modernity' shown in Kim Gyu-dong's poetics in the 1950s and to clarify its direction. Especially, starting from similarities between Kim Gyu-dong's poetics and Kim Gi-rim's early poetics, this paper considers how his desire worked for the world literature in his poetics. Kim Gyu-dong's poetics is very similar to Kim Gi-rim's early poetics composed in the middle and late 1930s, in that his poetics established directivity in terms of the Western modern literature, but there are some differences found between them. Thus, this paper attempted to consider how the differences composed his poetics, while ultimately investigating the planning of literary coteries of 'Hubangi (the second half of the year)' in the 1950s, who agonized over the Korean literature in the magnetic field of the world literature. In Kim Gyu-dong's poetics in the 1950s, the literature of 'Modern Times' and 'Modern Times' introduced the Western modern styles and modes, while the premodern literature became prominent with the poetic styles and modes oriental, lyrical and melodious. His poetics was ver similar to Kim Gi-rim's early poetics in such an aspect, but there was a large difference left between them that his poetics didn't introduce the enjoyment of literature, which Kim Gi-rim recognized, and its possibility of literature as well. Moreover, since it didn't introduce the possibility of embracing literature, Kim Gyu-dong's poetics could advance into the world literature as literature for a few intellectuals, rather than as the Korean literature in a specific historical context called the South Korean society right after the Korean War. Nevertheless, as the contemporary Korean literature he introduced within the world literature could not reject the specific historical context as well, it came to be confronted with limitations. In other words, he desired the Korean literature to be within the world literature, but due to such a desire, the characteristics of the Korean literature ended up being ignored in a specific circumstance like Korea in the 1950s. That is, the reason why his 'Modernity' went blank can be explained with the results of his inferior complex for the world literature unlike Kim Gi-rim's 'Modern Times' and his overwhelming desire to situate the Korean literature within the world literature. Furthermore, such a case as Kim Gyu-dong's shows one of the aspects of imagination for the Korean literature within the world literature, which modernists might have had right after the Korean War.
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Kim Yu-shin(596-673.A.D.) has been the main target of criticism since the late 19th century among many Korean common people, and even historians, in respect with the way he suceeded to be related by marriage with Kim Chunchu, who was a man of influenceable as grandson of a dethroned king. Kim Yu-shin enticed Kim Chunchu to have sexual relationship with one of his two sisters, Bohee and Munhee. Kim Yu-shin's original plan was to make the coulple of Kim Chunchu and Bohee, the older of two. But Kim Yu-shin had to replace Bohee with Munhee. So what happened to Bohee? One of the two aims in my these is this. Historical documents relating to it says (1) Bohee had an illness, (2) she was faced with an accident. Any document says what kind of an illness or accident she had. But I found the illness or accident was her monthky period by comparative study of the related documents. Kim Yu-shin found it out to make the other sister Munhee Kim Chunchu's air. His maneuvering suceeded, and Munhee becamed pregnant with Kim Chunchu's baby. But Kim Yu-shin was compelled to do another maneuver, because Kim Chunchu kept on evading the wedding with pregnant Munhee. Facing with an unexpected obstacle, Kim Yu-shin sent an ultimatum to Kim Chunchu. It was a threat to burn his sister to death by reason of her pre-marriage pregnancy without permission of his or his parents. But such a threat was a shrewd trick. Anyway Kim Yu-shin was about to fulfill the ritual of burning his sister in the open air at that time Sunduk, Princess and a successor to the throne was going on a picnic out of her palace. Kim Yu-shin's trick was brilliantly successful by Sunduk's command to Kim Chunchu to go quickly and save ‘your wife' fron the fire. Then where are the trick of the burning of a woman concieved by Kim Yu-shin at the stake from? This was my second aim in the these. I proved it resulted from the ritual of Pokmu(暴巫), which literally means forcing a shaman out to the blazing sun especially in midsummer. Such a Pokmu was often fulfilled to pray for rain to Heaven in pre-modern Eastern Asia. Eastern Asian people believed that Heaven drops rain on pity of the suffering shaman. Kim Yu-shin extraordinarilly filled his purpose by advantage of the ritural of Pokmu.
In North Korea, the cinema is method to teach the masses. Especially, Kim Il-Sung and Kim Jong-Il thought that the cinema was produced in a breeze. Because the cinema moved the majority of the masses to sympathize with the emotions. In 1970s, the Kim administration was stabilized therefore Kim Jong-Il made many concrete policies about the cinema. That is to say, the North Korean cinema was formalized by Kim Jong-Il`s instruction during that time. In 1973, Kim Jong-Il published 『On the Art of Cinema』, The book was a 332-page treatise on how to act, film, direct, edit and score a movie. Aimed at North Koreans, the book had its share of stupefying ideas but also some legitimate tenets and some beliefs that might be shared by a film critic. By constitution, North korea`s all movies was influenced by the book hence understanding the book was important. It made comprehending North Korean cinema possible. In 1970s, the juche ideology was organized well and constitutional law was made public at least. So Kim Jong-Il started effort for acquiring a position of successor earnestly. He developed the concept of the `Revolutionary View of the Leader` into a more theoretical and systemized form by presenting the `Theory of the Immortal(Socio)-Political Body`. It says the Suryong. Moreover he completed Kim Il Sungism. According to the book, Kim Jong-Il claimed that all movies in North Korea was produced by juche ideology inclusive of Suryong-non and Kim Il Sungism. Then the movies on the basis of the book had a few keynotes. There were the same subjects repeatedly, standardization, narration, excessive expressions. These problems brought on deterioration in quality of North Korean cinema.