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김가영 ( Ka Young Kim ), 차선아 ( Seon Ah Cha ), 김영운 ( Young Woon Kim ), 유효경 ( Hyo Kyeong Yu ), 임예지 ( Ye Jee Lim ), 류시영 ( Si Young You ), 김성경 ( Sung Kyoung Kim ), 김치홍 ( Chi Hong Kim ), 김훈교 ( Hoon Kyo Kim ) 대한결핵 및 호흡기학회 2012 Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases Vol.72 No.2
Cough syncope is characterized by the loss of consciousness occurring after vigorous coughings. There are approximately 90 reported cases of cough syncope within the medical literature. Most cases involving middle aged, overweight and chronic bronchitic male smokers. Although many studies have been published in the medical literature, the mechanism and pathophysiology for cough syncope has not been well established. Cough syncope is treated by correcting the underlying cause when identified, or by avoiding conditions that may cause the cough syncope. In addition, cough suppression modalities can also be used. We herein report 3 cases of cough syncope presenting in lung cancer patients.
이 글은 중국과 러시아 한인 동포사회에서 불리고 있는 아리랑계통 악곡의 전승양상을 살펴보기 위한 연구이다. 이를 위하여 현지에서 채록한 음원자료가 공간(公刊)된 신나라레코드 발행 「광복50주년기념 해외동포 아리랑」 CD음반에 수록된 악곡을 분석 · 고찰하였다. 그 결과 중국과 러시아 동포사회에서 불리는 아리랑계통의 악곡 중 몇몇 창작된 작품을 제외한 대부분의 아리랑은 오늘날 남한사회에 전승되는 아리랑들과 같은 계통의 악곡임을 확인하게 되었다. 제목이 다르고, 음계나 리듬에 변화가 가미되었으며, 가창자에 따라 개성적이거나 즉흥적인 변주를 다양하게 구사하지만, 주된 리듬형이나 선율형은 아리랑계통의 중요한 기존 악곡을 바탕으로 하고 있음을 알 수 있었다. 그 결과를 정리하면 다음 표와 같다. [표 본문 참조] 위 표에 의하여 해외 동포사회에 전승되는 아리랑 역시 <본조아리랑> · <구조아리랑> · <자진아라리(강원도아리랑)> · <정선아리랑> · <정선엮음아리랑> · <진도아리랑> · <밀양아리랑> · <해주아리랑>을 원곡으로 삼고 있으며, 대부분 악곡들이 이들 악곡의 변이형임을 알게 되었다. 이 같은 현상은 남한이나 북한에 전승되는 아리랑에서도 예외가 아니었다. 따라서 오늘날 한반도와 해외 동포사회에 전승되는 다양한 아리랑계통 노래 중 하나의 악곡으로서 음악적인 정체성을 지닌 악곡은 이들 악곡으로 보아도 좋을 듯하다. 추가한다면 경기명창들의 공연종목으로 불리는 <긴아리랑>을 첨가할 수 있을 것이다. 이 글을 통하여 해외 동포사회의 아리랑 전승양상 역시 한반도 내의 양상과 크게 다르지않음을 확인하게 되었다. 그러나 본 연구에 활용된 자료가 제한적이었으므로, 향후 자료를 보완한 후속 연구를 통하여 해외 동포사회의 아리랑계통 악곡에 대한 연구가 깊이를 더할 수 있게 되기를 바란다.
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This study was done to evaluate the effects of commonly-used hemostatic agents on bone regeneration Histopathological and radiographical examinations were done to determine the degree of bone healing. The dogs weighing average of 15kg, were used, and four surgical defects sized 1×1×1cm were created at the iliac crest. Surgicel, Amicar and Beriplast were placed in each three surgical defects. The animals were sacrificed at 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks after operation. Results obtained were as follows: 1. At 2 weeks, every operation site showed a radiopacity only slightly less than that of normal unaffected bone, and the site that contained Amicar had lowest radiopacity among the experimental groups. 2. At 4-8 weeks, radiopacity in every experimental group was similar to that of normal bone. 3. At 2 weeks, there was no evidence of remnant hemostatic agents through the absorption process in histopathological finding. 4. At 4-8 weeks, there was no difference in histopathological finding among the groups. Bone healing was good in every experimental group. In Beriplast group, bone healing was slightly faster than others. These results suggest that three hemostatic agents have no differnece in affecting the progression of healing the bony defects when compare to control group.
Full adders are important components in applications such as digital signal processors and microprocessors. Thus It is important to improve the power dissipation and operating speed for designing a full adder. We propose a high speed full adder with modified version of conventional ratioed logic and pass transistor logic. The proposed adder has the advantages over the conventional CMOS, TGA, 14T logic. The delay time is improved by 13% comparing to the average value and PDP(Power Delay Product) is improved by 9% comparing to the average value. The physical design has been evaluated using HSPICE.
This study has examined the effect of social support of housewife participants in aerobics on stress and mental health and emphasized the life sport importance for housewives and provided the basic data in useful leisure activities so that it could form the salutary leisure culture for housewives. Also, the subject of this study is aimed at housewives participants in aerobics. Housewife members of sports center have been set as a universe in C, A city, Chungcheong Province in December, 2009 at the moment and 500 sampling subjects have been extracted by random sampling; available 471 sheets have been processed utilizing SPSS 17.0 analyzing program according to the purpose of data analysis. The specific analyzed data and the conclusion are as follows. First, regarding the effect of social support of housewife participants in aerobics on stress, emotional, evaluative and material support have a meaningful effect on a sleeping disorder, and emotional, evaluative and belonging support have meaningful influence on stability. In addition, emotional and evaluative support has a meaningful impact on anxiety. Second, as for the effect of social support of housewife participants in aerobics on mental health, emotional, evaluative and belonging support meaningfully affect somatization and hostility, and evaluative, material and belonging support have a meaningful effect on depression and psychotic disorder. Besides, evaluative and belonging support have meaningful influence on interpersonal sensitivity, and material and belonging support have a meaningful impact on anxiety.
Dangeum is a kind of singing practice conducted at Seodang, a private Chinese text teaching institute, for young children as a way of memorizing the Chinese texts. This paper examines the possibility of recognizing “Dangeum” as children songs. To this end, five veteran scholars of Chinese literature trained in a traditional way have been interviewed to record their singing voice of Dangeum. The sound is transcribed into scores and analyzed and what were talked at the interviews are outlined in the paper. Below are the facts found from the study. 1. The tempo of Dangeum is irregular. 2. Regarding the text setting, most part of a song was done in syllabic style and neumatic style was adopted to a small degree. But melismatic style was rarely found in a song, so the overall impression of the song is more like a children song in a simple rhythmic structure. 3. Mostly, Dangeum is in pentatonic scale with the authentic Sol-mode or the plagal Do-mode. 4. The range is within an octave. 5. In most cases, the melody progresses in a ascending direction gradually. The melodic progression to the tone a fourth above exceptionally appears a few times. 6. The cadential form differs on the mode of music. For Dangeum in authentic mode, the melody descends gradually and ends in the lowest tone as a cadential tone. For Dangeum in plagal mode, the cadential tone is higher than the lowest tone, thus the melody ends in ascending direction. As stated above, the Dangeum shows simplicity in its musical style. It is non-professional music and reveals strong individual characteristics upon performers but still used to be a universal cultural aspect in traditional society. Though the fact that the Chinese text was used for Dangeum as its lyrics is much different other traditional children songs, Dangeum was sung, like other children songs, mostly by the children around 10 years as a way of memorizing the Chinese texts for educational purpose. In this regard, it is quite possible to view the Dangeum as a kind of children song in traditional society.
This study has examined the effect of hockey player`s self-management on confidence and performance so that it can awake the importance of hockey player`s self-management and ultimately improve confidence and overall performance so that it can awake the importance of self-management. For this purpose, 250 hockey players who have registered to Korea Amateur Sports Association in 2010 at present have been chosen as a universe by random sampling method. Available data of 237 subjects on the relation between self-confidence and performance has been analyzed utilizing SPSS 14.0 program and the results are as follows. First, considering the effect of hockey player`s self-management on confidence, mental management, discipline management, interpersonal management and body care have a meaningful effect on ability proof, and mental management, discipline management and body care have a meaningful effect on social support. In addition, interpersonal management and body care have meaningful impact on coach quality, and mental management, discipline management and body care have meaningful influence on mental and physical preparation. Second, as to the effect of hockey player`s self-management on performance, mental management and discipline management have a meaningful effect on the sub-factors of performance, the will to win and the ability display.
이 논문은 한민족의 아리랑계 악곡과 그 전승과정을 이해하기 위한 작업의 하나이다. 필자는 이미 남한에 전승되는 각종 아리랑 악곡을 분석한 바 있으며, 최근 북한의 신문ㆍ잡지에 실린 아리랑 관련 저술물을 통하여 북한 사회의 아리랑에 대한 인식을 살펴본 바 있다. 이 글은 그 후속작업의 하나로 북한의 녹음자료와 악보를 분석하여 북한지역 아리랑에 대한 이해를 높이기 위하여 쓴 글이다. 이 연구의 결과로 북한에서 다양한 곡명으로 불리는 아리랑계 악곡이 남한의 어느 곡과 같은 곡인지를 알게 되었다. 이를 정리하면 다음과 같다. <표 본문참조> 이 연구를 통하여 강원도지방의 향토민요인 <엮음아라리>와 <자진아라리>는 남북 사이에 차이점을 발견하기 어려웠으며, 북한 지역에서도 동부 산악지역에 주로 분포하고 있음을 알게 되었다. 또한 남한에서 경기명창들에 의하여 통속민요로 불리는 노래들은 북한에서는 북한식의 독특한 창법으로 노래하며, 반주는 양악기나 개량된 전통악기 또는 이들의 배합편성으로 편곡하여 연주하였다. 현재 남북 사이의 정치적 관계 때문에 북한의 자료를 충분히 구하기는 어렵다. 따라서 이 글이 지니고 있는 한계는 향후 충분한 자료가 확보된 연후에 보완될 수 있을 것이다. This paper is part of works to understand the music and transmittion of Arirang of Korean people. I have already analyzed diverse pieces of Arirang preserved in Sourth Korea. I also have reviewed, in my recent study, newspaper or magazine articles of North Korea on Arirang to find their understanding and way of recognition about Arirang. Continuing from these works, I have analyzed in this paper recordings and notations of Arirang in North Korea to further enhance our understanding of Arirang in North Korea. It was found from this research that which piece of songs grouped as Arirang in North Korea is identical to which piece of Arirang in South Korea. The result is summarized as below. <표 본문참조> Little difference is traced in the indigenous folk songs of <Yeokeum Arari> and <Jajin Arari> between South and North Korea. The songs are mainly found in eastern mountain region in North Korea as well as in South Korea. Popular folk songs performed by professional singers of Gyeonggi folk songs are usually sung by the North-Korean singers with the singing style unique to North Korea. Accompanying music is produced with western instruments only or traditional instruments only or combination of both western and traditional instruments. It is true that research source of North Korea is not readily available due to current political situation of South and North Korea. Therefore, this study will finally be completed only when further research is possible with sufficient material from North Korea.
This paper is concerned with comparative exploration into musical characteristics between Korean and Chinese farming songs. Several districts of Anhui and Hubei province in China had been visited, and among approximately 200 rice farming songs, typical ones of each area were selected and analyzed, through which the musical characteristics of Chinese farming songs were able to be elicited. The fruits derived from this process were compared with those of Korean farming songs, whose musical characteristics could be referred to previous researches. Some important comparison points in order to reach conclusions are range and register which are related to pitch, mode related to tonal system and cadence, rhythmic structure in relation to tempo and meter, singing style, accompanied instruments, and so on. The similarities of farming songs between China and Korea are tonal system, range, singing style, and usage of instruments, whereas the differences are register and rhythmic structure. There could be a couple of route for the explanation of this phenomenon. One is an elucidation based upon the universality and spontaneity in working song style in connection with agricultural production, the other is what is based on cultural diffusion. The similar singing style between them and common existence of a leading singer with drum could be a phenomenon of autogenesis as a consequence of laborious group working, thereby it can be argued that resemblances in tonal system and range between the two are regarded as musical universality as far as working song is concerned. However, it seems that the words like "i-hu-hu-hu-hu" in ending part need to be studied more from the viewpoint of cultural diffusion. In particular, the rhythmic structure of most Korean farming songs is related to triple meter, when all the Chinese songs are based on binary meter. In addition, Chinese songs have a tendency to use high register, when Korean songs use relatively low ones. These are the most distinctive features between Korean and Chinese farming songs.