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본 연구는 학교를 교과 생성의 장으로 보고 이 맥락에서 학교가 교과 생성 연구의 중심이 될 수 있는지 그 가능성을 탐색해보았다. 즉, 초등학교 교육과정을 구성하는 요소가 교과이고, 학교를 교과교육의 장이라고 보면, 학교는 교과의 생성 여부에 영향을 미치는 하나의 원천이 될 수 있다는 주장을 하였다. 연구 결과, 학교를 교과 적용·실천의 장일뿐만 아니라, 교과 생성의 장으로 인식할 수 있음을 확인하였다. 이를 위해서 두 가지 접근을 하였는데, 첫째, subject 개념을 어원 분석하여 subject를 둘러싼 주권자와 복종자가 끊임없이 전복한다는 특성을 도출하였다. 이는 곧 subject의 생성권이 있는 주권자로서의 국가와 subject를 수용하는 복종자로서의 학교가 서로 전복될 수 있다는 의미 확장이 가능하며, 따라서 학교가 subject의 주권자로서 역할을 할 수 있다는 점을 시사한다. 둘째, subject의 주권자로서 학교 중심의 교과 생성 연구란 구체적으로 어떤 모습인지를 알아보기 위해서 학교 수준의 교과 생성 연구로 볼 만한 사례를 제시함으로써 그 가능성을 예시하였다. This study explores the possibility of forming the subject matter in schools. It is based on the assumption that schools play a central role in creating and organizing the subject matter. This requires a change of perception; traditionally, schools have been viewed as places to apply or practice subjects, not to create them. In this paper, the term subject is analyzed etymologically to broaden the definition of the term. This etymological study indicates that the sovereign (subjectum) and submissive persons (subjectus) constantly change positions regarding the subject. Extended to a nation and to schools, this implies that schools can play a role as sovereigns (subjectum) in the subject. This leads to a new field of research: the study of subject matter at schools. This study practically demonstrates the potential of this field by presenting a case study on the study of subject matter in schools.
While the rapid progress is made in the dynamics of an offshore floating body placed in an ocean environment, we aimed to simulate ocean waves in a small-size wave flume and observe the motion of a cylindrical floating body placed in an offshore environment. In order to generate regular ocean waves in a wave flume, we combined a wave generator and a wave absorber. In addition, to precisely visualize the oscillation of the body, a set of light-emitting diode illuminators and a high-speed charge-coupled device camera were installed in the flume. The wave generator and absorbers worked well to simulate stable regular waves. In addition, the simulated waves agreed well with the plane waves predicted by shallow-water theory. As the period of the oncoming waves changed, the movement of the floating body was substantially different when tethered to a tension-leg mooring cable.
이 글은 사도세자 묘우 건립과 관련된 건축도면인 「景慕宮舊廟圖」에 대한 성격과 가치를 밝힌 것이다. 1762년 임오화변으로 훙서한 사도세자에 대하여 영조는 왕세자의 지위를 회복시키고 왕실의 禮法에 따라 사도세자의 墓所와 廟宇를 조성했다. 1764년 都城 북부 순화방에 간소하게 지으라는 영조의 명령에 따라 思悼廟가 완공되었다. 그러나 영조는 지나치게 사치스럽다며 철거하고 새로운 장소로 移建할 것을 지시했다. 그래서 1/3 가량 축소된 규모로 동부 숭교방에 다시 묘우가 건립되었고, 이에 영조는 ‘垂恩'이라는 廟號를 내려주었다. 「경모궁구묘도」는 사도세자 묘우 건립 과정 중에 제작된 건축도면으로, 사도묘의 평면배치도이자 수은묘의 이건 계획도이다. 건축 계획과 시공 단계에서 그려진 조선시대의 건축도면은 현존하지 않고, 다만 완성된 배치도 위주의 도면만 의궤에 수록되었을 뿐이다. 이런 점을 감안하면 「경모궁구묘도」는 현존하는 가장 이른 시기에 제작된 건축도면이다. 더욱이 왕이 친필로 지시 사항을 직접 표기한 희귀한 유물이어서 문화재 가치가 매우 높다. 또한 「경모궁구묘도」는 철거된 사도묘의 전체 규모와 배치를 알 수 있는 유일한 자료라고 할 수 있다. 「경모궁구묘도」에 의해 축소 이건된 수은묘는 정조가 즉위하자 대폭 확장되는 방향으로 개건되었다. 정조는 즉위와 동시에 사도세자의 시호를 추상했고 垂恩廟의 묘호를 景慕宮으로 垂恩墓를 永祐園으로 격상시켰다. 1776년 5월 시작된 개건 공사는 9월 말에 이르러 완공되었고 정조는 친히 ‘景慕宮'이라는 사액현판을 내렸다. 개건된 경모궁의 규모는 사도묘나 수은묘와는 비교도 안될 만큼 확장되었고, 수은묘에 비해 무려 3배가 넘는 규모를 자랑했다. 경모궁 개건 관련 도면으로는 1776년 『景慕宮改建都監儀軌』에 실린 「景慕宮改建圖」, 1784년 『景慕宮儀軌』에 수록된 「本宮全圖說」, 1785년 『宮園儀』에 수록된 「景慕宮圖說」 등이 있다. 「경모궁구묘도」의 등장으로 조선후기 건립된 사도세자 묘우는 「경모궁구묘도」 → 「수은묘도」 → 「경모궁개건도」 → 「본궁전도설」 → 「경모궁도설」 순으로 건물의 배치와 규모 등 전체적인 조망이 가능하게 되었다. 따라서 「경모궁구묘도」는 왕실관련 영건사업에 대한 전통 건축도면 연구의 획기적인 유물로 평가된다. This study is focused on the historical value and characteristic features of The Layout of Crown Prince Sado's Shrine Redrawn by King Yeongjo (英祖) by Hand in 1764 (Gyeongmogung-gumyodo, 景慕宮舊廟圖) which is known to have been the earliest draft of the shrine built to honor Crown Prince Sado. The heir apparent to the throne of the Joseon Dynasty after King Yeongjo, Crown Prince Sado (思悼世子) had to face a tragic untimely death in the Disaster of 1762. After his death, King Yeongjo ordered restoration of the prince's honor and status and established his tomb and shrine according to the tradition of the dynasty. The shrine, Sadomyo (Shrine of Regret, 思悼廟), began to be built according to the king's instruction that it should be simple enough and completed in 1764 at a northern area of the dynasty's capital but. King Yeongjo found, however, that the shrine was too sumptuous, and ordered the shrine to be demolished and a new shrine to be built at a new place. The second shrine was erected to be one third of the first in size and located at the eastern part of the capital. The king named the second shrine Sueunmyo (垂恩廟), that is, “Shrine of Grace Bestowal”. This drawing titled Gyeongmogung-gumyodo is the known to have been the earliest plan made for the construction of the shrine. Joseon left no drawings made during the stage of planning an architectural work, although drawings of the layout of completed buildings were sometimes included in the royal protocols (Uigwe) which tended to be published after completion of important state or royal projects. That explains how the drawing is also the earliest remaining work of its kind. The drawing is regarded as very rare in that it contains the king's handwritten directions, adding extra historical and academic value to it. The drawing is, in fact, the only material remaining to show the entire dimension and layout of the shrine.
Because of the rapid progress toward understanding the dynamics of an offshore floating body in an ocean environment, we aimed to simulate ocean waves in a small-size wave flume and observe the motion of a cylindrical floating body placed in an offshore environment. To generate regular ocean waves in a wave flume, we combined a wave generator and a wave absorber. In addition, to precisely visualize the oscillation of the body, a set of light-emitting diode illuminators and a high-speed charge-coupled device camera were installed in the flume. The wave generator and absorbers worked well to simulate stable regular waves. In addition, the simulated waves agreed well with the plane waves predicted by shallow-water theory. As the period of the oncoming waves changed, the movement of the floating body was substantially different when tethered to a tension-leg mooring cable.
Management of indoor air quality of underground subway station is an important issue. The air handling unit (AHU) installed in the underground subway station is the main facility determining the air quality of station. Especially for removing particulate matters, it is important to operate the appropriate air filter. However, there is no quantitative test method for existing air filter in site. It is rarely known that the collection efficiency of air filter can satisfy the designed criteria or not. In this study, we surveyed the particle removal systems and we set the reference method using the mini-volume air sampler inside the AHU to evaluate the collection efficiency of different types of air filters. In addition, we applied the portable instrument based on the light-scattering method to the efficiency test. The method we applied in this study can be used in the evaluation of air filter in site.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the students' experience of job searching and to closely understand the meaning which they impose to their experiences. Methods: This study was performed with the students from the Tax & Accounting Department at H institute, a woman's University which have been promoting job hunting activities and investigated to their students to provide related information. Participants were classified into 14 teams. From these teams, data were collected using a focus groups interviews. Data were analyzed with a Giorgi's phenomenological method. Results: The analysis yielded to 5 categories: Devotion and satisfaction; enthusiasm and limitation; experience and discovery; the joy of learning; and regret and resolution. Conclusion: Two interesting facts were identified. First, the participants who were in the process of job hunting learned that various jobs exited, which respectively have merits and de-merits. Second, the participants experienced difficulty when working together as a team, but at the same time felt sense of accomplishment in the process of carrying out their roles as team members.
Purpose: This study researched into the members" perception of hospital organizational culture from the viewpoint of an outsider having a comparatively objective stance. For this study, the question, "What do the members of N hospital perceive their organization to be and what do they think the organization should be?", was taken as the key issue. Methods: Ethnography was taken to explore the members" behaviour and interaction through their perception. In this study 18 people were individually interviewed, who were the key human resources of the hospital organization such as doctor and nurse, for 6 months. Results: The result finally showed the organizational culture of N hospital as expressed in the following 5 categories: "take a peep at the field"; "the first choice"; "medical personnel"s narrative"; "the management of the structure"; "perception and perspective". Conclusion: Firstly, the employees of the hospital found expectation of the desirable organization in which they grow, having meaningful enthusiasm. Secondly, the members of the hospital were sympathetic towards the necessity of appropriate complementing institution or system. Thirdly, the employees of the hospital need autonomous organizational culture based on their trust.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine correlations between nurses' self-leadership and individual work role performance and correlations between self-leadership in nursing units and team members' work role performance. Methods: Participants were 202 conveniently selected general nurses from 5 general hospitals in Korea. The study was carried out on 35 nursing units. Data were collected during February 2015 with self-report questionnaires. Results: For factors affecting individual work role performance, self-expectation, selfgoal setting, constructive thought, clinical career in the present nursing unit and marital status accounted for 44.0% of proficiency, while self-expectation, self-goal setting, constructive thought, and marital status accounted for 42.3% of adaptivity. Self-expectation, self-goal setting, constructive thought, self-reward, clinical career in the present nursing unit and position accounted for 26.4% of proactivity. In terms of team members' work role performance, self-reward and self-expectation in nursing units explained 29.0% of team members' proficiency. Self-reward and self-expectation in nursing units explained 31.6% of team members' adaptivity, and self-reward in nursing units explained 16.8% of team members' proactivity. Conclusion: The results confirm that nurses' self-leadership affects not only individual self-leadership but also team members' work role performance. Accordingly, to improve nurses' work role performance in nursing units of nursing organizations, improvement in nursing environment based on self-leadership education is necessary and nurses' tasks rearranged so they can appreciate work-autonomy and challenges of work.
In this paper the performance of a array invariant method is evaluated for source-range estimation in horizontally stratified shallow water ocean waveguide. The method has advantage of little computationally effort over existing source-localization methods, such as matched field processing or the waveguide invariant and array gain is fully exploited. And, no knowledge of the environment is required except that the received field should not be dominated by purely interference. This simple and instantaneous method is applied to simulated acoustic propagation filed for testing range estimation performance. The result of range estimation according to the SNR for the underwater impulsive source with broadband spectrum is demonstrated. The spatial smoothing method is applied to suppress the effect of mutipath propagation by high frequency signal. The result of performance test for range estimation shows that the error rate is within 20% at the SNR above 10㏈.