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An incremental kernel principal component analysis (IKPCA) is proposed for the nonlinear feature extraction from the data. The problem of batch kernel principal component analysis (KPCA) is that the computation becomes prohibitive when the data set is large. Another problem is that, in order to update the eigenvectors with another data, the whole eigenspace should be recomputed. IKPCA overcomes these problems by incrementally computing eigenspace model and empirical kernel map The IKPCA is more efficient in memory requirement than a batch KPCA and can be easily improved by re-learning the data. In our experiments we show that IKPCA is comparable in performance to a batch KPCA for the feature extraction and classification problem on nonlinear data set. 본 논문에서는 학습 자료로부터 비선형 특징추출과 분류를 위한 점진적인 커널 주성분 분석 방법(IKPCA)을 제안한다. 일괄처리 방식의 커널 주성분 분석 방법은 학습 자료의 크기가 클 경우 과도한 계산량이 문제가 된다. 또한 새로 추가 되는 학습 자료가 있을 경우 고유벡터를 계산하기 위해 고유공간 전체를 다시 계산해야 하는 문제점이 있다. IKPCA는 이러한 문제점들을 고유공간 모델의 점진적인 계산과 경험 커널사상에 의해 해결하였다. IKPCA는 일괄처리방식의 커널 주성분 분석에 비해 기억공간 요구량에 있어 효율적이며 학습 자료의 재학습에 의해 성능을 쉽게 향상시킬 수 있다. 비선형 자료에 대한 실험을 통해 IKPCA는 일괄처리방식의 커널 주성분 분석 방법에 비해 특징추출과 분류 문제의 성능에 있어 유사한 결과를 나타내었다.
Ventriculoperitoneal(V-P) shunt has been used as a popular method for surgical treatment of hydrocephalus. But complications such as infection, mechanical obstruction and failure of flow rate sometimes make painful stress to neurosurgeons and patients. Of particular, migration of distal V-P shunt catheter to extraperitoneal space has rarely been reported. Even rarer is intracardiac migration of distal V-P shunt catheter. Authors report a such case and discuss the possible mechanism and preventive method.
본 논문에서는 단백질 분자로부터 표면 원자를 효율적으로 발견하는 알고리즘을 제안한다. 표면 원자란, 주어진 probe solvent $P$가 단백질 분자와 충돌하지 않고 접한다고 가정할 때, $P$와 접할 수 있는 원자의 집합을 의미한다. 단백질 분자를 구성하는 원자들은 반데르바스 반경을 갖는 구의 집합으로 표현되며, probe solvent 역시 구로 대응된다. $P$의 반경에 대해 분자의 오프셋 곡면을 구하여 표면 원자를 발견하는 알고리즘을 제안한다. 제안된 알고리즘은 각 구의 오프셋 곡면에 대해 복셀 맵(voxel map)을 구성하여 효율적으로 분자의 오프셋 곡면을 구하며, GPU (graphic processor unit)를 활용한 병렬처리를 수행하여 최대 6,412개의 원자를 갖는 분자에 대해 42.87 millisecond 내에 표면 원자를 발견한다. In this paper, we propose an efficient method to extract surface atoms from a protein molecule. Surface atoms are defined as a set of atoms who can contact given probe solvent $P$, where $P$ does not collide with the molecule. The atoms contained in the molecule are represented as a set of spheres with van der Waals radii. The probe solvent also is represented as a sphere. We propose a method to extract the surface atoms by computing the offset surface of the molecule with respect to the radius of $P$. For efficient computation of the offset surface of a molecule, a voxel map is constructed for the offset surfaces of the spheres. Based on GPU (graphic processor unit) acceleration, a data parallel algorithm is used to extract the surface atoms in 42.87 milliseconds for the molecule containing up to 6,412 atoms.
Objectives : The mortality rate of subarachnoid hemorrhage(SAH) has been reduced recently due to refinement of microsurgical technique and improved perioperative management. Also, many survivors of SAH show excellent neurological recoveries. However, we found that a high proportion of the survivors do not fully regain their premorbid status in cognitive and memory function. Object of this study is to evaluate which factors might influence on cognitive and memory impairment in ruptured aneurysmal SAH patients. Methods : In this prospective study, a series of 66 patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage(SAH) from 1996 to 1998, most of whom had a "good" or "fair" neurological outcome, were assessed with various tests of cognition and memory function. All patients underwent clipping operation by pterional approach. Right side approach was performed in 16 case and left 21 cases. K-WAIS(Korean-Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale) was used as method of cognition and memory function test. The time interval between SAH and assessment varied between 4 months and 8 months, averaging 6.2 months. Statistical analyses were carried out for each test score to see whether aneurysm site(A-com : non A-com), route of approach, age and sex, vasospasm, Hunt-Hess grade and Fisher CT group at admission, Glasgow Outcome Scale(GOS) at discharge affect cognitive and memory function. Results : Aneurysm site was not shown to be associated with performance on any test, and the initial grade (Hunt-Hess grade, Fisher CT group) of SAH and vasospasm had only minimal predictive values. The grade at discharge( GOS) was proved to be the best predictor of impairment of cognition and memory function within 1 year after operation. Conclusion : The authors conclude that the diffuse effects of SAH are more important than focal neuropathology in relation to cognitive impairment in this group of patients.
본 연구에서는 실제 환경에 적용 가능한 지능형 자율 이동 방법을 개발하기 위해 위치정보를 사용하지 않고 지도 작성이 가능한 지능형 이동 알고리즘을 제안한다. 제안한 알고리즘은 온라인으로 동작하면서 위치 정보를 사용하지 않고 지도 작성이 가능 할 뿐 아니라 현실 세계에 적용 가능하기 위해 많은 계산량을 요구하지도 않는다. 이는 이동 로봇의 실세계 주행과 같은 대용량의 이미지 처리가 필요한 경우에는 매우 유용하게 사용될 수 있다. 토이 자료와 대용량 자료에 대해 제안한 알고리즘을 적용한 결과 기존의 방법에 비해 적은 메모리와 새로운 입력에 대해 고유공간을 새로 계산하지 않아도 되어 로봇의 현실세계의 주행에도 문제가 없는 것으로 판단되었다. In this paper we propose an intelligent navigation algorithm for real world problem which can build a map without localization. Proposed algorithm operates online and furthermore does not require many memories for applying real world problem. After applying proposed algorithm to toy and huge data set, it does not require to calculate a whole eigenspace and need less memory compared to existing algorithm. Thus we can obtain that proposed algorithm is suitable for real world mobile navigation algorithm.
고차원 자료를 효율적으로 처리하기 위해서는 특징 추출 기법이 필요하다. 주성분분석 방법은 대표적인 특징추출 방법이지만 학습 자료의 차원이 큰 경우에는 고유공간을 계산하기 위해 많은 기억공간과 계산량을 필요로 한다. 본 논문에서는 고차원 자료의 특징 추출을 위해 점진적인 주성분분석 방법을 사용한다. 제안한 방법에 대해 신경망에서 점진적인 주성분분석을 하는 대표적인 방법인 APEX모델과 실험을 통해 비교해 본 결과 제안된 방법이 APEX 모델 보다 성능이 우수함을 나타내었다. High dimensional data requires efficient feature extraction techliques. Though PCA(Principal Component Analysis) is a famous feature extraction method it requires huge memory space and computational cost is high. In this paper we use incremental PCA for feature extraction on high dimensional data. Through experiment we show that proposed method is superior to APEX model.
Smads are signal transducers for the members of TGF-beta superfamily. Understanding the function of Smads in tumor cells is of paramount importance, since most tumors with defects in TGF-beta signaling still have functional components of Smads pathways that may play critical roles in determining the malignant phenotypes. Of these Smads, Smad4 is essential for TGF-beta signaling. The purpose of this study was to elucidate TGF-beta 1 and Smad4 protein expression in human astrocytomas and its pathological significance by using immunohistochemical technique. A total 54 astrocytomas among the patients who underwent operation at Pusan National University Hospital between Jan., 1996 and Dec., 2001 were included in the study. Histologically the tumors were graded as three groups according to the WHO grading system and 15 cases were in grade II(low grade astrocytoma), 19 cases in grade III(anaplastic astrocytoma) and 20 cases in grade IV(glioblastoma multiforme). As a result, TGF-￥a1 expression tended to increase with increasing grade of malignancy. Expression of Smad4 was higher in grade II astrocytoma than grade IV astrocytoma. The univariate analysis showed that there was significant difference between the malignancy and expression of TGF-￥a1 and Smad4(p<0.05). In conclusion, it is presented that reduced Smad4 expression and high TGF-￥a1 expression might be significantly associated with increased malignancy and invasiveness of astrocytoma.
The cylinder cover stud for assembling the combustion chamber components of low-speed marine diesel engine is one of the main structural components in engine. To understand the structural behavior of the stud is quite important for safe and economic design of it. In this paper, the structural behavior and design adequacy of the stud have been evaluated through strain measurement and structural analysis for the world’s two largest engine types. Moreover, a feasibility study for design modification was carried out based on fatigue test and calculation. The results showed that 1) the stud experiences very high stress ratio under normal operating conditions, 2) the fatigue strength of the stud is sufficient, and 3) results from strain measurement and structural analysis were quite close each other.
Bartolome Esteban Murillo, a seventeenth-century painter active in Seville, has been widely known for his genre-painting of decrepit children and the religious subject of the Immaculate Conception. This study, however, will explore the imagery of St. Joseph in Murillo’s paintings and point out its political significance as propaganda. I believe that the cult of St. Joseph and its depictions in Murillo’s paintings mirror the masculinization of the Catholic Church and the paternalist absolute-monarchy in the contemporary Spain. The elevated status of St. Joseph in Murillo’s paintings reveals the ecclesiastical and monarchical ideologies of the period. In this aspect, his imagery of the Holy Family related to the religious and secular power structures. In the seventeenth century, the cult of St. Joseph contributed to the reinforced social hierarchy that comprehends family, religion and national politics. In the wake of the Catholic Reformation, the Church emphasized the role and authority of St. Joseph as the head of family. St. Joseph was given the duty to protect the Virgin and the Christ Child. Therefore, even the Virgin and Christ had to obey him. Such a patriarchal concept of family and St. Joseph’s role therein naturally extended to the likewise formulation of absolute monarchical ideology. This essays analyzes the way Murillo emphasized St. Joseph’s roles as husband, father, and the highest saint in the subjects such as the Betrothal of the Virgin, Flight in to Egypt, and Joseph and the Child. In these paintings, Murillo clearly differentiated the figure of St. Joseph from earlier and even contemporary depictions, which still underestimated his role in an attempt to underscore the Virgin’s purity. As a painter closely associated with the post-Reformation Church in Spain, Murillo appears to have detected the change in the concept and cult of St. Joseph and wisely registered such trend in his paintings to distinguish his works.
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Objectives: Metabolic syndrome is correlated with increased cardiovascular risk and characterized by several factors, including visceral obesity, hypertension, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. Several members of a large family of nonselective cation entry channels, e.g., transient receptor potential (TRP) melastatin 7 (TRPM7) channels have been associated with the development of cardiovascular diseases. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Dangkwisoo-san, ginger and curcumin on TRPM7 channel. Methods: Human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells stably transfected with the TRPM7 expression vectors were maintained in Dulbecco s modified Eagle s medium (DMEM) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS), 1% penicillin/streptomycin, 5 μg/mL blasticidin, and 0.4 mg/mL zeocin in a humidified 20% O2/10% CO2 atmosphere at 37℃. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings were obtained using an Axopatch 700B amplifier and pClamp v.10.4 software, and signals were digitalized at 5 kHz using Digidata 1422A. Results: Dangkwisoo-san extract (100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 μg/mL) inhibited the outward and inward TRPM7 whole-cell currents at dose dependent manner and the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC)50 of Dangkwisoo-san was 218.3 μg/mL. Also, ginger extract (100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 μg/mL) inhibited the outward and inward of TRPM7 whole-cell currents in a dose dependent manner and the IC50 of ginger was 877.2 μg/mL. However, curcumin had no effects on TRPM7 whole-cell currents. Conclusions: These results suggest that both Dangkwisoo-san and ginger have good roles to inhibit the TRPM7 channel, suggesting that Dangkwisoo-san and ginger are considered one of the candidate agents for the treatment of metabolic syndrome such as cardiovascular disease.