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Kang Mu was a military exercise which purports to prepare the military system and enhance the military power through practical military exercise. The nature of Kang Mu had unclear characteristic in Koryo Dynasty, However, the early era of Cho Sun Dynasty had begun to ipliment more in-depth philosophical aspects. Sungrihak as a national philosophy focused on keeping the authority of king. Worship, Manner, and Public relationship which Kang Mu emphasized were came out of Confucianism. These characteristics were significant differences between the simple military exercise and Kang Mu, From this perspective, Kang Mu was considered to be very practical system which includes mulitary exercise and philosophical perspective. However, Kang Mu lost its nature and characteristics by long lasting peace, priority on agricuttural policy, and demilitarization. From King Yun San era, Kang Mu Continued its name only and finally became more enjoyable public game and play.
1930년대 강소천의 동요 · 동시에 나타난 동심성은 당대의 주요 문인집단이 지향했던 순수 관념의 아동문학적인 구체화였다. 1930년대의 주요 문인집단은 세상에 대한 판단중지를 통해 미와 예술적인 열정에 심취한 순수 관념을 지향했는데, 1930년대에 출현한 주요 동요 · 동시시인들은 그러한 순수 관념을 아동문학적인 장르적인 특성에 맞게 어떻게 전유 · 형성하는가 하는 과제를 감당했다. 그 중에서 강소천은 그의 동요 · 동시시집 『호박꽃초롱』에서 당대의 동요 · 동시시인들이 감당했던 아동문학사적인 과제의 한 응답으로써 순수=동심의 문학을 잘 보여줬다. 강소천의 동요 · 동시시집 『호박꽃초롱』은 1930년대의 순수 관념을 동심으로 전유한 대표적인 작품집이었다. 무엇보다 그의 동요 · 동시시집에서는 사회적인 관계를 벗어난 사적인 아동과 세계를 형상화했다. 다만 이러한 형상화는 1920년대에 등단한 동요 · 동시시인들과 다른 순수한 아동 화자와 그 화자가 바라보는 세계를 재현해내는 데에 성공했지만, 사회 · 국가 · 민족의 이데올로기에 대해서 암묵적으로 동조 · 추종 · 무관심했다는 점에서 비판의 대상이 되었다. 그리고 그의 동요 · 동시시집에서는 순수한 언어의 관념을 전유해서 아동이 사용하거나 사용할 법한 언어를 탐구 · 제작했다. 언어의 물질성 · 기표성 그 자체에 대한 관심이 깊어졌고, 1920년대의 전통적인 율격에 대한 발전과 파격이 엿보였다. 1920년대의 동요 · 동시시인들과 비교해 볼 때에 이러한 강소천의 문학적인 변모는 분명히 1930년대의 새로운 문학적인 흐름에 동참하는 것이 아닐 수 없다. 1930년대에 순수 관념을 지향한 문학은 문학이 문학다워야 한다는 내향적이고 자기완결적인 주장을 하면서 미 자체에 대한깊은 관심을 보여주고 언어조형과 비(非)세속적인 순수 관념에 대한 새로운 지평을 열어놓았음에도, 그것이 근대자본주의의 중산층 · 부르주아 이데올로기와 특권의식을 보여줬다는 비판에서 자유로울 수 없었다. 강소천의 아동문학 역시 이러한 공과를 함께 지니는 아동문학적인 한 현상이다. The child``s mind in Pumpkin flower lanterns written by Kang, So-cheon is relative to poetry-literature group who is Bak, Yongchel and Kim, Yeong-rang. They pursued the purity which is away desires and power and politics of world, and it is trademark of poetry-literature group. Poets of 1930's in field of children literature seek the purity that is insisted by poetry-literature group. The purity which is searched by Kang, So-cheon is the pure child``s mind. The pure child``s mind of Kang, So-cheon in the 1930's is distinguish from Bang, Jeong-hwan and Yun, Seok-gung's children's verse. Kang, So-cheon's children's verse is new. His children in Pumpkin flower lanterns are away desires and power and politics of world, but Bang, Jeong-hwan and Yun, Seok-gung's children in their children's verses are social children. His world in the text is pure human, animal, and plant. Also Kang, So-cheon's language is new from Bang, Jeong-hwan and Yun, Seok-gung's children's vers in the 1920's. His poetic language is emphasized to matter itself of language. The meaning isn't important. And His rhythm is odd than children's rhythm, but characteristic.
雲岡 李康秊[1858~1908]은 군사 운용과 전술의 전문가인 무관으로서 민비 시해 사건과 단발령을 계기로 倡義 擧兵한 의병장이다. 그는 경상북도 문경 태생이지만 제천으로 柳麟錫[1842~1915]을 찾아가 그의 문인이 되는 동시에 유인석 의병 부대의 유격대장으로 활약하였다. 또 李恒老[1792~1868]의 『華西集』 간행에도 적극 관여하는 등 학문 연찬에도 힘을 썼으니, 그의 강력한 무장 항쟁은 위정척사론의 이념적 토대 위에서 이루어진 것이다. 이강년은 의병장으로서는 보기 드물게 다수의 詩文을 남기고 있고 그것들의 상당수는 그의 투쟁과 밀접한 관련이 있다. 「聞國變世禍, 漸至板蕩, 不勝憤激, 仍賦一律.」은 거병 즈음의 근심과 두려움, 육체적 고통과 투쟁의 의지가 진솔하게 토로된 작품이다. 「被擒時口號」는 적에게 체포되는 절망적 상황에서도 의연한 결기를 보여준다. 또 「囚在日憲兵所口號」는 헌병소에 구금되어 있으면서 쓴 시로, 구차히 살아남지 않을 것이며 죽어서도 항쟁하겠다는 결연한 의지를 보여준다. 「告訣八域同志」는 옥중에서 전국의 동지들에게 영결을 고하는 글로, 거병의 계기, 무장 항쟁 기간, 戰績, 체포당한 경위, 사형에 직면한 심정, 투쟁의 이념을 기술하고 있다. 이 글에서 이강년은 반역자들이 충신과 선량한 사람들을 무고하게 살해하는 상황에서 양심의 격동을 참을 수 없었던 것이 거병의 원인이라고 밝혔다. 그리고 13년간 2차례 기병하였고 전투 횟수는 30여회, 전적은 왜적 100여명을 죽인 것이라고 하였다. 이강년은 인륜이 사라진 상황에 대하여 심각한 위기의식을 가지고 있었고, 양심에 격동되어 거병하였으며, 존화양이의 의리를 위해 殉死한다는 자부심을 가지고 있었으며, 남은 동지들에게 綱常을 돈독히 하라고 당부하였다. 이것이 이강년이 지닌 위정척사 의식이다. 『雲岡遺稿』에는 15편의 檄文類가 전한다. 그의 격문은 선명한 위정척사의 이념을 기반으로 삼고 있다. 그것들은 군사와 무기, 군자금 조달을 독려하는 격문, 伊藤博文을 통렬히 꾸짖는 격문, 일제의 앞잡이로 온갖 간악한 짓을 일삼는 一進會를 준엄히 꾸짖은 효유문, 각국의 영사관에 일제의 침탈을 고발하고 조국 해방의 타당성을 알리는 통고문, 군대의 기율을 알려 경계하는 글이다. 그중에서 募兵을 목적으로 하는 것이 격문으로서 전형성 갖는다. Ungang(雲岡) Lee Kang-nyeon(李康秊)[1858~1908] was an expert in military operations and tactics as a military officer and he was a the righteous Armies general who raised an army in the cause of justice for Queen Min's assassination and the ordinance prohibiting topknots. Although he was born in Mungyeong, Gyeongsangbuk-do, he went to Jecheon to visit Yoo In-seok (柳麟錫)[1842~1915] to become his literary man and also served as a captain of Yoo In-seok's righteous army. He also worked hard at study including being actively involved in the publication of Lee Hang-ro(李恒老)[1792~1868]'s 『Hwaseojib(華西集)』, so Lee Kang-nyeon's strong armed resistance was based on the ideological basis of Wijung Chuksa(Protect Righteousness and Expel wickedness, 衛正斥邪). Lee Kang-nyeon leaves a large number of poetry and prose as a rare case for the righteous Armies general, and many of them are closely related to his struggle. 「He heard the nation change and the world dizzy, so gradually became confused, and he did not stand the enragement and wrote a poem(聞國變世禍, 漸至板蕩, 不勝憤激, 仍賦一律.)」 is a work in which worries, fears, physical pain and the will of struggle are truly expressed around the time of raising an army. 「Poetry when he was arrested by an enemy(被擒時口號)」 shows a resolute impetuousness even in the desperate situation of being arrested by an enemy. In addition, 「Poetry while he was imprisoned in Japanese military police station(囚在日憲兵所口號)」 is a poem written while in a military police station, it shows his determined will to struggle even if he dies and not to survive wretchedly. 「Tell all over the country comrades before his death(告訣八域同志)」 is written in the prison to bid his last farewell to comrades from all over the country, it describes the cause of raising an army, the period of armed struggle, the record of struggle, the arrested situation, the feeling faced by the death penalty, and the ideology of struggle. In this article, he said that the cause of raising an army was that he could not stand the turbulence of conscience at a time when traitors were killing faithful and good people for no reason. He also said that he raised an army twice in 13 years, fought about 30 times, and killed more than 100 Japanese invaders. Lee Kang-nyeon had a serious sense of crisis about the situation in which humanity had disappeared, and he raised an army by being turbulent of conscience. Also, he was proud of dying for his country for the loyalty of Johnhwa Yangi(Revere China and expel the foreigners, 尊華攘夷) and he asked the remaining comrades to strengthen moral principles. This is the his consciousness of Wijung Chuksa(Protect Righteousness and Expel wickedness, 衛正斥邪). In 『Ungang-yugo(雲岡遺稿)』, 15 manifestos are presented. His manifestos are based on clear ideology of Wijung Chuksa(Protect Righteousness and Expel wickedness, 衛正斥邪). They are the manifestos of encouraging military, weapons and military funds, of scolding Ito Hirobumi(伊藤博文) severely, the persuasion of criticizing sharply Iljinhoe(一進會) which had done all kinds of atrocities as informer of Japan, the notification of accusing Japanese invasion and informing the validity of liberation to consular offices of each country, and the article of informing the discipline of the army. Among them, for the purpose of recruiting the army has typicality as a manifesto.
This paper focuses on introducing three different English translations of “Yellow Birds Song” which was published in the early 20th Century. It compares three different translations, explains the differences of the background stories fromthe original content, and discusses the translators' ideologies in translation and the purpose of Korean poem translations. The three translators are James S. Gale, a Canadian missionary, Joan S. Grigsby, a Scot poet, and Younghill Kang, Korean-American novelist. They translated the poemof “Yellow Birds Song” which was written in 17 BC by King Yuri of Koguryo, and they cited the translated poeminto the book ofHistory of the Korean People(1928, a book of history),The Orchid Door(1935, a book of poetry), andThe Grass Roof(1931, novel) respectively. They each used the same poembut written in different languages. These different original poems influenced their translations. Gale used the poemwritten in Chinese, Grigsby used the English translation by Gale, and Kang used the Korean song. Gale's translation is similar to Chinese poem. Grigsby's translation is free style because she couldn't understand the original content and tried to adjust to the western style. Kang's translation is close to the original Korean song. These three translations are different because of their different ideologies in translation. First, Gale put an importance in Korean literature and understanding ofWestern readers. Thus, he tried to be faithful to the original and at the same time, compose his translation as an English poem. Second, Grigsby didn't even try to translate close to original content, because she felt that characteristics of Korean literature was not important in translation. She thought literal translation of Korean poems couldn't appeal to average western readers. Third, Kang did his best to be faithful to the original Korean song because he thought Korean songs had ardent sense. These translators translated the background story of the book of SamKookSaKi(三國史記) differently because they have different purpose of Korean poem translations. First, Gale tried to provide the story in detail, and added his opinions as a missionary and historian because he wanted to introduce Korea as a country with a long history and rich literature. Second, Grigsy summarized the story very succinctly because she focused on the ancient beauty of Korean poems rather than the long history, Third, Kang changed whole story in his novel because he tried to show the harsh reality of those days when it was under the Japanese control. His translation of Korean song expresses their pride and deep grief over the country lost.
Sukhi Kang(1934-) is composer of the modern music who is well known for his sound aesthetics, which represents “Sukhi Kang's sound.” He specially emphasizes the well counted musical form and structure, where emotional expression is completely ruled out. His controls upon the using tones are especially strict. There are no repetitions of special tones, such as the highest and lowest tone, as well as adjacent tones. That's because these tones determinate the contour of the complete piece. Sukhi Kang places his concerns on the characteristics of individual pieces especially on their creativity and uniqueness. On the basis of his sound aesthetics this research of his recent piece titled <Octagon>(2012) for 8 players, commissioned by EIT(Ensemble Interactive Tokyo), focuses on the asymmetrical aspects, where his favorite numbers 2, 3, 4, 8, 12, 59 are mentioned. For the proof of the asymmetry, simple geometrical figures are used, such as two squares, one triangle and one pentagon to create an octagon.
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The author presented a new method of intermaxillary fixation namely Kang s wiring The Kang s wiring has been already utilized to the mandibular fracture cases and obtained succesful result in General Hospital, klang, Ma!aysiar and paik Hospital, Inje Medical College Seoul. The author found the kang s wiring has proved it s efficiency and simplicity through his clinical experiences. The new wiring also caused less periodontal problem throughout the period of treatment compare than any other method.
The present study examined whether Kang's (1999) model of the relationships among language learning strategy use and language proficiency for the Asian students could e applied to a more heterogeneous group. In Kang's study, he collected information of language learning strategies of 957 foreign students learning English as a second language in American colleges through a questionnaire. He also measured the subjects' language proficiency with the Institutional Testing Program TOEFL(Test of English as a Foreign Language). This study analyzed the same data with out the limitation of cultural identity. Structural equation modeling was used to model the relationships among strategy use and language proficiency, Then, the model of the present study was descriptively compared with Kang's (1999) model for the Asian students. The overall flow of the relationship paths appeared to vary very little across the two models, which would have indicated that the generalizability of Kang's (1999) model could be extended more than originally examined. (156)
This study aimed at looking into Kang Hui-maeing's office life for the understanding of the early Joseon society dominated by yangban(two upper classes). Through reviewing on his life we can interpret constant factors to make his way in office life in Joseon as well as variable ones. He was out of top drawer, a nephew of King Sejong's wife and got the first position in the civil service examination come up 1447, King Sejong's 29th year. He enjoyed a success career during King Sejo's ruling period(1455~1468) and reached the peak point when King Seongjong rose. He started office life in 24 years old and got a dangsanggwan position, the major third rank, 10 years later. He took office as the minister of the Ceremonies Board in 1466, King Sejo's 12th ruling year. He died at 1483 with two titles as a meritorious retainers without taking the position for state councilor. Key point of his success was to have taken good results, ranked the first class, in the successive two tests by King Sejo for inservice officers. This enabled hime to get dangsoangwan and panseo post. He was a ceremony and writing expert whom the dynasty need for establishing confucian state and keeping stable relations with Ming China. He went through almost all posts in the Ceremonies Board from jwarang(assistant section chief) to panseo (Minister). He had his son got to married to a grand daughter of Sin Sukju, first class meritorious retainer. It helped him to get the meritorious title. He participated in discussion sessions with the king Seong Jong as a Gyeongyeongwan holding additional posts and meritorious retainer. Seongjong left his first son who acceded to the throne later in Kang's care for several years and nominated him for Yijo-panseo positon, Minister of Personnel. His success story shows that in Joseon society a person could not success depending solely on one's family. For successful office life it requires to be a fine writer and to get a special status like a meritorious title.
The present study examined whether Kang's (1999) model of the relationships among language learning strategy use and language proficiency for the Asian students could be applied to a more heterogeneous group. In Kang's study, he collected information of language learning strategies of 957 foreign students learning English as a second language in American colleges through a questionnaire. He also measured the subjects' language proficiency with the Institutional Testing Program TOEFL (Test of English as a Foreign Language). This study analyzed the same data without the limitation of cultural identity. Structural equation modeling was used to model the relationships among strategy use and language proficiency. Then, the model of the present study was descriptively compared with Kang's (1999) model for the Asian students. The overall flow of the relationship paths appeared to vary very little across the two models, which would have indicated that the generalizability of Kang's (1999) model could be extended more than originally examined. (156)
It is true that the Confucian scholars, i.e. classical scholars are regarded as old group with conservative value who failed to incorporate themselves into the rapid changing flow of the time. It is partly because of the Confucian scholar group made their own choice as they failed to settle in a social and ideological spectrum when some transformed argued their conservatism according to the need of the time to survive during the Japanese occupation period and during the construction of a new country. Rather, it may be safe to say that they intended to keep their purity by escaping from the corrupt frame in the process of reconstructing of wrong ideologies from its beginning. Accordingly, this study would like to examine the life and anti-Japanese movement of Daenul Noh Sang Ik who was the representative scholar in Kang-wu-ji-bang(江右地方), endeavored to keep identity as a subordinate of the fallen country during the late Joseon and the Japanese occupation and also as an intellect of the time in order to correct wrong concepts toward the aforesaid Confucian scholars. For this, it firstly examined the figures of Confucian scholars in Kang-Wu-ji-bang, the academic source of Daenul, and also investigated the behavior of Confucian group who resisted the destruction of a dynasty and the coercive merger by Japan. As such, it analyzed ideological origin of Daenul who succeeded Seongje((性齊)) Heo Jeon((許傳)) in Kang-wu-ji-bang, and examined how it was reflected in his whole life.