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인체 대장암 20례와 자궁경부암 10례의 암조직을 대상으로 c-Ki-ras 유전자 codon 12와 13에서의 점돌연변이를 알아보고자 polymerase chain reaction(PCR)과 single-strand conformation polymorphism(SSCP) 검사법을 시행하였다. 대장암의 경우 20례중 9례(45%)에서, 자궁경부암의 경우 10례중 1례(10%)에서 양성으로 나왔다. 대장암에서는 codon 12에서 GGT가 TGT로의 치환이 4례로서 가장 많았으며, AGT, CGT로의 치환이 각 1례였고 codon 13에서는 GGC가 GAC로의 치환이 2례, TGC로의 치환이 1례인 것으로 나타났다. 자궁경부암의 경우 codon 12에서 GGT가 AGT로의 치환이 1례인 것으로 나타났다. In an attempt to clarify the role of genetic alteration in the genesis of human colorectal and cervical cancers, tissue specimens from 20 patients with colorectal cancer and 10 patients with cervical cancer were examined for the presence of point mutation in K-ras2 exon 1 by single strand conformation polymorphism analysis of PCR product. Exon I of c-Ki-ras2 was amplified by polymerase chain reaction(PCR) and comparison was made between the normal and mutated genes by nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis(PAGE) of PCR product and nucleotide sequence analysis using asymmetric PCR with direct sequencing. Genomic DNA from white blood cells were used as normal control and those from A427 cell line were used as mutated control. 1.PCR product from A427 cell line showed a distinct migration shift pattern compared to the normal control in PAGE and the direct sequencing indicated that nucleotide sequence of codon 12 was mutated from GGT to GAT. In addition, there was a loss of normal allele in A427 cell line. 2.PCR product from 9 cases(45%) out of a 20 colon cancer patients showed migration shifts in PAGE, and all of these 9 patients invariably demonstrated mutation of ras gene, either in codon 12(6 cases:30%) or 13(3 cases:15%). The base substitutions in codon 12 were: from GGT to AGT(1), CGT(1), or TGT(4). Base changes in codon 13 were from GGC to TGC(1) or GAC(2). 3.PCR product from 1 cases(10%) out of a 10 cervical cancer patients showed migration shrifts in PAGE, Invariably demonstrated mutation of ras gene in codon 12. The base substitutions was from GGT to AGT(1) TQE incidence of point mutation of c-Ki-ras in colon cancer was high, however, it was low in cervical cancer, which showed the relation of ruts gene mutation with colon cancer. PCR -SSCP analysis is a simple, rapid and efficient method of detection of point mutation, especially when dealing with multiple samples.
Kim,,Seungill,Kim,,Myung-Shin,Kim,,Yong-Min,Yeom,,Seon-In,Cheong,,Kyeongchae,Kim,,Ki-Tae,Jeon,,Jongbum,Kim,,Sunggil,Kim,,Do-Sun,Sohn,,Seong-Han,Lee,,Yong-Hwan,Choi,,Doil Oxford University Press 2015 DNA research Vol.22 No.1
<P>The onion (<I>Allium cepa</I> L.) is one of the most widely cultivated and consumed vegetable crops in the world. Although a considerable amount of onion transcriptome data has been deposited into public databases, the sequences of the protein-coding genes are not accurate enough to be used, owing to non-coding sequences intermixed with the coding sequences. We generated a high-quality, annotated onion transcriptome from <I>de novo</I> sequence assembly and intensive structural annotation using the integrated structural gene annotation pipeline (ISGAP), which identified 54,165 protein-coding genes among 165,179 assembled transcripts totalling 203.0 Mb by eliminating the intron sequences. ISGAP performed reliable annotation, recognizing accurate gene structures based on reference proteins, and <I>ab initio</I> gene models of the assembled transcripts. Integrative functional annotation and gene-based SNP analysis revealed a whole biological repertoire of genes and transcriptomic variation in the onion. The method developed in this study provides a powerful tool for the construction of reference gene sets for organisms based solely on <I>de novo</I> transcriptome data. Furthermore, the reference genes and their variation described here for the onion represent essential tools for molecular breeding and gene cloning in <I>Allium</I> spp.</P>
The effect of forward and reverse electrostatic discharge (ESD) on the electro-optical characteristics of oxide vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers is investigated using a human body model for the purpose of understanding degradation behavior. Forward ESD-induced degradation is complicated, showing three degradation phases depending on ESD voltage, while reverse ESD-induced degradation is relatively simple, exhibiting two phases of degradation divided by a sudden distinctive change in electro-optical characteristics. We demonstrate that the increase in the threshold current is mainly due to the increase in leakage current, nonradiative recombination current, and optical loss. The decrease in the slope efficiency is mainly due to the increase in optical loss.
Ki-tae Kim. 2017. A Sociolinguistic Study of the Diachronic Changes of the Names of Korean Oriental Clinics: With Special Reference to –tang. Studies in Modern Grammar 96, 149-166. The current study explores the diachronic pattern of the changes in the names of Korean Oriental Medical clinics, the names of which contain the Sino-Korean -tang (堂) in the ult of the core. A total of 636 such names are identified and statistically analyzed along with their founding years through simple exponential smoothing, double exponential smoothing, and the moving average. The results show that there has been a slow, but significant decline from the late 1980's and on. The primary motivation behind the trend is traced back to the increased sense of Korean identity in the more transnational world at the time. More specifically, the official replacement of han (漢, ‘China/Chinese') with a homophone han (韓, ‘Korea/Korean') in referring expressions to Korean Oriental Medicine (e.g., hanuywen ‘Korean Oriental Medical clinic') in 1986, the subsequent 1988 Olympic Games, and the contemporary movement to use Hankul exclusively at the expense of Hanca including tang all coincided with the decline, thus, contributing to the timing of the consistent decline. Some limitations and implications are also discussed.
<P>Brassinosteroid acts synergistically with ABA in guard cells, and CDL1 mediates BR-induced stomatal closure through OST1 activation.</P><P>Crosstalk between signaling pathways is an important feature of complex regulatory networks. How signal crosstalk circuits are tailored to suit different needs of various cell types remains a mystery in biology. Brassinosteroid (BR) and abscisic acid (ABA) antagonistically regulate many aspects of plant growth and development through direct interactions between components of the two signaling pathways. Here, we show that BR and ABA synergistically regulate stomatal closure through crosstalk between the BR-activated kinase CDG1-LIKE1 (CDL1) and the OPEN STOMATA1 (OST1) of the ABA signaling pathway in <I>Arabidopsis thaliana</I>. We demonstrate that the <I>cdl1</I> mutant displayed reduced sensitivity to ABA in a stomatal closure assay, similar to the <I>ost1</I> mutant. CDL1 and the BR receptor BR-INSENSITIVE1, but not other downstream components of the BR signaling pathway, were required for BR regulation of stomatal movement. Genetic and biochemical experiments demonstrated that CDL1 activates OST1 by phosphorylating it on residue Ser-7. BR increased phosphorylation of OST1, and the BR-induced OST1 activation was abolished in <I>cdl1</I> mutants. Moreover, we found that ABA activates CDL1 in an OST1-dependent manner. Taken together, our findings illustrate a cell-type-specific BR signaling branch through which BR acts synergistically with ABA in regulating stomatal closure.</P>
Kim,,Hak-Sung,Kim,,Kyoung-Hwa,Kim,,Su-Hwan,Kim,,Young-Sung,Koo,,Ki-Tae,Kim,,Tae-Il,Seol,,Yang-Jo,Ku,,Young,Rhyu,,In-Chul,Chung,,Chong-Pyoung,Lee,,Yong-Moo The Korean Academy of Periodontoloy 2010 Journal of Periodontal & Implant Science Vol.40 No.6
Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the immunomodulatory effects of canine periodontal ligament stem cells on allogenic and xenogenic immune cells in vitro. Methods: Mixed cell cultures consisting of canine stem cells (periodontal ligament stem cells and bone marrow stem cells) and allogenic canine/xenogenic human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were established following the addition of phytohemagglutinin. The proliferation of PBMCs was evaluated using the MTS assay. The cell division of PBMCs was analyzed using the CFSE assay. The apoptosis of PBMCs was assessed using the trypan blue uptake method. Results: Periodontal ligament stem cells and bone marrow stem cells inhibited the proliferation of allogenic and xenogenic PBMCs. Both periodontal ligament stem cells and bone marrow stem cells suppressed the cell division of PBMCs despite the existence of a mitogen. No significant differences in the percentages of apoptotic PBMCs were found among the groups. Conclusions: Canine periodontal ligament stem cells have an immunomodulatory effect on allogenic and xenogenic PBMCs. This effect is not a product of apoptosis of PBMCs but is caused by the inhibition of cell division of PBMCs.
본고는 한의사 및 한의학 분야, 그리고 한방 병의원을 가리키는 거시언어적 한정지칭 표현들(macrolinguistically specified references)의 몇 예를 살펴보고, 한방 의료담화 내에서의 그 기능 중의 일부를 파악하는 연구로, 두 편의 전편(Kim 2013b, 2014a)의 후속 연구이다. 이들 표현들은 언어적으로 ``의사,`` ``병원``과 같이 무표적(unmarked)이지만, ``한의사`` 혹은 ``양의사,`` ``한방 병의원`` 혹은 ``양방 병의원``을 뜻할 수 있는 지칭상의 중의성이 전혀 없는데, 이는 사회언어적인 정보들이 그 중의성을 제거해 주기 때문이다. 연구의 주요 목적은 양방과 한방이 공유하지만 서로 경쟁하게 되는 ``의사,`` ``병원``과 같은 무표적 표현의 중의성을 어떻게 거시언어적 한정지칭 표현들이 해소시킬수 있느냐를 살펴보는 데에 있다. 이를 위해 본 연구는 15시간에 이르는 한의사-환자 간의 자연발화 진료상담을 녹취한 자료에서 선별한 발췌문들을 살펴본다. 우선, 의사 및 병의원 지칭 표현들이 그 무표성에 기인하는 중의성을 가지게 되며, 이에 따르는 혼동이 생길 수 있다. 는 것을 한 예를 통해 살펴보고, 이를 바탕으로 참여자들은 어떻게 무표성에 기인하는 중의성을 해소해 나가는가라는 질문을 제기한다. 이를 위해 어떤 거시언어적 한정지칭 표현들이 한의사, 한방 의료분야, 한방병의원을 가리키는지, 또 그것들을 통해 다른 무표적 표현들의 중의성이 해소될 수 있는지를 고찰한다. 그 결과, 사상체질의학이나 이에 기반을 둔 ``체질``에 대한 진료, 또 ``침(구과)``와 같은 의료 분야는 ``한방``이라고 표시되지 않지만 한의사의 전문분야로 거시언어적으로 한정지칭하게 됨을 밝힌다. 또한 ``○○당``이라는 한의원의 전통적 명칭이나, 양방병원도 있지만 가장 유명한 한방병원을 가진 ``K대 병원``과 같은 표현들도 ``한방``이라고 표시되지 않지만 scalar implicature를 통해 한방 병의원을 거시언어적으로 한정지칭하게 됨을 보여준다. 이를 바탕으로 본 연구는 이들 한정지칭 표현은 무표적이지만 거시언어적으로 중의성을 해소함으로써 한방 프레임을 활성화하게 되고, 이 과정에서 양방프레임을 비활성화하게 되며, 이렇게 지칭표현들을 한방에 한정함으로써 다른 무표적 표현들의 중의성도 한방 프레임의 안에서 해소된다고 본다. The present study picks up where the prequels (Kim 2013b, 2014a) leaves off and focuses on the macrolinguistically specified references (i.e., linguistically unmarked, yet referentially unambiguous due to macolinguistic disambiguation) to Oriental doctors, specializations, and institutions within 15-hour-long naturally-occurring Oriental interactions. Its purpose is to demonstrate how the macrolinguistically specified references contribute to the disambiguation of some of the common words that biomedicine and Oriental medicine claim their privilege to within Oriental interactions. By examining unfolding consultations between Oriental doctors and their patients, the present study first demonstrates that referential ambiguity does indeed arise. When an unmarked expression makes an unmarked reference to a pyengwen ``hospital,`` a child-patient refers to a biomedical institution where one gets shots, whereas his mother to an Oriental one, in which the consultation is unfolding. Subsequently, the present study explores the macrolinguistically specified references to Oriental doctors, specializations and institutions and considers if they can remove or reduce ambiguity of the unmarked references. Thus, any unmarked reference to one`s cheycil ``constitution`` in the technical sense (Kim 2013a, 2014c) of Sasang Constitutional Medicine or chimkwukwa/chim ``acupuncture`` unambiguously points to the expertise of Oriental doctors or Oriental specializations, qualifying them for the macrolinguistically specified. Likewise, both the traditional, -tang-ending names of Oriental institutions and K. University Medical Center, the Oriental ward of which is the most prestigious in the country and is arguably more famous than the biomedical ward, also clearly refer to Oriental medical institutions in spite of the fact that neither is linguistically marked. As such, they are identified as the macrolinguistically specified whose references to Oriental doctors, specializations, and institutions are sociolinguistically disambiguated. In so doing, the present study posits, they activate only the Oriental frame (Goffman 1974), while deactivating that of biomedicine. The delimitation of the frame for the unfolding discourse is considered a potential resource that leads to the disambiguation of other unmarked expressions by confining their referents only to those in Oriental medicine.
Kim,,Moon,Young,Baik,,Soon,Koo,Yea,,Chang,Jin,Lee,,Il,Young,Kim,,Hye,Jung,Park,,Kyong,Won,Kim,,Hearn,Kook,Suk,,Ki,Tae,Kim,,Jae,Woo,Kim,,Hyun,Soo,Kwon,,Sang,Ok,Cha,,Seung,Hwan,Kim,,Young,Ju,Koh,,Sang,B Lippincott Williams Wilkins, Inc. 2009 European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology Vol.21 No.11
OBJECTIVE: Portal hypertension is closely associated with serious complications of cirrhosis, which contribute to bad prognosis. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and low serum sodium (SNa) are manifestations of end-stage liver disease and are associated with poor survival in decompensated cirrhosis patients. We aimed to determine the relationship between hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) and the development of HCC or low SNa in decompensated alcoholic cirrhosis patients. METHODS: Child-Pugh scores, Model for End-Stage Liver Disease scores, and HVPG at baseline, and the development of HCC or low SNa (SNa <130 mEq/l) during follow-up were analyzed prospectively in 170 patients with decompensated alcoholic cirrhosis from December 1999 to January 2008 (mean follow-up period of 33.9±27.9 months). The predictive value of different risk factors for the development of HCC and low SNa and survival were investigated. RESULTS: Twenty-four patients developed HCC during the follow-up period. In the multivariate analysis, only baseline HVPG greater than 15 mmHg was an independent predictive factor for the development of HCC (relative risk=1.128, P<0.05) and which showed a significantly shorter time for the development of HCC on the Kaplan–Meier analysis. Twenty patients developed low SNa during follow-up. Initial HVPG was also an independent predictive factor for the new development of low SNa in the multivariate analysis (relative risk=1.169, P<0.05) and which also showed significantly shorter times for the development of low SNa on the Kaplan–Meier analysis. CONCLUSION: In decompensated alcoholic cirrhosis, HVPG may be a useful predictive factor for the development of HCC and low SNa.