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The pore structure of the 40 wt% Ni/kieselguhr catalyst prepared by precipitation of nickel component from a 0.17 M nickel nitrate solution at 90℃ changes when the precipitant, 1 M Na₂CO₃ solution, is added to the nickel nitrate solution over different periods. After precipitation for 22 hours, the catalyst experiences narrowing of the pore mouth which leads to appearance of new small pores. However, when the catalyst is prepared by precipitation for 2 hours, the small pores present in the kieselguhr support are blocked by the precipitate particles and only the large pores are remained in the catalyst. The catalyst containing relatively small pores exhibits low reaction rates and changes in the product selectivity in soybean-oil hydrogenation, due to the diffusional resistance of the reactants in the catalyst pores. The effect of the diffusional resistance is not observed with CO hydrogenation, benzene hydrogenation and n-hexane hydrogenolysis, where molecular sizes of the reactants are significantly smaller than the catalyst pores.
To evaluate the effect of Morphine during spinal anesthesia with α-adrenergic agonist, we used 0.18 mg of epinephrine, 90 μg of clonidine and 0.3 mg of morphine with 12 mg of T-cain respectively and compared hemodynamic and analgesic effects of each drug. Eighty patients were divided into four groups as follows; Group I (n=20); T-cain with clonidine, Group II (n=20); T-cain with epinephrine, Group III (n=20); T-cain with clonidine and morphine, and Group IV (n=20); T-cain with epinephrine and morphine. The results were as follows; 1) The onset time of analgesia and the time reached to the highest level of sensory loss were most rapid in the epinephrine and morphine group. 2) The duration of analgesia was significantly prolonged in the group of epinephrine and morphine than the group of epinephrine and clonidine. 3) It was more likely complicated in the morphine groups than others but there was no significance. 4) Although the heart rate was gradually decreased over 60 min. after anesthesia, there was no sigficance between the groups. 5) Systolic and diastolic blood pressure were decreased mainly over 30∼45 min. after anesthesia, but there was no significance. In conclusion, epinephrine can be sustituted for clonidine because analgesic duration was not significantly changed, and the duration of analgesia was prolonged by morphine.
전신마취는 여러 가지 호흡기계 합병증을 유발할 수 있다. 기관지 경련은 특히 즉각적인 진단과 치료가 행해지지 않으면 치명적인 결과를 초래할 수 있다. 저자들은 전신마취중 발생한 기관지 경련을 발견하고 치료한 경우를 문헌 고찰과 함께 보고하는 바이다. Bronchospasm under general anesthesia is common in patients with a history of asthma or COPD. But bronchospasm that occurs intraoperatively is usually due to factors other than an acute asthmatic attack. Obstruction of the endotracheal tube from kinking, secretions, or an overinflated balloon ; endobronchial incubation; active expiratory efforts(straining) because of light anesthesia; pulmonary edema or embolism; and pneumothorax can all simulate bronchospasm. Bronchospasm is treated by deepening the level of anesthesia, adding a volatile agent with bronchodilatory properties, administering aerosols(β2-agonists), anticholinergics, corticosteroid, or infusing aminophylline. We experienced a case of bronchospasm during general anesthesia in patients without asthma, so we report it with a brief review of the literature.
( Radha Karki ), ( Chan Ju Song ), ( Tara Man Kadayat ), ( Til Bahadur Thapa Magar ), ( Ganesh Bist ), ( Aarajana Shrestha ), ( Young Hwa Na ), ( Young Joo Kwon ), ( Eung Seok Lee ) 영남대학교 약품개발연구소 2015 영남대학교 약품개발연구소 연구업적집 Vol.25 No.-
A new series of thirty-six dihydroxylated 2, 6-diphenyl-4-aryl pyridines containing hydroxyl groups at the orho, meta, or para position of 2- and 6-phenyl rings attached to the central pyridine were designed and synthesized. They were evaluated for topoisomerase I and II inhibitory activity and cytototxicity against several human cancer cell lines for the meta or para position of 2- or 6-phenyl ring in combination with thienyl or furyl group at 4-posintion of central pyridine displayed significant topoisomerase II inhibitory activity and cytotoxicity. Positive correlation between topoisomerase II inhibitory activity and cytotoxicity was observed for the compounds 9-11, 15-17, 19, 21-23, 28, and 41. Among all the synthesized compounds, compound 17emerged as the most promising topoisomerase II inhibitor with significant cytotoxicity. ⓒ2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Medicinal Chemistry : ELSEVIER ; Synthesis, topoisomerase I and 2 inhibitory activity, cytotoxicity, and structure-activity relationship study of 2-phenyl-or hydroxylated 2-phenyl-4-aryl 5H-indeno[1,2-b]pyridines
( Tara Man Kadayat ), ( Chan Ju Song ), ( So Min Shin ), ( Til Bahadur Thapa Magar ), ( Ganesh Bist ), ( Aarajana Shrestha ), ( Pritam Thapa ), ( Young Hwa Na ), ( Young Joo Kwon ), ( Eung Seok Lee ) 영남대학교 약품개발연구소 2015 영남대학교 약품개발연구소 연구업적집 Vol.25 No.-
A series of novel twenty-eight rigid 2-phenyl- or hydroxylated 2-phenyl-4-aryl-5H-indeno[1,2-b]pyridines were synthesized and evaluated for their topoisomerase inhibitory activity as well as their cytotoxicity against several human cancer cell lines. Generally, hydroxylated compounds (16-18,22-25,and 29-31)containing furyl or thienyl moiety at 4-position of central pyridine exhibited strong topoisomerase I and II inhibitory activity compared to positive control, camptothecin and etoposide, respectiverly, in low micromolar range. Structure-acrivity relationship study revealed that indenopyridine compounds with hydroxyl group at 2-phentl ring in combination with furyl orthienyl moiety at 4-position are important for topoisomerase inhibition. Compounds (22-25) which contain hydroxyl group at meta position of the 2-phenyl ring at 2-position and furanyl or thienyl substitution at 4-position of indenopydine, showed concrete correlarions between topo I and II inhibitory activity, and cytotoxicity against evaluated human cancer cell lines. ⓒ2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hemoptysis, relativley common event in pulmonary disease, is the primary reason for using flexible bronchofiberscopy, with which is one of the best methods for diagnosis of various pulmonary diseases with hemoptysis. The authors have performed bronchofiberscopies in 70 patients among various pulmonary diseases with chief complaint of hemoptysis at the Department of Internal Medicine, Christian Hospital, Incheron, Korea during 3 years from March, 1982 to April, 1985. Results were as follows: 1) Approximately 33.8%(70/207) of all patients who underwent flexible bronchoscopy sought help because of hemoptysis. 2) Among 70 cases with hemoptysis, the most common cause of hemoptysis, was pulmonary tuberculosis with an incidence of 30%(21 cases). The next common cause were bronchitis, 28.6% (20 cases), lung cancer, 21.4%(15 cases), pneumonia 2.9%(2 cases), and bronchiectasis 2.9%(2 cases). 3) According to biopsy by bronchofiberscopy, among the etiology of hemoptysis, lung cancer was easily detected by simple chest X-ray. But non-lung cancer group was not easily detected. So more demand of bronchofiberscopy was acquired for unknown origin patients of hemoptysis. 4) Duration of hemoptysis symptom, in general most are within a week in pulmonary tuberculosis, bronchitis. But most are above one month in lung cancer. 5) Prevalent sites of bleeding were right lobe than left lobe, and all lobes upper portions. 6) Compare simple chest X-ray to bronchofiberscopy in diagnosis of hemoptysis patients, especially pulmonary tuberculosis, bronchitis, lung cancer were benefits for confirm diagnosis by bronchofiberscopy.
The pore structure of the 40 wt% Ni/kieselguhr catalyst prepared by precipitation of nickel component from a 0.17 M nickel nitrate solution at 90℃ changes when the precipitant, 1 M Na₂CO₃ solution, is added to the nickel nitrate solution over different periods. After precipitation for 22 hours, the catalyst experiences narrowing of the pore mouth which leads to appearance of new small pores. However, when the ctalyst is prepared by precipitation for 2 hours, the small pores present in the kieselguhr support are blocked by the precipitate particles and only the large pores are remained in the catalyst. The catalyst containing relatively small pores exhibits low reaction rates and changes in the product selectivity in soybean-oil hydrogenation, due to the diffusional resistance of the reactants in the catalyst pores. The effect of the diffusional resistance is not observed with CO hydrogenation, benzene hydrogenation and n-hexane hydrogenolysis, where molecular sizes of the reactants are significantly smaller than the catalyst pores.
The implication of cervical pain associated with an elongated styloid process is credited to W.W. Eagle. Even though there were earlier reports of ossification of the stylohyoid ligament, findings in more than 200 cases in 1930s and 1940s resulted in the naming of a clinical syndrome that con- tinues to bear his name, Eagles syndrome. It is also sometimes called styloid process neuralgia or elongated styloid process syndrome is more common than generally recognized. The clinical symptoms range from a dull nagging pain with occasional radiation to ear, or to a foreign body sensation. Dysphagia and odynophagia may also occur. We successfully treated one case by removal of the elongated styloid process under the gen-eral anesthesia and C2 ganglion block. We then reported the clinical feature of one case of the Eagles syndrome and further researched with the foreign literature
A series of ZnO(0.64)–CeO2(0.26)–MO(0.1) (MO: La2O3, Y2O3, Co2O3, Ga2O3, and ZrO2) and ZnO(0.7)–CeO2(0.3) catalysts with a fixed molar composition (value in parenthesis) were prepared by a sol–gel method for use in the urea methanolysis to dimethyl carbonate (DMC). Effect of acidity and basicity of ZnO(0.64)–CeO2(0.26)–MO(0.1) on the catalytic performance was investigated. Experimental results revealed that basicity of the catalysts played more important role in determining the catalytic performance than acidity. Yield of DMC increased with increasing basicity of the catalyst. Among the catalysts tested, ZnO(0.64)–CeO2(0.26)–La2O3(0.1) with the largest basicity exhibited the best catalytic performance (50.4% of DMC yield).