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      • Hot Filament CVD에 의해서 증착된 다이아몬드 박막의 표면형상에 미치는 기판온도의 영향

        형준호,조해석 한국결정학회 1995 韓國結晶學會誌 Vol.6 No.1

        Hot Filament CVD법에 의해 증착된 다이아몬드 박막의 기판온도와 증착시간 변화에 따르는 표면형상 변화를 관찰함으로써 그 증착기구를 규명하고자 하였다. 기판온도가 낮을 경우에는 비정질 탄소 및 DLC(diamond like carbon)가 증착되고 기판온도가 증가함에 따라 사가형의 (100)명으로 구성된 입자를 가지는 다이아몬드 박막이 증착되었으며 매우 높은 기판온도에서는 (100)명과 (111)명으로 이루어진 결정외형을 가지는 입자들로 구성되는 다이아몬드 박막이 증착되었다. 다이아몬드 박막의 (100) 우선배향성은 증착시의 비교적 높은 과포화도에 기인하는 것으로 생각되며, 이러한 (100) 우선배향성을 가지는 박막은 결정면내에 twin을 함유하지 않으므로 단결정박막으로의 성장가능성이 크다. 기판온도가 증가해도 다이아몬드 박막의 입자크기는 증가하지 않았으며 시간에 따른 증가양상도 온도에 관계없이 비슷한 경향을 보였다. 그러나 필라멘트 온도가 일정할 때 다이아몬드 박막의 핵 밀도는 기판온도가 높을수록 증가하였으며 시간에 따른 증가폭도 기판온도가 높을수록 더 크게 나타났다. The growth mechanism of diamond thin films, deposited by Hot Filament CVD, was investigated through observation of changes in their surface morphology as a function of the substance temperature and deposition time. Amorphous carbon or DLC thin films were deposited at low substrate temperature. Diamond films consisting of square-shaped particles, whose surfaces are (100) planes, were deposited at an intermedate temperature. At high substrate temperatures, diamond films consisting of the particles showing both (100) and (111) plane were deposited. The (100) proferred orientation of the diamond films are believed to be due to a relatively high supersaturation during deposition, and the growth condition for the diamond films having (100) preferred orientation can be applied to the single crystal growth since no twins are generated on the (100) plane. The grain size of the diamond films did not change with increasing temperature and its increasing rate with increasing deposition time was the same irrespective of the substrate temperature. However, the nucleation density increased with substrate temperature and its increasing rate with deposition time was much higher for the films deposited at higher substrate temperature.

      • KCI등재

        클리키 스위치 조작 시 피드백의 명확성을 정량화 하기 위한 햅틱프로파일 분석

        형준호,김사엽,노종련,이재환 대한인간공학회 2020 大韓人間工學會誌 Vol.39 No.1

        Objective: This study aims at investigating the physical factors associated with feedback clarity when operating a clicky switch by analyzing haptic profile. Background: The operating feeling has become more important in PUI. Previously, many studies on the effect of physical parameters of controller on the affective experience have been conducted. The preferred physical parameters such as peak force, stroke and friction has been revealed already in many studies. But there are few quantitative studies on the feeling of feedback clarity which plays an important role in improving the operating feeling. The clarity is a haptic feedback to notify the user if the controller was operated successfully. To investigate the appropriate level of clarity and to improve operating feeling, the quantitative indicators that associated with the perceived clarity needed to be revealed. Method: The reaction force and stroke are measured when a clicky switch was pressed in a constant and voluntary speed. The constant operation was conducted by linear actuator and the voluntary operations were conducted by five human subjects. Each subject was operated 20 times and haptic profile which consists of the force and the stroke was measured. Based on haptic profile, change rate of the force and stroke was further analyzed to extract the acceleration and the rate of force. Results: The reaction force and stroke changed drastically at a time when passing through click section and the acceleration and the rate of force were increased prominently and instantly at that moment. The acceleration can be suggested for physical factor that associated with feedback clarity because the acceleration directly activates a mechanoreceptor called Pacinian corpuscles in human skin. Conclusion: It is understood that the increased peak acceleration associated with the feeling of clarity. The further empirical studies on the preferred acceleration and level of clarity are needed in application area. Application: The results contribute to the design of haptic feedback on the PUI.

      • KCI등재

        Influence of a Gait-Pattern-Based Crank Drive System on Knee Joint Load During Stand-Up Cycling

        형준호,Jongryun Roh,김사엽 한국정밀공학회 2019 International Journal of Precision Engineering and Vol.20 No.5

        This study proposes a crank drive system that considers gait characteristics and is without dead points (GP-crank) to decrease the knee joint load for stand-up bicycles. A comparative experiment was conducted from the perspective of cycling kinematics to investigate the differences between the proposed GP-crank and conventional crank drive systems. The pedaling motion was analyzed by measuring the three-dimensional movements and pedal reaction forces of 16 subjects driving cranks in a standing posture. Although no significant differences were found in the peak pedal reaction force, flexion angle of the lower limb joints, and joint flexion moments between the drive systems, the vertical displacement of the center of body mass was significantly smaller for the GP-crank. In addition, the knee joint was extended for the GP-crank at the time the knee moment reached its maximum. Consequently, decreased knee joint stress of the GP-crank was demonstrated by its comparatively reduced vertical displacement of the center of body mass and stress on the knee joint. This study shows that the disadvantages of existing stand-up bicycles can be addressed by using the proposed GP-crank.

      • KCI등재

        Optimization of Pivot Obliquity for a Foldable Bicycle

        형준호,노종련,김사엽 한국정밀공학회 2016 International Journal of Precision Engineering and Vol.17 No.7

        The folding technology which enables bicycle to be carried and stored easily is divided into various folding mechanism according to the number of hinges and the direction of pivot axis. The single lateral pivot type foldable bicycle is considered a promising personal mobility since it allows quick and easy folding motion and access to public transit system. However, there are significant troubles in folding dimensions that both the front and rear wheels are arranged in a slanted way, and the folding width increases at the bottom. It is because the pivot axis is slanted from the exact lateral axis so that the interference between the front and rear wheel in the course of folding could be prevented. This study aims at designing the optimal pivot obliquity of a lateral pivot type of foldable bicycles to align both the front and rear wheels in parallel. The variables of the pivot axis obliquity were set as the azimuthal angle (ϕ) and polar angle (θ), and a parametric simulation was carried out. It is revealed that the azimuthal angle affect the alignment angle between the front and rear wheels, and optimal azimuthal angle could be derived which makes the alignment angle to 0o. The findings from this study will contribute to the popularization of foldable bicycles with excellent usability and smaller folding width.

      • KCI등재

        스위치의 햅틱프로파일 설계변수가 피드백 명확성에 미치는 영향

        형준호,이재환 대한인간공학회 2021 大韓人間工學會誌 Vol.40 No.3

        Objective: This study aims at investigating the major design parameter of haptic profile associated with perceived feedback clarity during operation the clicky switches. Background: A feeling of feedback clarity plays an important role in PUI to improve the user satisfaction and usability. Appropriate level of feedback clarity needs to be revealed when operating a PUI in the context of product use. The feedback clarity is associated with the 'drop force' which is observable in the haptic profile. Also, it is associated with the 'acceleration' resulting from physical interaction between the controller and the body. But detailed physical properties of controller effect on the acceleration and the perceived feedback clarity has not been revealed yet. The haptic profile is useful method to define the design parameters of controller in quantitative manner. Method: Two design parameters, Drop Size and Drop Rate, both are composing the 'drop force' at the haptic profile are defined. Drop size means that the quantities of a dropped force and the Drop Rate mean that the slope of drop curve. Ten experimental switches having different design parameters are designed and manufactured. A separate experiment, measuring the acceleration and perceived feedback clarity has performed respectively. Results: A strong correlation (r=0.957) was observed between the Drop Size and the feedback clarity. However, relatively moderate correlation (r=0.673) was observed between the Drop Rate and feedback clarity. It is means that the feedback clarity strongly affected by the Drop Size rather than the Drop Rate. Meanwhile, the correlation between the feedback clarity and the acceleration was almost perfect (r=0.984) which means the increased acceleration directly affecting the feeling of feedback clarity. Conclusion: This study suggests design strategies of PUI to achieve the preferred feedback clarity level by changing of haptic profile. Application: The results contribute to the design a PUI having satisfied level of feedback clarity.

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