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The Modern Movement, generally represented as Functionalism, brought about the serious problems of the absence of cultural meanings and of the public alienation. The search for a new solution is understandable from two points of view. First, Modern design had made a vital contribution during the period when it was revolutionary, when it held that 'less was more'. Sencondly, it had in some ways failed in its main aim, to realise through social engineering a betterment of life. Therefore, Post-Modernism starting in the cause of communication with the public, has tried to give the cultural meanings upon the designing by introducing the traditional forms and by paying more attention to the surrounding context and the vernacular. The characteristics of Post-Modernism in Interior Design, being proposed from this study, are summerized as the following. 1) Characteristics in design idea Design idea of Post-Modernism is Characterized to express human identity by paying attention to the context and the vernacular, ramaining the nature of design itself. 2) Characteristics in expressional techniques of form and space Expressional techniques of form and space of Post-Modernism are characterized by Complexity, history and traditionalism, popularity, vernacular and localism, enlargement, symbolism and ornamentation, contextalism, hierarchy and dual-coding. It is very important to understand and accept the concepts and the characte ristics of Post-Modernism through adjusting our emotional characteristics and vernacular peculiaritis based upon our own traditionalism. It is desirable to accept Post-Modernism in which creation of historical forms and emphasis on symbolism are expected through correcting the visual simple partiality and disorder. Also adapting Post-Modernism to our own surrounding will lead us to search for a better way of upholding traditionalism.
This study aimed to suggest a possible way for settling of interior design education through analyzing educational situations of domestic interior design societies. The study showed that interior design education should not follow expressive methods made from practical work which had been popular in the past and that it should establish fundamental to make interior education useful in industrial fields through active educational-industrial complex. Interior design education is not possible without interrelationship with other professional fields and cooperative attitudes among them. The rapid development in the modern industrial world and the ever-growing information processing world disregarding ideology and regional boundaries indicate that the future development of human capacity will be no longer able to be effective with traditional education systems. The idea suggested in this study may be understood as a bridge between the educational reality and its ideal in interior design teaching. The most important thing in design education is to set a clear establishment of interior design and its distinct curriculum as major fields. The reinforcement of major education in accordance with related departments such as construction, home economy, and art branches. Also the educational-industrial cooperative systems through activities with design offices, building companies. furniture companies, and product companies are recommended and, in addition the surroundings for overcoming difficulties produced through regional and circumstantial problems should be made for better interior education.
We are now in the society of decentering. It's the result of the absence of new paradigm, after the collapse of Modernism. In this situation, individual cultures evolve to Syncretism by reciprocal action with no evaluating measure. Interior design, as a part of culture, became diverse upon the influence of disrupted society. And it is in intimate relationship with art and architecture in form and matter. In this diversity of interior design. Syncretism became Post Moders Classicism in radical eclectic manner. The attitude, trying to overcome this disorder by high technology, is evolving to High Tech style. And the philosophical attitude which recognized the inner paradox of social structure and trying to over-come it by analyzing the former paradigm and seizing the behinds, is expressed as Deconstruction in interior design. 1. Post Modern Classicism The idea is a significant place which cherish the life and experience by communication between the user and the room. The characteristics of space is contradiction, transformation, and interpenetration. And the space has the hierarchy by centering. The expressed feature is free style classicism in eclectic manner with ornamental motifs from Classical Architecture, popular culture and technology in industry. 2. High Tech style The idea is perfect harmony and certainty in a utopia which could be realized by high technology. In the space, it gives a purpose and a name to an anonymous space, keeping the flexibility for other transform. The expression is machine aesthetics such as slick tech, glazzing system, bowelism, and fantastic space. And the metaphore is something could be found in S.F. films such as space capsule, time machine, intelligent robot, city in the air. 3. Deconstruction In tries to reveal and confirm the uncertain, unreliable and anxious phases of this time with refusing the idea of centering, unity, and totality. And it recognizes the differences between some ideologies and truths. The space starts from a plane wall and expands into three dimensional area, called the PROUN space. It represents strain and movement by unrealistic, abstract mood in defiance of gravity, the materiors and technologies are borrowed from the High Tech style. Contemporary tendency in interior design is classified as mentioned above in connection with the phases of this time and other cultures. The titles of these categories are not fixed yet. Above all, these tendencies are still in progress and have potentiality to be changed. But to study the present tendency is necessary to arrange the confusion, and to expand the ways of interior design: besides, the practical methology should be studied continuously.
The purpose of this study was to define element of specialization for interior design education according to investigate samples and analyze situations. The study was composed three schemes as follows, materiality classification of specialization, condition of specialization and survey and analysis of specialization. Materiality specialization classify 4 types which are localization, focus on design process, design and project participation and resource. The specialization conditions, according to classify, were to make cooperation center for practical fields and to find new fields of interior design education and develope advanced skills.
Characteristics of climate in the eastern coastal regions of Korean Peninsula were studied using the meteorological and coastal sea surface temperature(SST) data which were compiled from 1961 to 1990. In the winter half year(from October to March), air temperature (AT) and precipitation of the eastern coastal regions were considerably higher than those of the western and inland regions, but relative humidity was 8-15% lower. AT of coastal regions was closely related to the variation of coastal SST. These characteristics were more noticeable in the eastern coastal areas and in lower latitude regions. Quantitatively, the 1.0℃ variation of coastal SST may have resulted in the 1.0℃-1.5℃ variation for AT in coastal regions. In the same way as temperature, vapor pressure in coastal regions was also influenced by coastal SST. Relative humidity change corresponding to the 1.0℃ variation of coastal SST was 3.7%-6.5%. Net heat exchange amounts were positive (sea surface gaining energy) in all coastal regions. Sea surface gained net heat from March to September, and lost it from October to February. Variation of AT in coastal regions was also related to the sensible and latent heat exchanges. Sensible and latent heat amount corresponding to the 1.0℃ variation of AT were 10Wm^(-2) at Kangnung, and 8Wm^(-2) at Pohang and 13Wm^(-2) at Pusan.
온난한 해면위를 비교적 한냉한 대기가 통과할 때 공기와 수면 사이의 열교환량을 알기 위하여서는 해면에서의 현열방출량과 증발량을 측정하여야 하나, 이것들을 직접 측정하기란 현상 자체가 미세하고 측정범위가 너무나 광범위 하기 때문에 매우 어려운 점이 많다. 이런 점들을 극복하기 위하여 Jacobs91949, 1951)와 Manabe(1958)는 기온, 풍속, 증기압과 표면해수온도만을 사용하여 열교환량을 추정할 수 있는 실험식을 구하였다. 이 실험식들은 기온과 표면해수온도와의 차가 크면 클수록 열교환량이 증가함을 나타냈다. 겨울철에 우리나라 동해는 cP기단의 영향으로 한파의 내습이 빈번하고 강한 북서풍이 상존하기 때문에 대기와 해면 사이에 열교환이 왕성한 것은 기정사실이며, 이것에 대한 연구는 Matsumoto(1948, 1967), Manabe(1957, 1958), Kondo(1964), Fujita and Honda(1966)등 여러명의 일본 기상학자들이 관심을 갖고 다루어 왔으나, 이들은 한결같이 동해에서의 열수지 보다 물수지에 관심이 많았고, 일본본토의 강설량과 상관관계를 주로 연구하였다. 본 논문에서는 한국과 일본에서 이미 관측된 해양 및 기상자료를 이용하여 혹한을 동반한 1963년 1월과 난동의 1964년 1월, 그리고 평년의 1965년 1월의 열수지를 계산 비교하고, 이에 따른 여름철의 냉수괴의 세력을 비교 검토하여 보았다. Based on the data collected during January of 1963, 1964 and 1965, heat transfer from the sea to the air over the south-western part of the Japan Sea was evaluated by the formula of Jacobs. The mean sensible heat transfer and the rate of evaporation in the mild winter of 1964 were 360ly day$\^$-1/ and 8.1mm day$\^$-1/, respectively. However, these values increased as much as 690ly day$\^$-1/ and 14.4mm day$\^$-1/ in the severe winter of 1963. The heat hudget of the Japan Sea in January were related to the magnitude of cold water mass formed in August in the Korea Strait.
겨울철 북서태평양인 캄차카 부근 해역에 영향을 주는 저기압의 특성을 종합,분석하고 그 발달기구를 규명하기 위하여 기상월보(1966~1974년) 9닌분과 일본 기상철 발행의 인쇄기일도(1970~1974년)5년분을 사용 분석한 결과를 요약하면 다음과 같다. 1) 겨울철 우리나라 부근에서 발현하는 저기압의 총수는 157개 였다. 이것을 월별로 보면 12월 1월에 각각 48개였고,2월에는 61개 발생했으며 경로별로는 BD경로, 즉 중국에서 발생하여 한국을 통과한 뒤 일본의 북해도로 진입하는 저기압은 총 53개로 전체의 36%로 가장 많았으며, CD경로 즉 대만 부근에서 발생하여 동해를 통과하는 저기압은 총 15개로 전체의 13%로 가장 적었다. 2)저기압 강하도는 A경로 일때가 제일 적었고, CD경로 일때가 가장 컸다. 또한 풍속변화량은 C,CD경로일 대가 최대였고, A경로 일때가 최소였다. 3)저기압이 통과하는 상층에 Jet류가 전일에 비해서 하강, 남하할 경우에는 한기중의 막대한 양이 저기압 후면으로 강하하면, 이에 따르는 위치 에너지의 감량이 저기압을 발달시킨다. 반면에 Jet류가 본래의 상태로 정체하고 있는 경우에는 위치에너지의 변화가 거의 없으므로 저기압은 별로 발달하지 않으며,만일 발달한다고 해도 해면 증발등과 같은 지상조건에 따를 뿐이다. 4)700mb면 등온선의 상층골과 기온극대축(혹은 극소축)의 상관위치 관걔는 저기압 발달에 많은 영향을 준다. In the area of the Far East Asia, cyclones are observed 157ea in winter season during the years(1966-1974). Some of them are most difficult to be forecasted due to the extreme irregulalities, have carried out synoptic analysis. The rapid development of cyclones can be attributed to the descending of cold air mass surrounding the axis of the Jet Stream due to the cyclonic rotation, and the lowering of the Jet axis. The Relationships between upper trough line and max. (or min) axis of upper air temperature on the 700mb contributes to the development of the cyclones.