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Every building becomes obsolete as it is built. Since the obsolescence causes an earlier end of building's life despite of having useful life in physically and functionally it not only decreases value of the building but also causes waste of social resources. For these reasons, it is very important to maintain appropriate physical condition of a building with the proper maintenance efforts. Among various maintenance efforts to accomodate problems resulted from the obsolescence, change of the original use of the building to an alternative use is one of the desirable maintenance techniques because it does not need a major transformation of internal structure or alternations of exterior feature of the building to accept the alternative use. Therefore, understanding of the process and characteristics of use change is an important task not only for a property manager or an owner of the building but also for real estate consultant to save the given market value of the building. However, there are only few previous studies about use change of building which examine the relationship between previous use and changed use of the building in terms of the locational conditions and years of the buildings with the data collected from the field. Based on these circumstances, this study aims to examine the relationship between previous use and changed use of the building using the field data collected from the downtown of Daegu City, Korea from 1996 to May of 1998.
This study aims to present practical principles to enhance ur ban environment throughout the applications of ecological development techniques in urban developments. To accomplish this purpose the author examines the concept of sustainable development in terms of environmental impact of traditional land developments and reviews sustainable development techniques scrutinized by the various scholars in the previous studies. Based on the results of the literature review this study proposes four principles in the formation of ecological environment in our cities. These are the implementation of ecological independence. Finally, this study presents some practical principles to enhance urban environment throughout the applications of ecological development techniques in the development and management of urban parks and green space.
A failure mode in the beam strengthened with a high modulus plate appears as a interface debonding failure or ripping-off failure. This failure mode means that plate is separated from adhesive or concrete before displaying its own ability. Therefore, as a method for controlling a premature failure, it is need to use a general anchorage implement. We conducted bending tests for reinforced concrete beams strengthened with CFRP. The experimental variables were a concrete strength, reinforcement ratio, cover thickness of concrete and length ratio of CFRP for a pure span. A failure load, failure mode, load-deflection curve and strain response at different distances from a cut-off of CFRP and strain distribution curve were measured to determine the bond development length. Also, the bond development length was compared with Nguyen’s model and British Standard specification.
This paper presents a feasibility study of an alternative strengthening method by slot-bonded CFRP plates for reinforced concrete beam. A total 14 reinforced concrete beam were constructed, tested and the response of the beams in terms of deflection, strains, failure load and failure mode were examined. Each specimen was initially loaded for 75% of ultimate load, cracked specimen were strengthened with CFRP plate and then tested until complete failure. Test variables included the strengthening method, steel ratio and strengthening length, and the effects according to each test variables are analysed. The experimental results show that proposed methods can increase the flexural strength and stiffness of the beam significantly. Also, the failure of the specimens strengthened by the proposed method are more ductile than externally bonded specimen.
This paper describes the application of genetic algorithm for the optimum design of reinforced concrete beam. The cost of reinforced concrete beam as an objective function which includes the costs of concrete, formwork, tensile steel reinforcement and shear reinforcement is minimized. The flexural and shear strength, deflection, upper-lower bounds on steel reinforcement and beam width-depth ratio are considered as the constraints. For the check of the serviceability, deflection is calculated under the service loading by the effective moment of inertia instead of the gross moment of inertia. Optimum results obtained from GA are compared to verify the validity of GA with other literature. Then, GA is applied to 3 span RC beam based on standard specifications.
국내에 발표된 기존 양서·파충류 관련 전문 학술지나 논문에서는 소개되고 있지 않지만, 한반도산 양서·파충류상에 관하여 언급된 최초의 전문적 학술자료는 Philipp F. von Siebold가 1834년부터 1838년 사이 일본 체류기간 동안에 수집한 양서·파충류 표본을 덴마크 라이덴박물관에 보냈고, 당시 라이덴박물관 초대 박물관장인 동물학 자 C.J. Temminck 와 H. Schlegel에 의해 동정 분류되어 출판된 Fauna Japonica의 Reptilia (1838)의 목록에 그 시대의 학명과 더불어 일중국명, 일본명, 한국명이 동시 에 기재되어 있다. 오늘날에도 한반도의 양서·파충류학은 일부 분류군을 제외하곤 생물학적 자료가 대 단히 부족한 학문분야라 일컬을 수 있다. 특히 파충류의 대부분의 종들이 일제강점 기시절 일본연구자들에 의해 서식분포상황이나 기재적 분류가 행하여진 뒤 지금까지 거의 재검토되지 않은 종들이 많다. 또한 전문연구자도 매우 소수에 불과하다. 이러 한 국내의 학문적 현실은 한반도의 생물다양성과 양서·파충류 분류군의 생물학적 연 구와 학문 발전에 대단히 큰 장애라 아니할 수 없다. 부디 앞으로 이 분야에 있어 새로운 전문연구 신진학자의 배출을 기대하며, 국내 양서·파충류학문의 발전에 조금 이나마 기여되기를 바라는 기대아래 알려지지 않은 문헌을 중심으로 우리나라 양서· 파충류의 초기 연구 내용과 접근하기 어려운 북한의 양서·파충류 관련 학술정보를 후학들에게 소개한다.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the flexural behaviors of reinforced concrete beam members exposed to high temperature. In order to investigate on the flexural behaviors, we have tested fifteen reinforced concrete beam members with various reinforcement ratios(ρ_(max), 0.5ρ_(max), ρ_(min)) and temperature(400℃, 700℃) include load-bearing heating. The results show that failure mode, load-displacement relation, initial stiffness as loading conditions.