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          백서 신경장애성 통증시 c-Fos 유전자 발현에 대한 NMDA 길항제와 교감신경차단 효과

          한규철,김상수,이원형,김종렬,임규,황병두,허동식 대한마취과학회 1998 Korean Journal of Anesthesiology Vol.35 No.1

          Background : Neuropathic pain produced by nerve injury has the characteristics of enhanced pain responses - allodynia. To understand the pathophysiology of the neuropathic pain, We evaluated the effect of NMDA antagonists and chemical sympathectomy on the c-fos mRNA expression. Methods : We have divided rats(Sprague-Dawley, N=24) that their left L5 and L6 nerve were tightly ligated into two groups. In NMDA antagonist group(N=17), We injected 10ug MK801 and 10ug 5-amino-phosphonovalerate in three ways, intrathecally before the ligation, after ligation and subcutaneous continuously. Then behavioral tests for mechanical allodynia and cold allodynia were performed. After the test of allodynia,the expression of c-fos were assessed by Northern blot hybridization. In chemical sympathectomy group(N=7), We injected 70 mg/kg guanethidine into the peritoneum in two ways, before the ligation and after ligation. Then same methods were performed in NMDA antagonist group as well. Results : Intrathecal NMDA antagonists before the ligation supressed the elevation of c-fos mRNA expression. Intrathecal NMDA antagonists on the 7 days after the ligation reduced the c-fos mRNA expression and neuropathic pain. Continuous treatment of subcutaneous NMDA antagonists supressed the development of neuropathic pain and the elevation of c-fos mRNA expression. Chemical sympathectomy before the ligation did not supress the elevation of c-fos mRNA expression. Chemical sympathectomy on the 7 days after the ligation reduced neuropathic pain and the elevation of c-fos mRNA expression. Conclusions : NMDA receptor is related to the induction and maitenance of neuropatic pain, and sympathetic nervous system has a main role in the already induced neuropathic pain. (Korean J Anesthesiol 1998; 35: 29∼39)

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          渤海國의 서쪽 邊境에 관한 연구

          韓圭哲 부산경남사학회 2003 역사와 경계 Vol.47 No.-

          Iasserted there was the Liaohe River(遼河) in between the guard of the Parhae(渤海, Bohai, 698∼926) and the Tang(唐, 618? - 907) dynasty. Some old reports on the guard said that it was the line of the Bozhuokou(박작구) of the entrance of Aplok River(鴨綠江) and Xincheng(新城). Namely, the Liaodong(遼東) area was not included in the territory of Parhae. But based on some reasons I asserted that area was a part of the territory of Parhae. First, the establishment of the kingdom could be successful because the remainders of Koguryo live in that area, Secondly, the influence of the Andongduhufu(安東都護府) on the colonial ruling organizations of the Tang dynasty was almost absent. Thirdly, it is to be confirmed that it resulted from the war between Parhae and Tang in the eighth century, through such sea and land routes as Dengzhou(登州) and Madushan(馬都山). Fourthly and lastly, it followed the process of the war between Parhae and Kithan on the area of Liaodong in the tenth century.

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          高句麗의 繼承性을 通해 본 渤海國의 正體性

          한규철 고구려발해학회 2004 고구려발해연구 Vol.18 No.-

          This articles compensated the view which I stated conventionally it. The kingdom of Parhae was founded in the past Koguryo territory. The key to understanding the composition of Parhae inhabitants is the fact that the tribal name "Malgal (Mo-ho)" was given by outsiders, not by the Malgals themselves. It is widely known that the forbearers of Malgal were Suksin before the Qin Dynasty and Eup-ru during the Han Dynasty. It was also a derogatory name for the inhabitants living in the periphery of Goguryo. In other words, the term "Koguryeo people" were used to refer to the residents in and around the capital Pyongyang and the people residing in outlying areas were called the uncivilized "Malgals." Records describe Dae Jo-young, the founder of Parhae, as "a Koguryo eccentric" or "a Sokmal Malgal." But, these descriptions of him do not mean that he could be either a Goguryeo person or a Malgal person. It simply means that he was a "villager from the Songwha River in Goguryeo." By the same token, it is also clear that the ethnicity of the ruling class and the ruled could not have been different. And. the Ondol - the heater of a house,like the ancient tomb construction method that cultural conservativeness is powerful, or a Korean floor heater was also proved by having inherited Koguryo. Recently many Ondols were discovered at the ruins of Koguryo of China. As for such a fact, It is certainly that Parhae was succeeded from the Koguryo.

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          삼국 왕조명의 축약어 사용 문제

          한규철 동국대학교 신라문화연구소 2015 新羅文化 Vol.45 No.-

          본고는 왕조명이 한 글자의 단칭과 두 글자 이상의 복칭을 사용하는 이유와 의미를 생각하면서, 『三國史記』와 『三國遺事』 등에서 신라, 고구려, 백제를 압축하여 羅·麗·濟로 사용한 의미와 문제점을 검토하고, 왕조명은 그대로 사용하는 것이 원칙이고, 굳이 축약어를 사용해야 한다면, 당나라의 『穴記』와 申采浩가 첫 글자를 써서 高·百·新이라고 표현하였던 것처럼 하여야 함을 재강조하는 논고이다. 오늘날 韓·中·日에서는 왕조명 내지 국호를 병렬할 때 국호를 그대로 나열하지 않고, 축약하여 사용하는 것이 관례이다. 『삼국사기』 등이 왕조명의 끝 글자인 羅, 麗. 濟로 축약하게된 것은 삼국이 상대방을 비하해서 끝 글자로 사용하였던 점도 인정되지만, 끝 글자 축약의 근본적 인식은 고려시대의 중화적 역사관이 반영된 결과로 봄이 타당하다. 그런데 삼국 왕조명의 첫 글자 축약은 오히려 당나라 문건에서 발견된다. 唐代의 『穴記』에서 “外蕃高百新等是”라고 한 것이 확인되고 있다. 삼국 왕조명의 끝 글자 축약은 고려 지성들과 조선시대 성리학자 및 실학자들에까지 이러한 전통이 그대로 이어졌을 뿐만 아니라, 식민지시기부터 이러한 관례가 더욱 굳어져 지금에 이르렀다. 그러나 삼국 왕조명의 羅·麗·濟끝 글자의 비하적 의미가 滿鮮이나 日鮮으로 발전되었던 점을 반성하여야 할 필요가 있음을 지적하였다. 그리고 한국 근현대사에서는 독립운동기의 申采浩(1880~1936)가 신라와 당, 그리고 고구려와 隋·唐을 新·唐, 高·隋, 高·唐으로 사용하였다. 그리고 필자가 1994년 책을 출간할 때 羅·唐도 渤·唐등과 같이 新·唐등으로 표현하여야 한다고 사용하였고, 노태돈도 新·唐과 新·日, 新·倭등으로 적극 표현하였는가 하면, 정효운에 의해 이러한 생각들이 보다 정치한 이론으로 주장되게 되었다. 아직도 韓·中·日에 있어서 왕조 및 국가 간의 축약어 사용은 일반적인 관례이다. 그러나 우리가 흔히 사용하는 왕조명의 축약 사용은 고려 지성들의 역사적 한계를 답습하고 있는 것이다. 독립운동기 조선을 비하하여 “日鮮” 또는 “滿鮮”으로 축약하였던 것은 전통시대의 왕조명 끝 글자 사용을 원용한 것으로 볼 수 있다. 왕조명을 그대로 사용하는 것이 가장 바른 태도이다. 그렇지만 왕조명을 굳이 축약하여 사용해야 한다면, 현대적 역사인식을 바탕으로 高·百·新을 내세워 新唐, 新百, 百新, 新日, 高隋, 高唐등으로 표현해야 하고, 이는 麗末鮮初나 麗蒙, 麗宋등에도 반영되어야 한다고 생각한다. Thinking over reason for and meaning of using singular term of one-word and multi term of more than two words for names of dynasties, this study reviews the meaning and problem why 『Samguk Sagi(三國史記)』 and 『Samguk Yusa(三國遺事)』 used La·Ryeo·Je(羅·麗·濟) by abbreviating Goguryeo, Baekje, and Silla; and, the study is to emphasize adequacy of the opinion of Tang’s 『Xueji(穴記)』 and Sin, Chae Ho both of who used the initial of Go·Baek·Sin(高·百·新) if it is a principle to use name of a dynasty as it is and if abbreviation has to be used. The reason why names of dynasties in Xia·Yin·Zhou(夏殷周) and Han·Tang(漢·唐) period became one-word was originated from the place name but its tradition was made since Sin(新) dynasty of Wangmang(王莽) when the China-oriented world view was applied to the name of a dynasty and a country. In the meantime, there were many dynasties with country names of more than two words, and those were dynasties created according to native dialects, place names or formation process. This was not made from the fact that a surrounding dynasty in the Han·Tang-oriented international order determined its country name of more than two words in order not to ‘commit’ any one word. However, being conscious of Han(漢), the intellects of the Koryeo(高麗) age which edited 『Samguk Sagi』 used La·Je·Ryeo with lowered grade when they abbreviated names of three countries. In addition, LaTang generally used by present Korea·China·Japan does not reflect historical view of Silla or Koryeo. 『Samguk Sagi』 expressed Silla and Tang during war time of Samguk Unification as ‘TangLa(唐羅)’, which made us recognize Tang was the hero of the war. The first record which used names of three countries as Go·Baek·Sin was 『Xueji』 written by Tang dynasty in the 9th century. Records of Tang and Japan used names of three countries as they were and did not use abbreviations. However, 『Samguk Sagi』 and 『Samguk Yusa』 rather made the error of using the last words instead of continuing the tradition. It was due to historical limit of the Koryeo intellects. Abbreviations of names of three countries were still used in Sinhak era even when nationalism consciousness existed, and it has been down to this day passing through the colonial era when colonial identity and heteronomy emerged. Nevertheless, Sin, Chae Ho, anti-Japan intellectual, exceptionally disregarded tradition and used abbreviations of Go·Baek·Sin, the initials of dynasties but he did not go beyond the limit of 『Samguk Sagi』. It is a general practice in Korea·China·Japan to use abbreviations of dynasties and countries. But abbreviations of dynasty names often used by us mean just following of historical limit of the Koryeo intellects. We have to remind “IlSeon(日鮮)” or “ManSeon(滿鮮)” which was used with the last word of Joseon despising Joseon in independence movement period. The most correct way is to use full name of dynasty. If abbreviation of dynasty names is still necessary for use, it should be Sin·Tang(新唐), Sin·Baek(新百), Baek·Sin(百新), Sin·Il(新日), Ko·Sui(高隋), and Ko·Tang(高唐) with emphasis on Ko·Baek·Sin from modern viewpoint of history.

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