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Korean Tug of War was a transitional almanac event at village community. Korean Tug of War in which people join in large numbers as a folk game is usually played on January 15 of the lunar calender. From ancient times all member of the village played the game a festive atmosphere. Korean Tug of War is a game of national spirit because cooperation and unity is needed in the contest. When the game was played the peasant band played instrument music of the peasant, and cheer their team to victory with gay gesturing. The game was a game of large scale, and period of preparation was long. People of village collect rice straw from each home and fake a long thick rope, assuming the name of Sutjul(a male rope) and Amjul(a female rope)The members of each team pulled at the ropes, which were hooked together to win the game over the opponent. Believing an old saying that the winning side shall have a good harvest, they strived their hardest for their life with yells and shouts. The tug of war in the Youngsan area used to be played on the 15th day of the first month, but nowadays this game is played on the first day of March in commemoration of the Korean Independence Movement. Korean Tug of War was a typical Korean transitional game, which should develop or re-create a modern style of game because the game contained our transition spirits-harmony, unity and solidarity.
It is no exaggeration to recognize physical culture during the Medieval Period in Europe as a "Dark Ages" of the history of physical culture. Horseback games which originated from military training of knights, such as joust and tournament, can only be regarded as physical activities during the Middle Ages. Aristocracies and common peoples, however, enjoyed various physical activities, and these Medieval activities have grown to be popular contemporary sports. Researchers were inspired by these facts and investigated European Medieval physical culture. The research outcomes can be drawn as follows: firstly, it is a prejudice to say that the history of Medieval physical culture was a dark period and it can be criticized that knight or military sport existed only as physical activity of the Middle Ages; secondly, there were similar activities derived from the Ancient Roman and Greek games especially in the rural areas, this could be due to the reason that peasants were led by the power of the Christianity in their routines, however, they often expressed their identity continuing and developing the power of agriculture; thirdly, Medieval ball games including soul, tegon, ninepins were the origins of modern ball games such as football, cricket, and bowling, and those Medieval ball games were generally practiced and organized by the peasants or lower class.To conclude the theme of the research, physical activities during the Middle Ages were often banned or became the foci of the criticism and the games were immature in comparison to the Ancient Greek and Roman activities, however, the society developed its physical culture and slowly standardized into games supporting physical activities among the aristocracies, citizens and the peasants successfully.
'스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.
The study was carried out to investigate growth of 48.6-L pot-cultivated 1-year-old ‘Fuji'/M.9 apple treesdepending on different levels of nitrogen concentration. While rise in tree growth was paralleled with increase of nitrogenconcentration, more than 32 mM of nitrogen rather restrained tree growth. In particular, growth of 16 mM of nitrogen treatedtrees was satisfied with criteria for production of high-quality pot-cultivated nursery stocks. Although mineral contents ofleaves were higher in 8 and 16 mM nitrogen treatments than commonly recommended mineral contents in apple orchards,such somewhat surplus minerals could be helpful for tree growth after transplanting to apple orchards. In addition, our resultindicated that soils of 8 and 16 mM of nitrogen treated pots met appropriate criteria for soil chemical property of appleorchards. Thus, in the light of tree growth, mineral contents of leaves, and soil chemical property in the pots, 16 mM ofnitrogen treatment is considered to be suitable for production of 1-year-old ‘Fuji'/M.9 apple potted trees. 사과 ‘후지'/M.9 포트묘목 개발을 위해 질소시비농도에 따른생장특성을 조사하고, 포트 우량묘목 생산에 적합한 질소시비농도와 잎의 무기영양성분 함량 및 토양 화학성의 안정성을 확인하였다. 질소시비농도가 높아질수록 묘목의 생장은 증가되었고, 특히16 mM 처리가 수체 생장에 가장 좋았으며, 우량묘목판단기준에 부합하였다. 32 mM 이상의 고농도는 오히려 생장을 감소시켰다. 잎의 무기영양성분 함량은 8, 16 mM 처리구에서 기존 사과과원의 적정수준보다 높았고, 이러한 무기영양성 분은 정식 후 수체 생장에 도움이 될 것으로 생각되었다. 토양화학성 또한 8, 16 mM 처리구에서 안정적이었다. 따라서 수체생육, 잎의 무기영양성분, 포트 내 토양화학성을 고려한 결과,사과 ‘후지'/M.9 우량 포트묘목 생산을 위한 적정 질소시비량은16 mM로 판단되었다.
The purpose of this study was to diagnose the operation and actual condition of the major classes in the test subjects and to draw up improvement plans in connection with the process of preparing student athletes to acquire the national qualification of sports instructors. The survey was conducted on the actual condition of student athletes' attendance, perception of difficulty, and preference for the subjects of sprts instructor qualification test, and the professors in charge of the test subjects were asked about the preparation plan for the qualification of sports instructors. In addition, in-depth interviews were conducted on students and related teachers about special lectures against the qualification test for sports instructors. The results of the analysis showed that most students are aware of the qualification of sports instructors, and they have the preference in the order of sport psychology, Korea sport history, sport Pedagogy, sport sociology, sport ethics, sport mechanics, and sport physiology. Most of students wanted that they would take a extra lecture for the sports instructor exam. Professors in charge of the test subjects showed their intention to inform the students of the importance of the qualification test, prepare the test contents, and participate in the extra lecture. Extra lectures should be prepared for the qualification examination for sports instructors considering the situation of student athletes for certification and employment through cooperation with professional training professors. 본 연구는 학생선수들이 스포츠지도사 국가자격증 취득을 준비하는 과정과 관련하여 시험과목 전공수업의 운영과 실태에 대해 진단하고 개선방안을 도출하고자 하는 목적으로 진행되었다. 스포츠지도사 자격검정 필기시험 과목들에 대해 학생선수들의 수강 실태, 난이도 인식, 선호 정도 등을 조사하고 해당과목담당교원들에게 스포츠지도사 자격증 대비방안에 대해 질문하는 한편, 학생선수 및 관련 교원들을 대상으로 스포츠지도사 자격시험 대비 특강에 대한 심층면접을 실시하였다. 분석결과 대부분의 학생선수들은 스포츠지도사 자격증에 대해 인지하고 있으며, 스포츠심리학, 한국체육사, 스포츠교육학, 스포츠사회학, 스포츠윤리, 스포츠역학, 스포츠생리학 순으로 선택 선호도를 나타냈다. 학생선수들 대부분은 스포츠지도사 시험대비 특강을 수강하겠다고 응답하였다. 시험과목 담당 교원들은 수업을 통해 학생선수들에게 자격증시험의 중요성을 알리고 시험 내용을 준비시키며 특강 강의에 참여하겠다는 의사를 나타내었다. 학교차원에서 학생선수들의 상황을 고려하여 스포츠지도사 자격시험 대비 특강을 준비해야 하며, 전문실기 교원들과의 협력을 통해 학생선수들의 자격증 취득과 취업을 준비시키기 시키기 위한 노력이 필요하다.
As this is a study on history of Korean male hockey, it researched by placing limit especially upon the period from 1998 to 2008 that can be said to be golden age in Korean male hockey. With a documentary research through the primary and the secondary literature, and a research method through in-depth interview and photo application method, the following conclusions were elicited. Korean male hockey is now maintaining its existence difficultly while suffering hard adversity several times as non-popular item. In order for this Korean male hockey to rise high in the world's top again, it is thought to be required the positive intervention and support of the government and the relevant officials to the executive department of Korea Hockey Association, and lots of efforts and passion in hockey players. Also, even people's much interest and love will be able to play a big role for Korean male hockey to develop again.
본 연구는 다양한 연구방법을 활용하여 진천선수촌 이동수업의 효율적인 시스템과 진행방안을 도출하기 위한 목적으로 수행되었다. 이를 위해 국가대표 학생선수의 학업 현황, 이동수업 참여 현황 및 문제점을 파악하고, 이동수업 개설과목, 수업체계 및 관리의 적정성과 이동수업의 적극적인 홍보방식 등을 검토하였으며, 이를 기반으로 학생선수의 학업 능력을 향상시키기 위한 방안을 도출하고자 하였다. 연구결과는 다음과 같다. 첫째, 지금까지 국가대표 학생선수의 학습권은 제대로 존중받지 못하였으며 국가대표 학생선수의 학습권과 학생신분 유지를 위해서는 이동수업이 절적으로 필요한 상황이다. 둘째, 상당수 국가대표 학생선수들이 아직까지 이동 수업에 대해 인지하지 못하고 있기는 하지만, 수업에 참가한 학생들은 이동수업을 통해 학점 이수라는 현실적인 효과는 물론 자아의식 향상에 도움을 얻고 있는 것으로 나타났다. 셋째, 학생선수들은 선수촌 이동수업 교과목에 대해 전공과 교양 교과목의 다양한 개설 및 교직과목 개설을 원하고 있다. 넷째, 국가대표 학생선수들의 보다 적극적인 이동수업 참여를 위해서는 이동수업 학점 인정, 다양하고 적극적인 홍보, 강의시간 조정 등 시스템의 정비가 필요하다. 종합적으로 정리하면 이동수업은 국가대표 학생선수들의 학습권 보장을 위한 유일한 방법이라 할 수 있으며, 보다 많은 학생선수들의 참여를 유도하기 위해 체계적인 시스템의 정비, 다양한 강좌 개설, 보다 적극적인 홍보가 필요하다. 향후 이동수업은 국가대표 학생선수들의 학점 이수뿐만 아니라 이들이 학업에 관심을 갖고 능동적으로 학업관리를 할 수 있도록 동기화하는 학업시스템이 되어야 한다. This study was aimed at improving the academic ability of the national student athletes through various research methods and reviews to come up with efficient systems and measures for branch classes at Jincheon National Training Center. For this, the study contents included measures to improve the academic ability of the student athletes by identifying the academic status of the national team's student athletes, the current status and problems of branch classes, and reviewing courses, the appropriateness of their teaching methods and management, and active promotion of mobile classes. The results of the study are as follows. first, so far, student athletes' the academic right has been ignored, but branch classes are absolutely necessary to maintain their right to study and status. Second, while many national team students are still not aware of the branch classes, students who participate in the classes have been able to confirm that they were helping to improve their self-awareness as well as earning credits. Third, student athletes want to open a variety of major and liberal arts courses for the branch classes in the National Training Center. Fourth, more active participation in mobile classes by the national student athletes requires the readjustment of the system such as credit rating of brance classes, promotion of diverse and active classes, and adjustment of lecture hours. Collectively, branch classes at Jincheon National Training Center are the only way to ensure national student athletes' right to study, and there should be systematic system maintenance, various courses opening and more active promotion to attract more student athletes to participate. In the future, branch classes should be an academic system in which national student athletes can not only complete credits but also take more interest in their studies and take active academic management.
The purpose of this study was to research the history of modern Korean sport culture since the opening of ports to foreigners to now. The history of modern Korean sport culture divides three period in terms of social and cultural characteristics of modern history. The first period of modern Korean sport culture, so call the inflow period of sport culture, was the period since the opening of ports to foreigners to the Liberation. During the enlightening period in Korea, sport culture was understood as a part of new education from west or a typical physical expression. Under the rule of Japanese imperialism Sport culture was understood as political tool for the controling people even though many Koreans have believed sport was one of our expression for against Japanese imperialism. The second period of modern Korean sport culture, so call the transitional period of sport culture, was the period from the Liberation to 1990. The second period should divide two. The first half of period is the period since the Liberation to the 4 · 19 Revolution. There was no systematic sport policy in this period, but there were some positive actions to develop Korean sport culture by sport leaders. However, such positive circumstance had not remained for long because of the Korean Civil war. from the 4 · 19 revolution to 1990, the Korean military governments had controlled sport culture as a political tool. In terms of pursuit the political goals such as enhance the national prestige and superiority of capital idealism the governments supported all power to elite sports. The third period of modern Korean sport culture, so call the setting period of sport culture, was the period from 1990 to now. Since 1990, sport culture has met the new trend and paradigm which pursued public welfare. Now the modem sport culture has been changed from 'spectacular sports' to 'participant sports' and moreover to become 'enjoyable sports.'
The purpose of this study was understanding of history of inter-Korean sports talks, and finding how politics has influenced to sports talks and other inter-Korean exchanges, Hopefully, this study would provide an historical basis on practical policies on the future inter-Korean sport exchanges. After successfully finishing the inter-Korean summit, it is expectable fact that all kinds of inter-Korean exchanges like civic, cultural, sports, health, environmental and all other fields would be increased. Among them sports exchanged will be most increased. Sports associations are keenly awaiting the outcome of the proposed talks as if the green light is given it could pave the way for other sporting exchanges, in line with president Kim Dae-Jung's 'Sunshine Policy'. Historically, sports exchanges have been in front of diplomatic policies toward North Korea. In fact, the inter-Korean summit might be the result of sports exchanges. Since North and South Korea had explored the possibility of a unified, single Korean team for the 1964 Tokyo Olympic Games, inter-Korean sports talks has continually taken place. However, during the Cold War period, these sports talks usually began with the appearance of great hopes and ended without positive results. North and South Korea had turned the sports talks into a political arena and creating artificial difficulties to the talks. After Seoul Olympics, North Korea got into more serious international isolation, North Korea realized the change of international circumstance, and North Korea began to change its foreign policy especially toward South Korea. During the Beijing Asian Games, North and South Korea decided to have unification soccer games by mutual consent. The Unification Soccer Games took place on October 11, in Pyongyang, and October 23, 1990, in Seoul. On October 25, 1990, eventually, North and South Korea came to reach an agreement to form the joint team. They also agreed to adopt joint team's national anthem and flag during working-level meetings. North and South Korea were successfully forming joint teams for the 41st World Table Tennis Championships and the 6th World Junior Soccer Championships in 1991. United Korean Table Tennis Team won golden medal in woman's team event. Joint Korean Junior soccer team renewed their determination to play their best and clinch a slot in the semi-finals. The recent inter-Korean basketball games sponsored by Hyundai Business Group are expected to stimulate inter-Korean exchanges, including the inter-Korean summit. Now, it is possible to expect that marching North and South Korea together at the opening ceremony of the Sydney Summer Olympics in September. In the near future, North and South Korea would agree to form join teams in various sports. Those inter-Korean sports exchanges would become a catalyst for expediting Korean reunification especially at a time when the two Koreas are wrapping up an unhappy 190o's and greeting a new millennium. But there is one condition. In the future, it would never use the sports talks again for its political purpose and never make political provocation.
Sport usually understand as a tool for recreation activities or preserving health, but it should be more than that. In historical point of view, sport has discharged its role with society, politics, and economics. Especially, politicians used sport as a tools of their political purpose. In ancient Greek and Roman period, sport had an important political value to release social discontent and classes' struggle, sport was also an important mean to train armies under the stoical Middle age. In the modern time, sport expresses its important as a symbol of nationalism and a tool for its national interests and a mirror of international relationships. The Olympic Games, the most biggest sport event, was understood as an effective place for achieving political purposes. For developing modern sport it would not a correct way that understanding sport as its own sale, sport should understand and develop multi-prospects; sport should be understand as a political activity and economical and cultural activity.