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        • KCI등재

          한반도 희귀·특산식물 노랑붓꽃의 자생지 환경 및 개체군 특성

          피정훈 ( Pi Jung-hun ),박정근 ( Jeong-geun Park ),정지영 ( Ji-young Jung ),박정석 ( Jeong-seok Park ),서강욱 ( Gang-uk Suh ),손성원 ( Sung-won Son ) 한국하천호수학회(구 한국육수학회) 2016 생태와 환경 Vol.49 No.2

          노랑붓꽃은 주로 해발 50~150 m, 경사는 2~11°의 범위에 분포하였다. 또한 대부분의 노랑붓꽃자생지는 산지계류 하천에 위치하고, 수로를 따라 인접한 경계면에 띠상으로 분포하거나 상부사면에 점의 형태로 분포하는 경향이었다. 수관열림도 (%)는 평균 11.97이었으며, BA2에서 가장 높게 나타났고, JS1에서 가장 낮게 나타났다. 광량 (mol·m<sup>-2</sup>·d<sup>-1</sup>)은 평균 6.34이었으며, BA2에서 가장 높게 나타났고 JS1에서 가장 낮게 나타났다. 개체밀도 (/㎡)는 평균 25.81이었으며, JS2에서 49.65으로 가장 높았고 JS1에서 9.3으로 가장 낮았다. 개화촉수는 BA3에서 가장 많았고, BA5에서는 가장 적게 나타났다. 개체군특성과 환경요인 사이의 상관관계분석 결과, 광량과 수관열림도가 높은 곳에서 노랑붓꽃의 촉수가 많이 출현하는 것으로 나타났다. 엽면적을 분석한 결과, 전체적으로 역-J자 형태를 나타내어, 지속적으로 작은 개체들이 이입하고 있는 것으로 나타났다. 우리의 연구결과는 개체군 동태 예측 및 노랑붓꽃의 장기적인 보전전략을 마련하는 데 중요한 기초자료로 활용될 것으로 생각된다. The sustainability of Iris koreana, a rare and endemic plant designated by the Korea Forest Service, is threatened due to artificial factors such as habitats loss and climate change etc. and internal factors such as changes in biological properties of the habitats etc. but conservation biology research has not been performed in South Korea. The objective of this study is to establish the species conservation strategies by analyzing the characteristics of their habitats, including: 1) Population characteristics, and 2) habitat analysis of the vegetation and abiotic environments. From April to May, 2015, population characteristics [density (stemsm<sup>-2</sup>), flowering rate (%) and leaf area size (㎠)] in I. koreana habitats such as Buan1~6 (BA1~6), Jangseong1~2 (JS1~2) and vegetation characteristics (phytosociological research and ordination analysis), and abiotic environments [soil temperature (℃), soil humidity (%), transmitted light (mol·m<sup>-2</sup>·d<sup>-1</sup>) and canopy openness (%)] were measured. I. koreana was mainly distributed at elevation 50 to 150 m and 2 to 11° slope. Slope direction was shown as 90 to 193°. The average degree of canopy openness was 11.9%. It showed the highest at BA2 (17.5) and the lowest at JS1 (7.7). The average degree of transmitted light was 6.3 mol·m<sup>-2</sup>·d<sup>-1</sup>. It showed the highest at BA2 (10.1) and the lowest at JS1 (3.6). Population density showed average 25.8 (stems m<sup>-2</sup>). It showed the highest at JS2 (19.7) and the lowest at JS1 (9.3). flowering stems showed average 16.9 (stems). It showed the highest at BA3 (35) and the lowest at BA5 (4). Leaf area size was average 94.1 ㎠.

        • KCI등재

          희귀식물 광 릉요강꽃 자생지 환경 및 개체군 특성

          피정훈 ( Jung Hun Pi ),정지영 ( Ji Young Jung ),박정근 ( Jeong Geun Park ),양형호 ( Hyung Ho Yang ),김은혜 ( Eun Hye Kim ),서강욱 ( Gang Uk Suh ),이철호 ( Cheul Ho Lee ),손성원 ( Sung Won Son ) 한국하천호수학회(구 한국육수학회) 2015 생태와 환경 Vol.48 No.4

          The sustainability of Cypripedium japonicum, a rare plant designated by the Korea Forest Service, is threatened due to artificial factors such as habitat loss and climate change etc. and internal factors such as changes in biological properties of the habitat etc. but conservation research has not been performed in South Korea. The objective of this study is to establish the species conservation strategies by analyzing the characteristics of their habitats, including: 1) Population characteristics, and 2) habitat analysis of the vegetation and abiotic environments. From April to September, 2014, population characteristics [density (stems m-2), flowering rate (%), and leaf area (cm2)] in Cypripedium japonicum habitats such as Chuncheon (CC), Hwacheon (HC), Muju (MJ), and Gwangyang (GY) and vegetation characteristics (plant sociological research and ordination analysis), and abiotic environments [temperature (℃), relative humidity (%), transmitted light (mol·m-2·d-1) and canopy openness (%)] were measured. Cypripedium japonicum was mainly distributed at elevation 450 to 990 m and 5 to 30° slope. Slope direction was shown as 0 to 110°. Habitats temperature (mean 18.94℃) was well matched to seasonal changes. Differences among sites showed greater level according to latitude difference. It showed the highest in habitat, GY located in the South. On the other hand, relative humidity (77.38%) didn``t show much difference among sites. The average degree of canopy openness was 18.17%. It showed the highest at HC (22.1%) and the lowest at MJ (16.1%). The average degree of transmitted light was 9.1 mol·m-2·d-1. It showed the highest at CC (10.6 mol·m-2·d-1) and the lowest at GY (6.87 mol·m-2·d-1). Chlorophyll content showed average 26.12 SPAD. It showed the highest at MJ (30.64 SPAD value) and the lowest at HC (23.69 SPAD value). Leaf area was average 253.35 cm2. It showed the highest at CC (281.51 cm2) and the lowest at HC (238.23 cm2).

        • KCI등재

          한국 제주도 한란의 생태 진단에 기초한 보전 및 서식지 복원에 관한 연구

          정지영 ( Jung Ji-young ),신재권 ( Jae-kwon Shin ),김한결 ( Han-gyeoul Kim ),변준기 ( Jun-gi Byun ),피정훈 ( Jung-hun Pi ),구본열 ( Bon-yeol Koo ),박정근 ( Jeong-geun Park ),서강욱 ( Gang-uk Suh ),이철호 ( Cheul-ho Lee ),손성원 ( S 한국하천호수학회(구 한국육수학회) 2016 생태와 환경 Vol.49 No.1

          한란은 불법 채취 및 서식 환경 변화에 의해 지속성 확보가 위협받고 있음에도 불구하고, 종의 분포 변화, 개체군 및 자생 특성, 그리고 이에 따른 서식지 복원에 관한 연구가 부족하다. 본 연구에서는 2014년 제주도 일원의 한란자생지 탐사를 통하여 확인된 27개의 한란 자생지를 대상으로 분포 면적의 변화, 개체군 및 자생 환경을 분석하였으며, 한란의 종 특성을 고려한 대체 서식지 조성 전략을 마련하였다. 조사된 한란은 제주도 해발 200 m~700m 사이에 위치하였다. 2004년과 비교하여 한란의 분포 범위는 크게 감소 (-82%)하였다. 한란은 사면형 (예, 선돌지역) 및 계곡형 (예, 따라비오름) 서식지, 그리고 졸참나무 및 개서어나무가 우점하는 낙엽활엽수림 (선돌) 및 구실잣밤나무가 우점하는 상록활엽수림 모두에서 자라고 있어 특정한 서식 환경 선호성은 관찰되지 않았고, 공중습도가 높은 계곡부에서 보다 많이 관찰되었다. 조사된 총 96개체의 한란의 평균 밀도는 942.6 개체 ha<sup>-1</sup>로 조사되었고, 모두 소형(평균 잎 길이=10.7±1.1 cm 및 촉 수=1.2±0.2) 개체였으며, 개화 및 결실 개체는 관찰되지 않았다. 연구 결과에 의하면, 제주 한란은 멸종위기 (Critically Endangered, CR) 식물로 분류된다. 한란의 표현형 유연성 (Phenotypic plasticity)은 한란이 그늘진 서식지 환경에서 지속할 수 있도록 도움을 준 것으로 판단되며, 최근의 닫힌 임과 및 낮은 광환경은 한란의 생활사에 부정적인 영향을 주고 있었다. 한란 서식지 복원은 초지 또는 낮은 관목수종의 개방된 환경을 조성하는 것이 중요하다. Cymbidium kanran Makino is being threatened in its own habitats due illegal collecting and habitat changes by vegetation growth along historical landuse change. In this study, we established habitat restoration model for conservation of C. kanran based on ecological diagnosis. Through exploration to Jeju Island in 2014 and 2015, we identified 27 unknown habitats of C. kanran and in there, abiotic variables and vegetation structure and composition were quantified. Altitudinal distribution of C. kanran was between 200m ~700 m a.s.l. and compared to distribution in 2004, Area of Occupation (AOO) decreased at 82%. Specific habitat affinity was not observed by evenly found in mountain slope and valley and summergreen and evergreen broadleaved forests, but likely more abundant in valley habitats with higher soil and ambient moisture. Total of 96 individual of C. kanran was observed with an average density of 942.6 individuals ha<sup>-1</sup>. The plants showed relatively short leaf length (average=10.7 cm±1.1 cm) and small number of pseudo bulbs (1.2±0.2). Flowering and fruiting individuals were not observed in field. C. kanran was classified into endangered plant species as CR (Critically Endangered) category by IUCN criteria. Phenotypic plasticity of C. kanran was likely support to sustain in more shaded habitat environment and recent habatat changes to closed canopy and low light availability may exhibit negatively effects to C. kanran`s life history. Restoring C. kanran habitat should create open environment as grassland and low woody species density.

        • KCI등재

          한반도 특산식물 꼬리말발도리 개체군 구조 및 서식지 특성

          정지영 ( Jung Ji-young ),피정훈 ( Jung-hun Pi ),박정근 ( Jeong-geun Park ),정미진 ( Mi-jin Jeong ),김은혜 ( Eun-hye Kim ),서강욱 ( Gang-uk Seo ),이철호 ( Cheul-ho Lee ),손성원 ( Sung-won Son ) 한국하천호수학회(구 한국육수학회) 2016 생태와 환경 Vol.49 No.1

          꼬리말발도리는 한반도 특산식물임에도 불구하고 종의 분포, 개체군 및 자생지 특성, 그리고 이것에 기초한 종 보전 연구를 찾아보기 어렵다. 본 연구는 꼬리말발도리를 대상으로 종 분포 및 생태 특성을 분석하였다. 꼬리말발도리의 분포 특성은 문헌, 표본 및 현장 조사 자료를 참고하였다. 현장 조사는 6개 지역에서 11개의 대방형구 (15×15 m)와 33개 소방형구 (5×5 m)의 자생 집단을 대상으로 2014년 5월부터 10월까지 실시하였다. 개체군 특성으로 풍부성(밀도, 피도), demographic 속성 (개화율 및 결실율)이 조사 되었으며, 자생지 특성으로 식생 (구조 및 종조성), 임내광량 (광량, 수관열림도) 및 토양 (온·습도, 이화학 속성) 특성을 분석하였다. 꼬리말발도리는 경상도 (강원도 태백 포함)가 분포 중심이었으며, 넓은 해발 분포 범위 (평균 493 m, 및 해발 290~959m 범위)를 나타내었다. 꼬리말발도리 자생지의 평균 사면경사는 16° (7~35° 범위)이었으며, 주로 너덜 계곡 입지 및 그곳과 접한 사면하부에 분포하였다. 꼬리말발도리 개체군의 소방형구 (5 m×5 m) 내에서 평균 12.5개체가 출현하였고, ㎡당 평균밀도는 0.5를 보였다. 평균 개화율은 15%로 낮은 개화율을 보이며 영양생식에 의한 번식이 빈번히 이루어지는 것으로 판단된다. 꼬리말발도리 자생지의 조사구 수준 식물상은 138분류군이었다. 꼬리말발도리 자생지의 식생은 너덜 입지환경을 잘 반영하는 층층나무 (중요치 25.5%) 및 물푸레나무 (중요치 15.8%)가 우점하는 서식지로 나타났다. 층층나무 유형은 급경사지역, 그리고 물푸레나무 유형은 주로 높은 해발고도에 분포하는 특성이 관찰되었다. 연구 결과, 꼬리말발도리는 인간 활동보다는 범람과 같은 자연 교란, 기후변화 및 진화생태학적인 요인에 의해 개체수의 변동이 예상되는 종으로 판단되며, 개체군 및 자생지의 지속성을 위협하는 뚜렷한 증거는 찾아볼 수 없었다. Deutzia paniculata is an endemic species to the Korean Peninsula. Despite of importance for conservation, the population structure and habitat characteristics of D. paniculata have not been determined yet. We analyzed the ecological characteristics of the species based on the literature review and field survey. Field survey was conducted on May to October 2014 during which 11 quadrats of size 15×15 m were studied in six regions. Each of the quadrats were further divided into 5×5 m small quadrats and population characteristics were recorded. The population and habitat characteristics were analyzed, including species abundance (density and coverage), demographic attributes (flowering rates and fruiting plants), vegetation (structure, species composition), light availability (transmitted light and canopy openness) and soil characteristics (temperature and humidity). We found that D. paniculata mainly distributed in Gyeongsangdo (including Taebaek in Gangwondo) along a broad elevational range of 290~959 m (mean: 493 m) above sea level. In preferred habitat the species grows within the slope range of 7° and 35° with the average of 16°. D. paniculata was generally distributed on talus deposits and low adjacent slopes. The average number of individual plants per small quadrat was 12.5 with the mean density 0.5 stemsm<sup>-2</sup>. The vegetative reproduction was frequent in D. paniculata and mean flowering rate was as low as 15%. Altogether 138 taxa were found in whole observation area with the dominant tree species mainly spring ephemerals, such as Cornus controversa (importance value: 25.5%) and Fraxinus rhynchophylla (importance value: 15.8%). Although, C. controversa usually grows on steep slopes and F. rhynchophylla mostly distributed at high-altitudes, however, both species distributed in disturbed environments and among talus deposits. Thus based on our results, we concluded that D. paniculata is a disturbance-prone species, primarily existing in habitats subjected to natural disturbances, such as floods. The species occurs less at anthropogenically disturbed sites, thus there is no apparent threat to the populations and habitat of D. paniculata.

        • KCI등재

          세뿔투구꽃의 자생지 식생과 환경특성

          박정근 ( Jeong-geun Park ),피정훈 ( Jung-hun Pi ),정지영 ( Ji-young Jung ),박정석 ( Jeong-seok Park ),양형호 ( Hyung-ho Yang ),이철호 ( Cheul-ho Lee ),서강욱 ( Gang-uk Suh ),손성원 ( Sung-won Son ) 한국환경생태학회 2016 한국환경생태학회지 Vol.30 No.5

          본 연구는 희귀 및 특산식물과 멸종위기야생식물 Ⅱ급으로 지정되어 있는 세뿔투구꽃의 자생지 환경을 조사하여 보전 및 복원 시 기초자료를 제공하고자 한다. 조사결과 세뿔투구꽃의 자생지는 해발고도 260-728m범위와 경사 4-39˚의 계곡부에 주로 생육하는 것으로 조사되었다. 식생 및 관속식물 조사결과 7개 지역의 20개 방형구내에서 조사된 관속식물은 총 147분류군이 출현하였으며, 각 조사구내 초본층 피도와 빈도를 기초로 한 세뿔투구꽃의 중요치를 산출한결과 평균 24.3%로 나타났다. 종다양도는 1.23로 산출되었으며, 우점도와 균등도는 각각 0.22와 0.77로 확인되었다. 토양분석 결과 토성은 미사질양토(4site)와 사질양토(2site), 양토(1site) 순으로 나타났으며, 유기물함량은 7.83%, 전질소함량은 0.35%, pH는 5.69으로 측정되었다. 환경요인과 개체군특성에 기초한 상관분석에서는 세뿔투구꽃의 자생지에서 엽록소와 경사도간의 강한 부의상관이 인정되었고, 개화율과 토양습도는 부의상관이 인정되었다. 자생지의 안정적인 유지를 위해서는 서식지 보전이 중요하며 서식지 주변에 보호구역을 설정이 필요하다고 판단된다. The habitat characteristics of Aconitum austrokoreense Koidz. were investigated to provide basic data for conservation and restoration. The altitude ranged from 260m to 728m with inclinations of 4-39˚. As a result of vegetation survey within natural populations, a total of 147 taxa were identified inside 20 quadrates in 7 natural habitats. The importance value of Aconitum austrokoreense was 23.0% based on the coverage and frequency of the herbaceous layer and sat is more dominant. Species diversity was 1.23, and dominace and evenness were found to be 0.22 and 0.77, respectively. The soil type were silty loam (four sites), sandy loam (two sites) and loam (one site). The average field organic matter was 7.83% and the total nitrogen and pH were 0.35, and 5.69. Correlation analysis between environmental factors and population characteristic showed the correlations between chlorophyll content and slope, flowering rate and soil humidity. Conservation on habitats conditions is important for stable maintenance the flora and the surrounding area including habitats has to be designated a protection area for habitats conservation.

        • KCI등재

          서울의 두 도시 근린공원에서 평가된 탄소수지

          김경순 ( Kim Gyung Soon ),피정훈 ( Jung Hun Pi ),안지홍 ( Ji Hong An ),임치홍 ( Chi Hong Lim ),정성희 ( Song Hie Jung ),주승진 ( Seung Jin Joo ),이창석 ( Chang Seok Lee ) 한국하천호수학회(구 한국육수학회) 2016 생태와 환경 Vol.49 No.1

          본 연구는 서울시 노원구에 위치한 두 도시공원 (노해근린공원, 상계근린공원)의 탄소수지를 정량하고 인접한 자연공원인 불암산 신갈나무림을 대상으로 동일한 조사를 수행하여 그 개선방안을 찾기 위해 수행하였다. 순생산량(NPP)은 상대생장법을 적용하여 측정하였고, 토양호흡량은 EGM-4를 이용하여 측정하였다. 노해근린공원과 상계근린공원에 조성된 식생의 순생산량은 각각 5.4 ton C ha<sup>-1</sup> yr<sup>-1</sup>와 4.8 ton C ha<sup>-1</sup> yr<sup>-1</sup>로 나타났고, 불암산 신갈나무군락의 순생산량은 6.3 ton C ha<sup>-1</sup> yr<sup>-1</sup>로 나타났다. 연간 종속영양생물 토양호흡량은 노해근린공원과 상계근린공원에서 각각 5.3 ton C ha<sup>-1</sup> yr<sup>-1</sup>와 3.4 ton C ha<sup>-1</sup> yr<sup>-1</sup>로 측정되었고, 불암산 신갈나무군락의 토양호흡량은 4.1 ton C ha<sup>-1</sup> yr<sup>-1</sup>로 측정되었다. 공원구역에서 나지가 차지하는 면적을 반영하여 산정한 노해근린공원과 상계근린공원의 순생태계생산량은 각각 - 1.0 ton C ha<sup>-1</sup> yr<sup>-1</sup>와 0.6 ton C ha<sup>-1</sup> yr<sup>-1</sup>로 나타났고, 불암산 신갈나무군락의 순생태계생산량은 2.3 ton C ha<sup>-1</sup> yr<sup>-1</sup>로 나타났다. 순생태계생산량 정보에 근거하면 노해근린공원은 탄소배출원으로 분류되었다. 반면에 상계근린공원은 탄소흡수원으로 구분되었지만 그 역할은 자연식생과 비교해 크게 낮은 것으로 평가되었다. 도시공원의 낮은 순생태계생산량은 자연림과 비교해 낮은 순생산량과 탄소배출 기능이 있는 나지를 넓게 배정한 것에 기인하는 것으로 나타났다. This study was carried out to assess the carbon budget of two urban parks and one natural park and to prepare the plan for improving the ecological functions of the park including carbon sink. Net Ecosystem Production (NEP) of those study sites was calculated from the relationship between Net Primary Production (NPP) and soil respiration of each study site. To understand carbon budget of the whole area designated as the park, carbon budget of the urban park was analyzed by classifying the vegetated and the non-vegetated zones. NEP of the Nohae and the Sanggye parks calculated by reflecting areal size that the non-vegetated zones occupy were shown in - 1.0 and 0.6 tonCha<sup>-1</sup> yr<sup>-1</sup>, respectively. On the other hand, NEP of Mt. Bulam natural park as a reference site was in 2.3 ton C ha<sup>-1</sup> yr<sup>-1</sup>. Based on the result, the Nohae park was assessed as carbon source rather than carbon sink. On the other hand, the Sanggye park was classified as carbon sink but the role was poor compared with natural park. The result is, first of all, due to lower NPP of the vegetation introduced for the parks compared with natural vegetation. The other reason is due to wide arrangement of non-vegetated zone. To solve those problems and thereby to create the urban park with high ecological quality, selection of plant species suitable for the ecological characteristic of the park, their arrangement imitated natural vegetation, and ecological zoning were recommended.

        • KCI등재

          토지이용 특성에 어울리는 완충식생 활용 계획

          안지홍 ( Ji Hong An ),임치홍 ( Chi Hong Lim ),임윤경 ( Yun Kyung Lim ),남경배 ( Kyeong Bae Nam ),피정훈 ( Jung Hun Pi ),이창석 ( Chang Seok Lee ) 한국물환경학회(구 한국수질보전학회) 2016 한국물환경학회지 Vol.32 No.5

          Since Gyungan stream is included in the protected zone of the water supply source of the Metropolitan area in Korea, the water quality needs to be continuously managed. Therefore, a measure is required that can inhibit the flow of water pollutant into the water body and facilitate the ecological restoration of riparian vegetation. A field survey was conducted on the hydrological characteristics of the landscape elements established on the downstream catchment of the Gyungan stream, the result of which showed that the paddy field and urbanized area can be regarded as point pollution sources. The upland field can be regarded as a non-point pollution source. In order to improve the water quality in the Paldang lake, we first recommended creating a riparian vegetation belt. We also suggested introducing a treatment wetland and an artificial plant island to places in which the creation of a riparian vegetation belt is not ensured. We recommend creating a treatment wetland equipped with diverse functional groups. For creating the plant island, we recommend Zizania latifolia and Typha orientalis, which showed the highest productivity among aquatic plants. The former could be introduced around the outlet of a paddy field and the estuary of tributaries, while the latter could be introduced to a water body directly sourced from mountainous land.

        • KCI등재

          연구논문 : 수변 완충식생대 조성을 위한 경안천 하류유역의 강변식생 실태 진단

          안지홍 ( Ji Hong An ),임치홍 ( Chi Hong Lim ),임윤경 ( Yun Kyung Lim ),남경배 ( Kyeong Bae Nam ),피정훈 ( Jung Hun Pi ),문정숙 ( Jeong Sook Moon ),방제용 ( Je Yong Bang ),이창석 ( Chang Seok Lee ) 한국물환경학회(구 한국수질보전학회) 2015 한국물환경학회지 Vol.31 No.6

          A landcover map watershed of downstream reach in the Gyungan stream was made by using the existing land use map and interpreting satellite images and aerial photos. Based on the map, we analyzed land use patterns of this basin. Broad-leaved forest occupied the largest area among landscape elements established in this watershed. The total area of the zone designated as the waterside district by the central government was 4.7 km2, and broad-leaved forest occupied the largest area as 33.9% in this zone. Therefore, the area did not meet the qualifications of riparian zones. Riparian vegetation established in the Gyungan stream watershed was composed of Phragmites communis, Miscanthus sacchariflorus, Salix gracilistyla, Salix koreensis. But terrestrial vegetation elements such as Ambrosia trifida, Ailanthus altissima, Robinia pseudoacacia also appeared in this area. On the other hand, Phragmites japonica, Salix gracilistyla, Salix koreensis, Salix integra, Ulmus davidiana and so on appeared in the riparian zone the reference streams. Differently from the vegetation established on the reference streams, terrestrial vegetation elements appeared frequently in the Gyungan stream watershed. This result would be due to that the Gyungan stream watershed is exposed to excessive human interferences.

        • KCI등재

          수질 오염물질 배출저감을 위한 완충식생 복원 모델 개발

          안지홍 ( Ji Hong An ),임치홍 ( Chi Hong Lim ),임윤경 ( Yun Kyung Lim ),남경배 ( Kyeong Bae Nam ),피정훈 ( Jung Hun Pi ),문정숙 ( Jeong Sook Moon ),방제용 ( Je Yong Bang ),이창석 ( Chang Seok Lee ) 한국물환경학회(구 한국수질보전학회) 2016 한국물환경학회지 Vol.32 No.2

          In order to improve water quality in the Paldang Lake, a riparian vegetation belt, treatment wetland, and artificial floating island were designed for introduction in the upland field, the estuary of tributaries, and the section of water facing mountainous land, respectively. We synthesized vegetation information collected from a reference river and found that herbaceous, shrubby, and tree vegetation zones tended to be dominated by Phragmites japonica, Phalaris arundinacea, etc.; Salix gracilistyla, S. integra, etc.; and S. koreensis, S. subfragilis, and Morus alba, respectively. In our plan, the herbaceous vegetation zone, which is established on floodplains with a high frequency of disturbance, will be left in its natural state. A shrubby vegetation zone will be created by imitating the species composition of the reference river in the ecotone between floodplain and embankment. A tree vegetation zone will be created by imitating species composition on the embankment slope. In the treatment wetland, we plan to create emerged and softwood plant zones by imitating the species composition of the Zizania latifolia community, the Typha orientalis community, the P. communis community, the S. integra community, and the S. koreensis community. The floating island will be created by restoring Z. latifolia and T. orientalis for water purification purposes.

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