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      • KCI등재

        Dual role of reactive oxygen species in autophagy and apoptosis induced by compound PN in prostate cancer cells

        최현덕,김광연,박광일,김상헌,Park Sul-Gi,Yu Sun-Nyoung,김영우,김동섭,정경태,안순철 대한독성 유전단백체 학회 2021 Molecular & cellular toxicology Vol.17 No.1

        Background Pharbitis nil (L.) Choisy (PN) is used as a traditional herb in East Asia and exhibits anti-parasitic, purgative, diuretic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer activities. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-cancer activity are not well understood. Objective This study aims to elucidate the effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS), generated after treatment with the compound PN, on the induction of apoptosis and autophagy, which are pathways that underly the mechanisms of cell death and cell survival in human prostate cancer cells. Results The MTT assay and western blot analysis were used to assess the effects of compound PN on cell viability and the expression of apoptosis- and autophagy-related proteins in prostate cancer PC-3 cells. The effects of PN on apoptosis (via annexin V/propidium iodide staining), autophagy (via acridine orange staining), and ROS (via DCFH-DA staining) were investigated using flow cytometry. Compound PN induced the production of intracellular and mitochondrial ROS leading to increased apoptosis and autophagy in PC-3 cells. Interestingly, pretreatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), an intracellular ROS scavenger, enhanced compound PN-induced apoptosis, but reduced levels of autophagy. In contrast, pretreatment with diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), an inhibitor of mitochondrial ROS, reduced compound PN-induced apoptosis and enhanced autophagy. Inhibition of autophagy led to acceleration of apoptosis in a PN-induced ROS-dependent manner. Compound PN-induced ROS production from two different sources, an intracellular source and mitochondrial source. ROS production in these differing locations had different effects on apoptosis and autophagy. They acted either by promoting cell death or cell survival through regulating autophagy to either escape or enhance apoptotic cell death. Conclusion This crosstalk between ROS-activated signals in apoptosis and autophagy induction by PN provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms of this compound and suggests that PN may be a potential therapy for prostate cancer treatment. Background Pharbitis nil (L.) Choisy (PN) is used as a traditional herb in East Asia and exhibits anti-parasitic, purgative, diuretic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer activities. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-cancer activity are not well understood. Objective This study aims to elucidate the effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS), generated after treatment with the compound PN, on the induction of apoptosis and autophagy, which are pathways that underly the mechanisms of cell death and cell survival in human prostate cancer cells. Results The MTT assay and western blot analysis were used to assess the effects of compound PN on cell viability and the expression of apoptosis- and autophagy-related proteins in prostate cancer PC-3 cells. The effects of PN on apoptosis (via annexin V/propidium iodide staining), autophagy (via acridine orange staining), and ROS (via DCFH-DA staining) were investigated using flow cytometry. Compound PN induced the production of intracellular and mitochondrial ROS leading to increased apoptosis and autophagy in PC-3 cells. Interestingly, pretreatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), an intracellular ROS scavenger, enhanced compound PN-induced apoptosis, but reduced levels of autophagy. In contrast, pretreatment with diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), an inhibitor of mitochondrial ROS, reduced compound PN-induced apoptosis and enhanced autophagy. Inhibition of autophagy led to acceleration of apoptosis in a PN-induced ROS-dependent manner. Compound PN-induced ROS production from two different sources, an intracellular source and mitochondrial source. ROS production in these differing locations had different effects on apoptosis and autophagy. They acted either by promoting cell death or cell survival through regulating autophagy to either escape or enhance apoptotic cell death. Conclusion This crosstalk between ROS-activated signals in apoptosis and autophagy induction by PN provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms of this compound and suggests that PN may be a potential therapy for prostate cancer treatment.

      • KCI등재

        「철학상담을 통해서 본 인문치료」에 관하여

        최현덕 대동철학회 2010 大同哲學 Vol.53 No.-

        이 글은, 강원대학교 인문과학 연구소가 한국 연구재단이 지원하는 인문한국 사업의 일환으로서 수행하고 있는 “인문학 진홍을 위한 인문치료” 라는 아젠다의 핵심적인 개념인 ‘인문치료’를 소개하고 있는 최희봉의 논문에 대한 논평문이다. 인문한국 사업은 현 한국 연구재단의 전신인 한국 학술진흥재단이 ‘인문학의 위기’에 대응하는 한 가지 정책으로 도입한 지원 사업으로서, 2010년 대동철학회는 이 사업을 수행하고 있는 인문학 관련 연구소 다섯 곳을 추계 학술대회에 초청해 함께 인문학에 대해 성찰할 기회를 마련했다. 이 글에서는, 그간에 진행된 인문학 및 인문학 위기 담론을 염두에 두면서, 최희봉의 발제문에 담긴 다음과 같은 논점에 대해 토론하면서 논의의 심화를 위한 질문을 던진다. 첫째, 인문치료 사업 역시 ‘인문학의 위기’에 대응하는 한 가지 기획으로서, 현실에 개입하고자 하는 의지에 의해 진행된다면, 인문치료 사업은 인문학을 어떠한 방향으로 변화시키게 될지 그리고 그 변화는, 현재 “인문학의 위기”라 부르는 상황에 비추어 볼 때 얼마만큼의 해결이 될 수 있는가? 둘째, 인문학을 기반 학문으로 하고 있는 ‘인문치료’가, 의학을 기반으로 하고 태동한 ‘의료인문학’보다 더 인문학적이라고 할 수 있는 지점은 무엇인가? 셋째, 이론적 학술활동을 전제로 하고 있는 인문학의 사업으로 연구재단의 지원을 받고 있으면서 실천적 활동이 핵심이 되는 사업을 수행해가는데 있어서 생길 수 있는 제약, 연구재단의 평가체제에 대한 대책이 있는가? 넷째, ‘병’과 ‘치료’의 개념이 전제로 하고 있는 사고방식의 체계, 심신이원론적 인간관은 서구의 주류의학계에서 통용되는 것과 많이 달라 보이지 않는데, 여기에 관한 인문학적 성찰을 바탕으로 하는 대안의 모색이 필요하지 않을까? 다섯째, 인간의 마음을 치유하려는 ‘인문치료’의 노력이 심리치료와 다른 점이 무엇일까, 즉 모두가 인간의 마음을 치유하는 것을 목표로 하고 있고 인문학적 지식이 그 과정에서 원용된다고 했을 때, ‘인문치료’에 있어서 보다 더 인문학적 색채는 어디에서 어떻게 주장될 수 있는가? 이러한 질문들이 ‘인문학의 위기’가 거론되는 맥락에서 인문치료 사업이라는 실례를 통하여 인문학의 성격 및 의의를 보다 더 규명하는데 일조할 수 있기를 바란다. This Thesis is to discuss the article of Heebong Choi introducing the concept of 'Humanities Therapy' as the core concept of the research project of the Institute for Humanities & Sciences at the Kwangwon National Unviersity in the framework of the Humanities Korea Program supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea. The Humanities Korea Program was introduces as a counter-policy of the above foundation to meet with the situation defined as the 'crisis of humanities'. In October 2010 the Daedong Philosophical Associaltion invited five humanities institutes performing the research projects of the Humanities Korea Program to hold a symposium to reflect on the problems of humanities today. In this article I discuss several issues contained in the paper of Heebong Choi, being conscious of the context of the discourses on the humanities and the crisis of the humanities developped in the last twenty years in South Korea. Based on the discussions I raise the following five questions: (1) If the project of the 'Humanities Therapy' was launched as a counter-measure responding the 'crisis of humanities', in what extend or in what aspect it could offer a solution? Could it provoke a change of humanities itself? In which direction? (2) In comparison to the 'Medical Humanities' which has the medical sciences as its scientifical basis, does the humanities play more essential role in the 'Humanities Therapy'? In what sense? (3) The humanities projects supported by the National Research Foundation has the assumption of the humanities as theoretical activity. However, the 'Humanities Therapy' has its place in the 'praxis'. Is there a counter-measure for a possible conflict caused by the different notions of the activities of humanities. Could it cause an excessive burden to the staff due to the competitive evaluation system of the research foundation? (4) The system of the conception presupposed in the concepts of 'disease' and 'therapy', especially the view of the human beings based on the mind-body-dichotomy seems not so much different as that of the Western orthodox medicine. Isn't it necessary to develop an alternative based on humanistic reflections? (5) What is the difference between the 'Humanities Therapy' and the psychotherapy? Where can we find the aspects more rooted in the humanities in the 'Humanities Therapy'? These questions are intended to deepen the discussion on the humanities in the face of the situation of the 'crisis of humanities'.

      • The Case of Scientific Policy Making based on Data Analysis

        최현덕,조기행 한국지방정부학회 2017 한국지방정부학회 학술대회 논문집 Vol.2017 No.2

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 9시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

      • KCI등재
      • KCI등재

        카노모형에서 의사결정나무모형을 이용한 통상우편서비스 품질속성 분석

        최현덕,류문찬 한국품질경영학회 2016 품질경영학회지 Vol.44 No.4

        Purpose: The demand for ordinary mail services supplied by ‘Korea POST’ is decreasing due to the opening of mail service market and the growth of alternative communication media such as e-mail and SNS. To overcome this situation it is urgent to introduce new services that can be able to appeal customers and to improve existing services. Methods: A field survey is conducted to corporate customers who send ordinary mails and individual customers who receive these mails, respectively. Quality attributes of ordinary mail services are classified by two-dimensional perspectives in terms of Kano model. Decision tree model is utilized for classifying the quality attributes. Comparative analyses are done whether there are perceived differences on each quality attributes between corporate customers and individual customers. Results: Quality attributes such as ‘discount postal charges’, ‘sending small packages by simply dropping it into a mail box’, ‘sending a mail of any appearance’, ‘delivering a mail anywhere’, and ‘receiving a mail at a preferred time where a customer is located ’ are classified differently according to some market segments, while most of the quality attributes are classified as attractive or one-dimensional. Conclusion: Decision tree model has been found to be most effective to classify quality attributes for each market segment especially when trying to classify quality attributes belonging to ‘gray areas’. Based on the perceived differences on quality attributes among customers, strategic implications are suggested to obtain potential customers and to have competitive advantages.

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