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Carbon sequestration, amendment on green house gas emission, and soil remediation can enhanced by the biochar. Biochar effects on soil fertility and nutrient cycling. Crops growing on the biochar applied soil could be affected on its characteristics. There are many seeding mixes for a lot of vegetable seedling. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of biochar contents of seeding mixes on early growing of lettuce (Lactuca sative) and red pepper (Capsicum annunm), The consist of treatments were control(0 : 1, biochar ratio to seeding mixes (w/w)), 1 : 9(10%), 3 : 7 (30%), 5 : 5 (50%), and 7 : 3 (70%), respectively. The pH of mixed substrates were increased from 5.5 (control) to 8.3 (biochar 70%) depending on biochar contents, while the EC were decreased from 2.1 (control) to 0.8 (biochar 70%). As the biochar content increased in the mixed substrate, the T-N and K content were decreased. The plant length, leaf number, and dry weight of lettuce and red pepper were in order of 50%, 30%, 10%, control, and 70%. These characteristics of lettuce and red pepper seedling showed significantly differences. Increasing content of biochar (10%, 30%, and 50%) progressively activate growing of the lettuce and red pepper but at 70% treatment growing of these were retarded. As the biochar content in the mixed substrate increased T-N, P, K, Mg, and Na content of lettuce, 30 days after sowing, were increased, but Ca content not showed differences. 80 days after sowing red pepper seedling showed different nutrient content compared to those of lettuce seedling. The content of K of red pepper seedling increased depending on the biochar content but the content of P, Ca, and Mg were decreased. On the point of view nutrient content of seeding mixes, at the 50% treatment plot, the amount of nitrogen was 80% of the control, but fresh weight of the lettuce and red pepper were most heavy. Thus, it was assumed that early growing of the lettuce and red pepper seedling were affected by the action of biochar that adsorption and holding nutrient reaction in seeding mixes. In conclusion, adding the biochar to seeding mixes was considered as an important measures for growing healthy seedling and carbon sequestration. More field experiments are needed to verify the biochar effect of crop growth over the entire growing season.
Temperature increases due to climate change are affecting various sectors of agriculture. Elevated temperatures can affect the growth and yield of crops and can also affect the utilization efficiency of nutrient input materials such as soil nutrients, chemical fertilizers, and compost. The outflow of non-point pollutant sources from farmlands is strongly influenced by physical factors such as rainfall, rainfall intensity, and slope of agricultural land. In order to simulate the outflow of non-point pollutant sources due to climate change, it is necessary to find out not only the physical factors but also the changes in the biological factors induced by the elevated temperature in detail. Temperature is one of the most important environmental factors controlling the growth and yield of plants, and the rate of reaction depends on temperature in all biological processes. Elevated temperatures increase nitrogen mineralization and net nitrification rate. The degradation, absorption, utilization, and outflow of the variety of nutrient input materials for crop cultivation can differ due to temperature rise. This study was carried out to investigate the changes of nitrogen in the nutrients of the cultivated waters by cultivating rice and maize in pots after simulating climate change and by establishing an elevated temperature environment with the chemical fertilizer and livestock compost. The elevated temperature environment was established using the modified medium open-top chamber whose width is 6m and height is 3m. The medium open-top chamber has a merit of increasing only temperature while maintaining the environmental factors such as rainfall, wind, and sunlight intensity similar as those in the field. The maximum temperature in the open-top chamber measured on the 15th of May, 2018 was higher by 2.7℃ than the field, while the average temperature was higher by 0.4℃ so that the elevated temperature could be applied to the rice and maize throughout the growth period. The rice and maize were planted in Wagner pots filled with sandy loam and clay loam, and then placed in a medium open-top chamber and grown at elevated temperatures. The analysis results of nitrogen by periodically collecting the cultivation water from the Wagner pots during the cultivation period of the rice and maize showed that the NO<sub>3</sub>―N concentration in the paddy cultivation water was decreased in the no-fertilization block, chemical fertilizer treated block, and cow dung compost treated block in the paddy cultivation sandy loam under elevated temperature compared to those in the field. Meanwhile, the NH<sub>4</sub>― N concentration was increased in the rice cultivation clay loam soil in all the treated blocks compared to the field. The NO<sub>3</sub>―N concentration in the cultivated water was decreased in all the treatment blocks in the maize cultivation clay loam soil by the elevated temperature than that of field. However, NH<sub>4</sub>―N concentration in the water from the maize cultivation sandy loam soil, as well as the clay loam soil with the chemical fertilizer, was increased by elevated temperature compared to the field. The results indicate that the nitrogen changes in the water of the paddy field and upland are induced under the elevated temperature. The outflow of the non-point pollutant sources towards the water system near the cultivation fields also can be changed by rainfall.