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Hsu Kuanag-ch'I, who was the progressive official and scholar, has gotten known as the first Chinese acceptor of His-hsueh(Catholic and Western sciences and technologies)from the west at the end 16th century. He was appointed President of board of Ceremonies(禮部尙書) and Grand Secretary of Tung-Ko(東閣大學士) and had the brilliant beaureaucratic career which was started to work as an officer (bachelor in the Hanlin Academy ) from 42 years old in 1604. At 1603, he was baptized by the J. de Rocha under the name Paul, and began a religions life. Most scholars who were accepted His-hsueh usually were received sciences and technologies at first and then the Catholic. He, however, got ahead received Catholic and next sciences and technologies vice versa. From now on, the studies of Hsu's attitudes toward his hsueh have been given emphasis on and looked into his religions life or his perspective of sciences and technologies. In this Papers, I tries to set up a purpose to pursuit his attitude toward receiving His-hsueh in consideration of which was the main aspect among two attitudes or parallel attitude and dynamic one, and understand which character were depend on his His-hsueh. His motivation to be interested n His-hsueh not only had concerned about the world map, also and much depend upon the failure of the national officer examination in 1602. And then his concerns over His-hsueh had been developed from Missionaries to Catholic and his acceptance of His-hsueh from catholic to Sciences and technologies. The Passing (1604) and baptizing (1603) had been closely correlated. He translated western books into Chinese (1604-1613, 14) with M, Ricci. On the basis of those achievements. He had apllied western sciences and technologies for the wealth and strong of Ming Dynasty to astronomy, weapons and agriculture techniques as the practical ways. Although he accepted Catholic transmitted by M. Ricci on the religions side, which meant the reinforcement of Confucianism on the basis of Catholic, his Catholic had a distinctive feature that had weighted more Confucianism than Catholic, that is the Catholic at the base of Confucianism. He had felt goodwill toward missionaries and actively supported them and brought his friends and neighbors to Catholic. His acceptance His-hsueh not inclined toward religion or sciences, but he treated them on the same level he was earnestly devoted himself to Catholic and Sciences through his life. His intention to relieve Ming dynasty, which was turning down, with western sciences and technologies could be drown our attention.
这篇文章整理并分析了韩中建交二十年来, 明清与朝鲜两国关系史的研究现状与课题。在研究现状方面, 本文主要对以两国关系最为紧密的14世纪后期到18时期末为对象的研究进行了分析, 共包括一千多项研究。在第二章‘明淸与朝鮮关系史的硏究狀況’中, 整理了那些从中国的角度分析与朝鲜关系的研究。在第三章‘朝鮮與明淸關系史的硏究狀況’中, 整理了从朝鲜的角度分析与中国关系的研究。本文将两国关系分为政治关系(册封、朝贡等政治问题)、壬辰战争关系、明清交替期的两国关系、清统治中国以后的疆界及国境的确定问题(包括跨境、贸易等)、燕行使行与文化体验及相关认识、思想史等六个领域。通过整理以上各个方面, 得到如下结果:第一、在政治关系研究方面, 韩国的研究主要针对册封朝贡问题、事大论、明初两国关系的确立等问题;中国的研究则主要以明初明朝与朝鲜的关系尤其是15世纪中叶女真与朝鲜的纠纷、交涉等问题辽东问题为主。第二、在壬辰倭乱问题上, 韩国的除了对战争的相关问题进行了大量研究外, 还有很多研究针对倭乱后的对明关系认知的变化等与中国秩序的变化和性格相关的问题;中国方面的研究主要集中在抗倭援朝战争的出兵问题、战争的贡献问题、向朝鲜的文化东渐及其影响等问题。第三、在明清交替期的两国关系问题上, 韩国的研究主要针对后金成立时期光海君的双重外交、朝鲜与后金关系、战后俘虏等多种问题。相反, 中国的研究主要集中在努尔哈赤时期和1627․1636年战争和其后的对朝政策、战后俘虏的问题上。第四、在清代的疆界、国境问题上, 韩国的研究主要集中在北伐论、罗禅征讨时的出兵、朝贡事大问题、跨境贸易、北方领土问题。中国方面也将清建国到巩固政权之后的对朝关系(康熙、雍正、乾隆期)进行了具体的分析。第五、对使行关系的问题, 韩中双方都有大量的研究。对明代的研究以『漂海錄』为主, 对清代的研究则以朴趾源的『热河日记』为主, 此外也涉及了很多其他问题。第六、在思想史领域上, 对从小中华、朝鲜中华演变到脱中华的理念所进行的研究占多数。今后为了进行两国关系史的研究, 首先要致力于史料的发掘和运用问题。其次要对这些史料进行客观、专业的分析。与此同时, 将韩国的研究介绍到中国也是韩国的两国关系史研究者们的重要课题。
A great deal of studies on "diary of Jehol", written by Park, Chih-won(朴趾源), can be found in the fields of Korean History and Literature. Park Chih-won was one of the members of the envoy sent to celebrate the birthday of the Emperor of China in 1780 who had kept a diary during the visit to Jehol. There has been numerous diaries written by Korean envoy in the period of Ming and Ching Dynasties, but most of them were diaries about visits to Beijing. There were two diaries written about a visit to Jehol, and :Diary of Jehol" is one of them. This study employs a different approach than the previous studies, and investigates 1) which side of China Park Chih-won had taken a look in the 18th century, 2) what is the significance of "Diary of Jehol" from the historical sense, and 3) why Chinese history needs to be studied. "Diary of Jehol" has had a major significance on the aspects : 1) that it was a visit to Jehol, the Chinese Emperors summer palacen, and 2) that it had provided the opportunity to meet Pancheon Lama, who had successively visited China twice by 1642, and to experience Lamasism. The Emperor had stayed in Jehol from may to October in order to guard and to conciliate the Northern Mongols who had marched southward to follow along the grass in the summer, rather them to spend his summer in Jehol. Therefore, it was exceptional that the Emperor had invited the Korean envoy to Jehol. The writers keen and accurate power of observation had presented in detail about Lama and Lamaism, and clearly showed to us the Ching Dynastys religious belief at the end of 18th century. Also, his endless curiosity, observation, and knowledge had led us to see through the inside of Chienlungs rule(1736-95). Park had observed widely and thoroughly in a short period the looks and personality of the Emperor, the corrupted bureaucracy-Ho Shen(和신), the system of civil service examination, the ceremonial occasions, the social life, the confidential conference of Grand Council (軍機處), the banned books, Moon Ja-ok(文字獄) and the interest in His-hsueh(西學) as a new science. As he had depicted them very closely, he displayed his capacity as a historian. The fact that the real aspects of China can be examined through the records observed by an educated Korean provides a great milestone in the filed of Cultural Interchange History when viewing China through Korea.
Wei Yuans "Hai-kuo Tu-chih" (The Illustrated Gazeteer of the Maritime Countries) appeared first(1842) in 50 (卷); later(1847) in 60 chuan; and finally(1852) was expanded to 100 chuan. The book is one of the materials what Chinese intellectuals adjusted themselves to the rapidly change of the domestic and international situations after the Opium War. Wei Yuan was represented one of the typical Chinese intellectuals as a progressive thinker, bureaucrat, historian and geographer in the early part of 19th century. He worked mostly in Kiangsu about the reforming of salt administrations, the irrigation and maritime works and wrote also the books of the traditional Chinese thoughts. However he was appreciated highly because he had pursued to make clear the correlation between the actuals and studies themselves, not only to tide over difficulties at that time. Wei Yuan is appraised one of the major figures in the Modern Chinese History, because he insisted in his "Hai-Kuo Tu-chih" that foreigners were expelled learning their strong points. He referred to records of Chinese history, writing of maritime countries, the world history and geography books written by westerners, world maps collected at the time and foreigners news-papers (Macao, Hong Kong and Canton) in order to write his "Hai-kuo Tu-chih". He gave emphasis on that he made references directly from the works of the westerner, not from the works written by Chinese. From the background which Wei Yuan wrote the book, the process of this acceptance of the western culture could be found as follows; He began to write his books after received Lin Tse-hsu(林則徐)s Ssu-chou-chih(四州志) directly form Lin Tse-hsu on June, 1841 who went into exile of taking liability about the defeat of the Opium War. He wrote 50 chuan of "Hai-kuo Tu-chih" on next year. And he made clear in the preface that he wrote the book on the basis of Ssu-chou-chih. But in the "Hai-kuo Tu-chih", the Encyclopaedia of Geography written by Murray was quoted rather than Ssu-chou-chih. And 24 chunas showed "Westerner works, which translated by Lin Tse-hsu and reedited by Wei Yuan"(歐羅色人原撰 林則徐譯 魏源重輯). But the chuans were not much difference comparing with others. It could be understood that from his works he referred not to Ssu-chou-chih, but to Encyclopaedia of Geography by Murray. Lin Tze-hsu gave Wei Yuan the chance to write "Hai-kuo Tu-chih", and he wrote one of the most important world geographical books t illustrate Western Areas in 19th century in reference of lots of materials (domestic and foreign) with interests of scholar and progressive thinker. Also, he did not take part in the Opium War and not contact directly to foreigners. However he wrote "Hai-kuo Tu-chih" with his excellent realistic feelings and political insights.