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The plasma level of cyclic adenosine 3', 5'-mon- ophosphate(cAMP) and cyclic guanosine 3', 5', - monophosphate(cGMP) was measured and their circadian variation was observed in chronic bronchial ssthmatics and normal healthy men. The meanage of asthmatic subjects was 41.6 years old(22 to 63 years old) and the mean durtion of their symptoms was 10. 6 years (1 to 45 yeas). Normal controls were all 20 years old. They did not take any medication for 4 days before sampling and all were hospitalized for 24 hours during sampling. 1) In the countrol group, circadian variation was suggestive. The plasma level of cAMP was the lowest level from 4:00P. M. to 10:00P. M. and the highest level from p: QOA. M. to 600A. M. The plasma level of cGMP was the lowest level from 8:00A.M. to 2:00P, M. and the highest level from 8: 00A. M. The plasma level of cAMP/cGMP ratio was the first highest level from MD to 2:00P. M., the lowest level from 6:00P. M. to 10:00. P M. and the second highest level from 2:00A. M, to 6:00A.M. 2) Normal circadian variation of plasma cAMP and cGMP level disappeared in chonic bronchial asthmatics. 3) Plasma cAMP level was significantly low in chronic bronchial asthmatics than in the control group (p 0. 01), but plasma cGMP level was no different significantly. (p 0. 05) 4) There was no correlation between degree of asthma symptoms and the plasma level of cAMP, cGMP or cAMP/cGMP ratio.
The reform policy of the USSR was an attempt to find the breakthrough from the total crisis of the communist system. The crises confronting the USSR communist system were economic ones: the slowdown of its productivity, the increase of system management cost, and the unfair financial distribution. G. Holden defines this phenomenon of the USSR as the Crisis of militarized Socialism. To get over this economic crisis Gorbachev contrived to revise the production method of the communism by partly introducing that of capitalism. At the same thime, his policy line was to discontinue the military support and intervention for the allies which had formed a controlling part of the cold war order, and to reduce the military proportion of the national finance. The communist system of the USSR iteslf, however, couldn't effect this reform, leading to the pressing necessity to introduce the western technology and capital. The western accustomed to the military confrontation in the cold war order hesitated to supply the economic and techological aids to the USSR, under the apprehension that the economically developed USSR should resume its military pressure against the western. In this cotext, Gorbachev proclaimed to revise military doctrine, seeking to internally reduce the military proportion of the finance and to internationally sweep off the fear of the western. The military doctrine was revised from the aggressive core military doctrine to the principle of reasonable defence sufficiency. In several public formal addresses since the U.N General assembly in 1988, Gorbachev explained that the principle was 'the military power structure which could sufficiently beat off all possible attacks but could not take any decisive military action'. And he added that our military power will function as definitely defensive one and we will maintain our country's defence capability at a level of reasonable and reliable sufficiency so that no-one might be tempted to encroach on the security of the USSR and all allies. To reestablish the military power pertinent to the revised doctrine, the USSR announced the unilateral disarmament without the compromise with the USA and the western. In keeping with the disarmament plan it carried out the reduction of military power, military equipments and military expenditures, and converted the military industry into the civilian one. In consequence it reduced the main attacking weapons: 500,000 military forces, 10,000 tanks, 8,500 field artilleries and 800 flight aircrafts etc. In addition, the defense expenditures were cut down by 14% and the conversion of the military industry into the civilian one was progressed in the promised three areas by 60% in 1991. Conclusively, the western economic and technological aids for the reform policy of the USSR made sure that it would not invest the economic benefits of the reform into the reinforcement of military power and put it into diplomatic use. Also the USSR was forced to keep those promises through the revision of the military doctrine and, as the evidence, cut down the military power unilaterally.