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In this study, pure torsion tests of reinforced concrete beams strengthened by Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) sheet were conducted to provide a database for the preparation of structural standards for Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FPR) torsion reinforcement in Korea. The fiber directions of an existing GFRP sheet were used as main variables. As a result of the tests, the maximum torsional strength of the specimens strengthened by GFRP sheets were improved by an average of 50 % compared with that of the unstrengthened specimen. This showed that GFRP reinforcement was fairly effective in improving the torsional strength of RC beams with minor damage. In addition, test results was compared to analytical results from KDS 14 20, fib Bulletin 14, and Täljsten’s model. It was found that while the KDS 14 20 underestimates the test results, the fib Bulletin 14 and Täljsten’s model provide favorable predictions. 이 연구에서는 국내 FRP 비틀림 보강과 관련한 구조기준 마련을 위한 데이터베이스 제공을 위하여 GFRP 시트로 보강된 철근콘크리트 보의 순수비틀림 실험을 수행하였다. 보강 유무 및 GFPR 섬유 방향과 부재축이 이루는 각을 실험변수로 계획하였다. 실험결과, GFRP 시트로 보강된 실험체는 무보강 실험체와 비교하여 최대 비틀림 내력이 평균 50 % 상승하여 GFRP 시트에 의한 비틀림 보강 성능을 확인하였다. 또한, 실험결과를 현행 기준 및 기존 이론에 의한 예측결과와 비교한 결과, FRP의 기여분이 반영되지 않은 KDS 14 20은 실험결과를 과소평가하는 반면, fib Bulletin 14와 Täljsten의 제안식은 KDS 14 20과 비교해 실험결과를 합리적으로 예측하는 것을 확인하였다.
In the early 16 th century when the Reformation started to take shape, over 90% of the population did not read or write in Latin; but they were regular churchgoers of at least once a week. Talk and sermons made them well aware of the tension between the German people and the Catholic Church over indulgences, and the unfolding of related events was being watched with curiosity. Printing that had been invented 70 years prior to the Reformation had continued developing, and was by now quite accessible. News on how the Reformation was developing spread quickly through the printing press. The main medium of the information relay was books. Christianity was a 'religion of books' in that it had the Bible. The public intrigue relating to the Bible was also addressed through books. As demand for books grew during the Reformation, so did the illustrations in the books. Not only did books with illustrations increase, so did the diversity of the messages that these drawings sought to convey. Prior to the Reformation, the illustrations were used to explain, symbolize, and decorate the text. It was through the Reformation that the power of art to engage in discourse, deconstruct, and aspire to be free emerged, and for the first time in history, society conflicted with art over Iconoclasm. Pamphlets were the new booklets that delivered information, and became the cornerstone of newspapers that developed later in the 17 th century. As more pamphlets and booklets were being created with better technology and as religious arguments and incidents constantly provided feedback; book illustrations met its height - confirming that it was the medium to promote the Reformation, criticize the Catholic Church, and also make refutes by those against the tide of change. As such, history is ample with examples that reveal a medium is often associated with social transformations that bring down traditions.
In the 50 years since Johannes Gutenberg created the first Vulgata using his novel technology in 1454, the volume of books made with the printing press exceeded what mankind had produced over the previous 1,000 years. By the 16th century, however, publishers faced an unanticipated situation – challenges associated with the new sales structure compared to that of the manuscript market. Books printed with what had been projected demand often ended up without a willing buyer, and the growing inventory started making the industry less and less attractive. What to print became an increasingly compelling question. It was against such a backdrop that Luther’s Protestant Reformation gained traction. In the midst of the intense debate between Luther and all that he was against, the public started to crave for what Luther stood for. His writings served as the content that revived Wittenberg’s publishing industry. Before Luther’s seminal Nintey-five Theses of 1517, there had been only five publishing houses in Wittenberg who had managed to manufacture a modest number of around 120 books. Then there was the neighboring town of Leipzig known as the publishing stronghold of the Holy Roman Empire, which meant that most books Wittenberg required were being imported. Wittenberg’s publishing industry finds itself completely changed in the wake of the Protestant Reformation. The consecutive successes of Luther’s books and George the Duke of Saxony (who governed Leipzig)’s opponent to the Reformation propelled Wittenberg to become the go-to town for publishing. Over the century, around 7,900 Luther related publications were created; and Luther becomes something of a brand in the industry. A city generally develops through the intricate workings between various factors that include society, economy, and politics; but Wittenberg during the Reformation shows a unique form of growth driven by something else – and that was the development of the publishing industry due to Luther and his Reformation.