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      • 精神薄弱兒의 敎育要求分析

        趙寅洙 又石大學校 1982 論文集 Vol.4 No.-

        This study aims at the search for educational requirement of the Mentally Retarded, especially focusing on E M R and T M R. It also attempts to ask for educational requirement through researching the materials which have been studied, home and abroad, about the Mentally Retarded -- their educational possibility; their developmental characteristics; and other characteristics of the physical movement, social emotion and perceptive learning. The educational requirement, developmental possibility and other particular characteristics of the Mentally Retarded are briefly as follows: 1. Developmental Possibility of the Mentally Retarded. 1) In general, development is possible on the level of mental age 8-12 for the E M R, 4-8 for the TMR 2. Characteristics of the Mentally Retarded. 1) Perceptive Characteristic: For the Mentally Retarded, it is hard to generalize learning. There is much unbalance in the low grade factors of intellectuality -- especially, speech factor shows more inferior than motion factor. When mental ages are the same, the perceptions of the Mentally Retarded are more superior to the concrete object, but more inferior to the abstract object than those of the normal. It is also a characteristic to develope speech ability slowly. 2) Socio-Emotional Characteristic They are exceedingly retarded in the field of speech in their social lives, but less retarded comparatively in the concrete works. They are the same with the normal from character and emotion, but are not able to develop the field of ego and super-ego. It is a characteristic that the solidity of emotional function fields is high in the structural phase. 3) Physical, Motional Characteristic They are not much retarded in the physical growth, but are much more retarded for the sitting or standing alone, taking off one step or walking from compared with the physical sizes. In the motion ability, they are almost below-10 in the all fields -- that is; balance function, whole body exercise ability, fingers-correspondence, imitation of seperation, running, broad jumping, soft-ball drawing etc. 4) Characteristic of Learning. The Learning abilities of EMR are generally low. So, the degree of elementary school 6 grade EMR is that of kidergarten at the end of learning age, and they will be able to have the ability of about 3 grade normal student. For TMR, it is possible to train the ability of communication, but is almost impossible to teach general letter learning (art function). In conclusion sellection and organization of all educational subject matters must be done according to the educational requirement and characteristics of the Mentally Retarded. And the followings have to be emphasized 1. The contents, which enrich them with good citizen characters, must be chosen, considering of the development possibility of learning ability. 2. The contents have to be formed with those which can be used in present life directly, can be transformed well and can improve the quality of life. 3. The contents, which the life needs, and become the foundation of future vocational life, and increase the aptitude, must be established. 4. The contents of all the education have to be organized with small steps of guidance which is interesting and stressed on the repetition quality.

      • 障碍에 대한 視角과 否定的 意識形性

        趙寅洙,曺廷元 又石大學校 1984 論文集 Vol.6 No.-

        This is a study on the formation relationships of the quantitative and qualitative concepts and the negative thought of Handicap. This research disscusses such concepts a nomality and abonormality, labeling, impairment, disability and handicap, physical disability, and personality. The results of this study can be compiled as follows. We must predicate the handicapped with a synthetic criteria because normal and abnormal are not absolute criteria, but relative. Disability is not always equal to the handicapped, but that changes according to time, space and culture. We must comprehend the labeling of the handicapped, not the nature of the handicapped, with a social appointment. There is no unique personality of the handicapped, that is made by social attitude.

      • 精神薄弱學生 職業敎育의 改善方向

        趙寅洙 又石大學校 1988 論文集 Vol.10 No.-

        This study was aimed at improving direction of vocational education for the mentally retarded in order to provide an educational assistance for them in their social economical self-sufficiency. For achieving this purpose, the following study problems were prusued: 1) identifying developmental characteristics and vocational needs of the Mentally retarded and vocational ability. 2) identifying existing situations and problems met in vocational education. 3) analyzing employable jobs and works for the Mentally retarded. The methods used for this study were a review of literature and analysis of various data. The main findings from this study and some recommendations can be summarized as follows; 1) The most important area im the vocational education of the Mentally retarded should be placed on the training of their social and emotional aspects. 2) The vocational education for the Mentally retarded is needed to be broadened its concept up to career education. 3) The vacational education for Mentally retarded should be carried out under the close. cooperation among school family and community, nation in order to achieve its maximum effectiveness. 4) The existing vocational education programs in Korea are varied dependent upon schools because of limited kinds of jobs to be trained limited facilities, lack of professional personnal, and lack of appropriate programs, lack of the educational-industrial cooperation. In developing of vacational education for the Mentally retarded a key is provided professional personnal, and appropriate programs, environment, national participation, educational-industrial cooperation.

      • 敎育可能 精神薄弱兒의 性格特性에 관한 硏究

        趙寅洙 又石大學校 1983 論文集 Vol.5 No.-

        The purpose of this study is to find out the specific character of the educable mentally retraded children's personality, and to make a comparative analysis on the characterological factors revealed in the portrait drawings between the educable mentally retreated and normal children. The practical method of analysis is as follows. A. Specific character of EMR's personality factors. B. Comparison of personality by sex. C. Specific character of personality revealed in the male and female portraits. The study has been conducted with the number of 120 educable mentally retarded and 120 normal children in the areas of Daegu city and 5 other neighboring cities and countries, and a diagnostic test has been implemented with Otomo's portrait application method. The conclusion of the study is as follows: A. Specific character of EMR's personality factors 1. The deviation number of E.M.R. group is that the "B" shows the highest ratio and the remaining ratio is in X, N, C, M, F, Sch, S, Y, Ps, order. 2. In comparative test of the characterological factors by group, each S, C, F, Sch, N, B, X factor is of .1% meaningful level which shows significant difference, while M factor is 5% and Ps, Y factor shows no significant difference. B. Comparison of personality by sex division. 1. C factor shows 1% meaningful differences of which male is higher than female, and F factor is 5% level. Other factors show no significant in difference. C. Specific character of personality revealed in the male and female portraits. 1. In the deviation ratio by sex in both groups (E.M.R. & Normal Children), the comparison of male and female portraits brought .1% meaningful difference which shows significant level, and within same group the comparison shows no marked difference in characterological factors. 2. In characterological factors, there exists little interrelationship between male portraits and female ones. Thus, it could presumed that each characterological factor engages a tendency of individualization. 3. The common characteristics of significant interrelationships within mentally retarded male and female were revealed as following ratio: C factor and Ps factor showed -.50, -.52 level, and it showed .85 level between Sch factor and F factor. 4. In the interrelationship between the two factors of normal male and female, M and Sch showed .43, .41, and X, Sch significantly showed .40, .43 levels.

      • 選擇的 注意集中과 知能要因의 關係分析

        趙寅洙 又石大學校 1987 論文集 Vol.9 No.-

        This is a study analysis of relations of selective attention and factours in general intelligence. General intelligence may set structural fature limitations on three aspects of selective attention : direction, adjustability, and breadth. Amiable hypotheses considered are that subjects of varying intelligence may (1) have some partially fixed tendencies to look at different dimensions of stimuli, (2) have varying rates of adjusting their direction of attention, and (3) have varying upper limits on breadth of attention for tasks demanding it. Data, theory, and methods bearing on these hypotheses were reviewed from the domain of visual discrmination learning. 1. Although directing of attention is clearly a control process, in part, because of the relative ease with which it can be changed by training, there is nevertheless appreciable evidence of some maturational control of saliency hierarchies. 2. The adjustability of attention, or rte of learning to change the direction of attention, has long been considered to be the prime candidate for structural feature status in attention theory. 3. For the final aspect of attention, breadth, there are several models which provide theoretical measures of attentional breadth, although none of the formal multiple-look models has a parameter representing an upper limit on breadth of attention. As an overall statement of the state-of-the art in this field : the study of the relation of intelligence and structural features of attention is characterized by theoretical ferment, empirical busyness, and growing methodologioal sophistication, but the stage of big conclustions has not yet been achieved.

      • 精神薄弱兒의 選擇的 注意集中過程에 新奇性-親密性次元의 效果

        趙寅洙 又石大學校 特殊敎育硏究所 1988 特殊敎育學硏究 Vol.1 No.-

        This study has shown that novelty-familiarity is a potent dimension in the discriminative performance of retardates, as has previously been found for normal children and adults. Novelty-Familiarity has also been shown to facilitate attention of discrimination learning with color form stimuli, probably though a continguity mechanism. The facilitative effects of familization are related to intelligence. Subjects of lower MA benefit less because of conflicting tendencies to approach novel stimuli. Some possible implications for retardation; Novelty has been shown to be a highly salient dimension which fedes spontaneously. Much effect has gone into devising special training techniques for the retarded utilising learning "Crutches", redundant relevant cues added and then gradually faded over the course of learning. Novelty is a highly efficient crutch in that if fades by itself. No special engineering or material arrangements are necessary to use novelty-familiarity as a learning crutch, making possible wide and easy application of the device. The effects of intelligence on the novelty-familiarity crutch" can be eliminated easily by making novel cues the correct ones. This leads to an interesting prediction, that in a study such as the present one, if novel cues, rather-than familiar cues, were correct, the performance of Low MA subjects could be equal to, or higher than that of High MA subjects.

      • 精神薄弱兒의 選擇的 主意集中過程에 新奇性 : 親密性次元의 效果 Familiarity Dimension on Selective Attention Process By Mental Retardates

        趙寅洙 又石大學校 1986 論文集 Vol.8 No.-

        This study has shown that novelty-familiarity is a potent dimension in the discriminative performance of retardates, as has previously been found for normal children and adults. Novelty-Familiarity has also been shown to facilitate attention of discrimination learning with color form stimuli, probably though a continguity mechanism. The facilitative effects of familization are related to intellugence. Subjects of lower MA benefit less because of conflicting tendencies to approach novel stimuli Some possible implications for retardation; Novelty has been shown to be highly silient dimension which fedes spontaneously. Much effect has gone into devising special training techniques for the retarded utilising learning "Crutches", redundant relevant cues added and then gradually faded over the course of learning. Novelty is a highly efficient curtch in that if fades by itself. No special engineering or material arrangements are necessary to use onvelty-familiarity as a learning crutch, making possible wide and easy application of the device. The effects of intelligence on the novelty-famailiarity crutch" can be eliminated easily by making novel cues the correct ones. This leads to an interesting prediction, that in a study such as the present one, if novel cues, rather-than familiar cues, were correct, the performance of Low MA subjects could be equal to, or higher than that of High MA subjects.

      • 選擇的 注意集中과 知能要因의 關係分析

        趙寅洙 又石大學校 特殊敎育硏究所 1988 特殊敎育學硏究 Vol.1 No.-

        This is a study analysis of relations of selective attention and factors in general intelligence. General intelligence may set structural fature limitations on three aspects of selective attention : direction, adjustability, and breadth. Amiable hypotheses considered are that subjects of varying intelligence may (1) have some partially fixed tendencies to look at different dimensions of stimuli, (2) have varying rates of adjusting their direction of attention, and (3) have varying upper limits on breadth of attention for tasks demanding it. Data, theory, and methods bearing on these hypotheses were reviewed from the domain of visual discrimination learning. 1. Although direction of attention is clearly a control process, in part, because of the relative ease with which it can be changed by training, there is nevertheless appreciable evidence of some maturational control of saliency hierarchies. 2. The adjustability of attention, or rate of learning to change the direction of attention, has long been considered to be the prime candidate for structural feature status in attention theory. 3. For the final aspect of attention, breadth, there are several models which provide theoretical measures of attentional breadth, although none of the formal multiple-look models has a parameter representing an upper limit on breadth of attention. As an overall statement of the state-of-the art in this field : the study of the relation of intelligence and structural features of attention is characterized by theoretical ferment, empirical busyness, and growing methodologioal sophistication, but the stage of big conclusions has not yet been achieved.

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