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Language and Information 12.2 , 77-93. This paper examines a condition that licenses distributivity. Choe (1987) and Link (1998) have proposed an indefiniteness condition on distributivity. However, detecting counterexamples, Zimmermann (2002) has argued for a non-specificity condition. This paper primarily revises the indefiniteness/non-specificity condition. Observing that the systematic class of the exceptions belongs to weak definites proposed by Poesio (1994), I claim that the property that constrains distributivity is non-strong-definiteness. Based on Landman (2000), I further explain the nonstrong-definiteness condition and argue that the condition does not need to be imposed on the grammar independently. The new condition naturally accounts for Spector's (2003) scopal asymmetry. Even more, defining donkey pronouns as weak definites, I cope with various properties of donkey sentences.
Distributivity has been one of the central topics in formal semantics. However, no due attention has been paid to embedded distributivity that very frequently occurs in natural languages. In this paper, I propose a formal analysis for embedded distributivity. In analyzing embedded distributivity, I employ no complicated mechanisms but pluralization. Since distributivity is reduced to plurality as Landman (2000) argues, employing plural formation is not an ad hoc approach to embedded distributivity. That is, the plural variable inserted in the process of deriving embedded distributivity is motivated in a principled manner since the pluralization occurs inside a pluralization operator. Moreover, I point out that the plural variable made available is not restricted to entities.
Birner (1998) analyzes the construction of inversion within the centering theory, claiming that the preposed constituent in the inversion structure represents the backward-looking center that connects the current utterance to the previous discourse. However, this paper refutes such a strong claim, pointing out various problems of her work. Instead, this paper argues that the preposed element in the inversion construction is merely the preferred center under the condition that the ranking of the forward-looking centers is determined by the surface word order, rather than by grammatical relations. Thus, this paper claims that the discourse function of the construction of inversion is not text development but merely prominence-giving, in the sense of Ili´c (1998).
Two epistylid peritrichous ciliates collected from the littoral aquatic plants at pondin a suburb of Ulsan, Korea were identified as Epistylis plicatilisEhrenberg, 1831and E. hentscheli Kahl, 1935. The description was based on the observation ofliving specimens and protargol impregnated specimens. This study is aboutredescription compared with original description. These species have not beenreported in Korea and their characteristics are as follows: E. plicatilisis thin, longfunnel form and has compact stalk, while E. hentscheliis unsymmetrical bell formand has hollow stalk.
The acquisition of peer-related social competence is very important task for children in their early development. Most children learn the skills to interact with peers positively in preschool years. But the handicapped children were turned out not to have the basic interaction skills to participate in positive peer interaction, and to show the difference in peer interaction types qualitively and quantitively with the their peers. If the handicapped children didn't have the opportunity to learn the social skills from their peers in early developmental years, and even though integrated, if they were to live in the socially separate and refused settings, they were reported to have the adaptive problems in the vocation and the community living in adult years. And peer-related social skills influenced the other developmental areas, and gave the opportunity of natural learning. Therefore, the early social interaction interventions supporting the handicapped child in the integrated settings were considered very important. Based on these importances, this study was to suggest prerequisite and implementation factors of inclusive classroom-based peer intervention for facilitating the social competence of children with disabilities. And the needs for re-education of general teachers and quality upgrade of early childhood program were discussed.
The present study has sought to examine the relative effectiveness of two prereading activities (i.e., previewing and vocabulary preteaching) when employed in Korean EFL elementary classes. Specifically, it examined (a) the treatment effects on the learners' reading comprehension and attitudes, and (b) the interaction effects of treatment and proficiency level on the learners' reading comprehension and attitudes. To this end, 95 sixth graders in three intact classes at a local elementary school in Busan were randomly assigned to one of the control group, previewing group, and vocabulary preteaching group. They were then asked to take a pretest and a pre-questionnaire, receive two-week treatments, and take a posttest and a post-questionnaire. The overall findings suggested that vocabulary preteaching as a prereading activity might not be beneficial for young learners, presumably because too much focus on language aspects may have taken their attention away from the story and reading. On the other hand, the previewing activity was observed to have positive effects on learners' attitudes toward English learning and reading. Furthermore, the interaction effects of treatment and proficiency levels were observed only in the attitudes toward English learning and reading. Pedagogical implications and directions for future research are discussed.