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Onychomycosis is the invasion of the healthy nail plate by species of dermatophytes, as well as a variety of non-dermatophytes (yeasts and moulds) which may cause nail infection, particularly after tissue damage by trauma or disease. Candida albicans and C. parapilosis are the most commonly isolated yeasts from abnormal toenails. The patient was a 20-year-old woman who presented with a thickened and crumbly nail plate of the right second finger for 4 months. Initially, a tiny yellowish macule appeared under the nail plate, which gradually involved the entire nail plate, resulting in complete deformity of the nail. She was diagnosed with diabetes mellitus 4 months ago and her blood sugar level was controlled with subcutaneous insulin injections. Direct microscopic examination of the scrapings prepared with potassium hydroxide revealed fungal elements. Repeated cultures on Sabouraud dextrose agar showed cream to white colored, semi-glossy, flat colonies, which were findings consistent with C. albicans. Complete extraction of the involved nail with meticulous curettage of the nail bed was made. She has been taking 150 mg of oral fluconazole weekly since August 2003 and showed substantial improvement.
Ethanol productions were performed by separatehydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) and simultaneous saccharificationand fermentation (SSF) processes using seaweed,Enteromorpha intestinalis (sea lettuce). Pretreatment conditionswere optimized by the performing thermal acid hydrolysisand enzymatic hydrolysis for the increase of ethanol yield. The pretreatment by thermal acid hydrolysis was carried outwith different sulfuric acid concentrations in the range of 25mM to 75 mM H2SO4, pretreatment time from 30 to 90 minutesand solid contents of seaweed powder in the range of 10~16% (w/v). Optimal pretreatment conditions were determinedas 75 mM H2SO4 and 13% (w/v) slurry at 121oC for 60 min. For the further saccharification, enzymatic hydrolysis was performedby the addition of commercial enzymes, Celluclast1.5 L and Viscozyme L, after the neutralization. A maximumreducing sugar concentration of 40.4 g/L was obtained with73% of theoretical yield from total carbohydrate. The ethanolconcentration of 8.6 g/L of SHF process and 7.6 g/L of SSFprocess were obtained by the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiaeKCTC 1126, with the inoculation cell density of 0.2 g dcw/L.
Background/Aims: This study evaluated the predictors of spontaneous viral clearance (SVC), as defined by twoconsecutive undetectable hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA tests performed ≥12 weeks apart, and the outcomes of acutehepatitis C (AHC) demonstrating SVC or treatment-induced viral clearance. Methods: Thirty-two patients with AHC were followed for 12-16 weeks without administering antiviral therapy. Results: HCV RNA was undetectable at least once in 14 of the 32 patients. SVC occurred in 12 patients (37.5%), amongwhom relapse occurred in 4. SVC was exhibited in 8 of the 11 patients exhibiting undetectable HCV RNA within 12 weeks. HCV RNA reappeared in three patients (including two patients with SVC) exhibiting undetectable HCV RNA after 12weeks. SVC was more frequent in patients with low viremia than in those with high viremia (55.6% vs. 14.3%; P =0.02),and in patients with HCV genotype non-1b than in those with HCV genotype 1b (57.1% vs. 22.2%; P=0.04). SVC was morecommon in patients with a ≥2 log reduction of HCV RNA at 4 weeks than in those with a smaller reduction (90% vs. 9.1%,P<0.001). A sustained viral response was achieved in all patients (n=18 ) receiving antiviral therapy. Conclusions: Baseline levels of HCV RNA and genotype non-1b were independent predictors for SVC. A ≥2 log reductionof HCV RNA at 4 weeks was a follow-up predictor for SVC. Undetectable HCV RNA occurring after 12 weeks was notsustained. All patients receiving antiviral therapy achieved a sustained viral response. Antiviral therapy should beinitiated in patients with detectable HCV RNA at 12 weeks after the diagnosis.
The sport instructors for elderly people are members of two different organizations: National Health Insurance Service(NHIS) and the Korea Council of Sports for All(KOCOSA). Altough these are the ones responsible for the health and leisure activity of elderly people in Korea, their organizational psychological variables were rarely studied. Thus, the purpose of this study was to compare job identity, organizational identification, and perceived professionalism of sports instructors for elderly people according to employment types(NHIS vs. KOCOSA). Total of 272 completed questionnaires were collected from instructors who taught elderly people in Seoul. The results of the study are as follows. First, there were statistically significant differences in the sub-factors of job identity. It was found that NHIS instructors had a higher occupational identity than those of the KOCOSA instructors. Second, there were significant differences in the subfactors of professionalism. The instructors in NHIS had higher professionalism than the ones in KOCOSA. Third, there was a significant difference in organizational identity. The instructors in NHIS had higher organizational identity than the instructors of KOCOSA. 현재 국내에는 국민건강보험공단에 소속되어 어르신의 생활체육을 지도하는 지도자와 국민생활체육회에 소속되어 어르신을 지도하는 지도자로 나뉘어 있다. 이 두 조직에 소속되어 어르신을 지도하는 체육지도자들은 국내 어르신들의 건강과 여가를 책임지고 있는 중요한 인력임에도 불구하고 이들에 대한 조직심리학적 연구가 충분히 되어있지 않은 실정이다. 따라서 본 연구에서는 노인스포츠지도사의 고용형태에 따른 직업정체성과 전문성인식 및 조직정체성을 비교 분석하고자 하였다. 서울 지역에 근무 중인 노인스포츠지도자들을대상으로 총 272개의 설문을 수집하였다. 연구를 통해 다음과 같은 결론을 얻었다. 첫째, 직업정체성의 하위요인 모두 집단 간 유의미한 차이가 있는 것이 나타났으나, 건강백세운동 교실 강사들이 어르신전담체육지도자들보다 더 높은 직업정체성을 가진 것이 확인되었다. 둘째, 전문성인식의 하위요인 모두 집단 간 유의미한 차이가 있는 것이 나타났으나, 건강백세운동 교실 강사들이 어르신전담체육지도자들 보다 더 높은 전문성 인식을 가진 것이 확인되었다. 셋째, 조직정체성에 대한 집단 간 유의미한 차이가 있는 것이 나타났으나, 건강백세운동 교실 강사들이 어르신전담체육지도자들 보다 더 높은 조직정체성을 가진 것이 확인되었다.
내시경 분야에서 전자내시경의무기록 시스템은 간단한 내시경 결과보고서의 작성을 넘어 포괄적인 내시경실 관리시스템으로 발전하고 있다. 전자내시경의무기록 시스템은 내시경의사의 효율뿐 아니라 내시경실 관리의 효율을 높일 수 있다. 전산화된 내시경기록은 임상연구와 질 관리가 가능하도록 내시경결과의 데이터베이스 생성을 가능하게 한다. 그러기 위해서는 내시경 보고서의 구조를 계획할 때부터 표준 보고서의 형식을 표준화된 용어를 선택하여 결과를 입력하는 것이 중요하다. 이미 최소표준용어가 내시경의 전산기록을 위해 개발되어 사용되고 있다. 권장 내시경보고서의 사용과 양질의 영상기록은 내시경 질 관리 면에서도 중요하다. Electronic medical record systems for endoscopic data have evolved from simple endoscopy report generators to endoscopy unit managers. These systems may improve patient care and enhance endoscopy unit efficiency and productivity. Regarding endoscopists, the introduction of automated endoscopic reporting using endoscopic electronic medical records should permit database establishment. The systematic development of the structure and content of endoscopic reports is mandatory before it is possible to create large, clinically useful databases of endoscopic reports. An accurate endoscopic report is based on the use of standard terminology, a standard classification method, and image and video recordings. The minimal standard terminology was developed as a minimum list of terms that could be included in a computer system for endoscopic reporting. A standard framework of endoscopic reports using standard terminology and a minimal checklist of endoscopic images are also needed for quality assurance.