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Synovial sarcoma arises in the para-articular tissues, and it can also occur in various unexpected sites. We report a rare case of primary monophasic synovial sarcoma (MSS) arising in the mesentery. A 59-year-old man presented with a palpable abdominal mass. On microscopic examination, the entire tumor comprised a dense proliferation of the spindle cells without epithelial components. The tumor cells were positive for transducin-like enhancer of split 1, bcl-2, epithelial membrane antigen and CD99 but negative for CD34, CD117, alpha-smooth muscle actin, cytokeratin, and calretinin on immunohistochemistry. The reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction revealed a single 151-bp fragment representing the SYT-SSX2 fusion transcript. Because mesenteric MSS is extremely rare and many cases display histologic findings that overlap with those of more frequently involved tumors such as hemangiopericytoma and gastrointestinal stromal tumor, there is a chance of making an incorrect diagnosis that can result in an inappropriate treatment.
Since ancient times, hot springs in Korea have been widely used by patients with skin diseases, neuralgia, and gastrointestinal diseases. In the case of the Onyang hot springs, the history of development is the oldest in Korea. Not only the commoners but also the kings of the Joseon Dynasty often visited these hot springs for treatment. In modern times, with the enactment of the Hot Springs Act in 1981, 15 hot spring districts have been designated, and hot spring development has progressed rapidly since. In Korea, all hot water above 25 degrees Celsius is recognized as a hot spring. Unlike Japan, where the Hot Spring Act was enacted in 1948, it was not enacted in Korea until 1981, and the definition of a hot spring was finally established. The Hot Springs Act was established as a preventive measure due to the reckless development of hot springs during increased industrialization. In addition to the differences in hot spring culture in Japan compared to Korea, there are also many differences in hot spring facilities, but also in the amount of hot spring water discharged, which is a shame about our current hot spring use. In this study, the current status of hot springs in Korea is investigated, and accordingly, the method of using hot springs and the hot spring culture are identified. Investigating how to use hot springs in Korea will be the basic foundation for researching treatments and applications using hot springs. There are many records of hot spring baths left in the records, from kings and nobles to commoners. Since ancient times, hot spring bathing has been an essential part of Korean culture. This hot spring culture has been established as a concept of hot spring treatment beyond simple skin scrubs. However, skin scrubs have suddenly become the center of a more modernized hot spring culture rather than just bathing. This is evident from the data from the hot spring report we examined earlier. I think that valuable hot spring resources across the country should be utilized as an active concept of recreation and rehabilitation.
본 논문에서는 고려후기 수월관음보살도의 雙竹 표현에 대해서 면밀히 살펴보았다. 현재 고려시대의 竹畵가 단 1점도 전해지지 않는 상황에서 고려후기 수월관음보살도의 대나무 표현은 불교회화라는 한 분야의 표현에 국한되지만, 그 자료적 가치는 한국 竹畵 연구에 있어서도 매우 중요하다고 판단된다. 논문에서는 먼저 수월관음보살도 배경에 묘사되는 대나무 표현의 형성배경에 대해 고찰해 봄과 동시에 그 도상의 전개를 살펴보았으며, 이를 토대로 고려후기 수월관음보살도의 雙竹 표현을 분석함과 동시에, 그 양식적 특징에 대해 자세히 살펴보았다. 그 결과 수월관음보살도의 대나무 묘사는 한국은 물론 중국, 일본에서도 자주 보이는 배경 요소이지만, 『歷代名畵記』 그리고 『佛說高王觀世音經』(僞經)의 게송 이 외의 그 어떤 경전에서도 보타락가산의 대나무에 대한 언급은 확인되지 않았다. 그리고 돈황출토의 10세기경 수월관음보살도는 물론 하라호토출토의 서하시대 수월관음보살도 및 돈황 ․유림석굴의 서하시대 수월관음보살도 등에서 묘사되는 대나무는 1根~6根竹 등의 다양한 묘사를 보이고 있는데, 이는 당대 중국본토의 대나무에 대한 애착문화가 도상에 영향을 주었을 것으로 짐작되었다. 그리고 3根竹은 일정시기에 유행한 『佛說高王觀世音經』 게송에 영향을 받아 형성된 도상으로 해석되었다. 그리고 고려후기 수월관음보살도의 쌍죽묘사는 중국으로부터 유입된 수월관음보살도의 도상에 기초하여 『三國遺事』에서 보이는 대나무 한쌍이란 구절에 영향을 받아 고려 수월관음보살도의 새로운 도상을 정립해 나간 것으로 추측된다. 고려후기 수월관음보살도에서 보이는 쌍죽의 묘사는 매우 사실적인 묘사를 기본으로 여러 표현기법과 함께 고려인의 뛰어난 회화적 특징을 잘 드러내고 있음을 세부도상의 분석을 통하여 확인 할 수 있었다. This paper has closely examined twin bamboo representations in about 40 water-moon Avalokiteshvara paintings in the late Goryeo period. In the current situation in which there are no bamboo paintings inherited from the Goryeo period, the material values of Goryeo’s Avalokiteshvara paintings are believed to be very great in the study of Korean bamboo paintings though they have limitations as Buddhist paintings. The paper has examined the backgrounds of the formation the bamboo representations illustrated in water-moon Avalokiteshvara paintings, and at the same time, their iconographic unfolding. Based on this, it has analyzed the twin bamboo representations in water-moon Avalokiteshvara paintings in the late Goryeo period, and at the same time, closely examined their modal characteristics. As a result, it has found out that the illustration of bamboos is a frequent background element in water-moon Avalokiteshvara paintings in China and Japan as well as Korea, but that there is no mention of bamboos in the Potalaka Mountain shown in any Buddhist bibles other than the chanting of Yeokdaemyeonghwagi (『歷代名畵記』)and Bulseolgowhanggwanseeumgyeong(『佛說高王觀世音經』). In addition, those bamboos illustrated not only in Dunhuang-exhumed water-moon Avalokiteshvara paintings towards the 10th century, but also in Khara Khoto-exhumed ones as well as Dunhuang- and Yulin Grotto-exhumed ones in the Western Xia period are diverse in that they are bamboos with 1~6 roots. We can conjecture from this that the Chinese culture of loving bamboos at that time would have had influence on their iconography. And, 3-root bamboos are interpreted as an iconography formed by the influence of the chanting of Bulseolgowhanggwanseeumgyeong (『佛說高王觀世音經』), which was in vogue in some periods of time. Furthermore, it is conjectured that the description of twin bamboos in water-moon Avalokiteshvara paintings in the late Goryeo period had established a new iconography of Goryeo’s Avalokiteshvara paintingns under the influence of the phrase ‘a pair of bamboos’ in Samgukyusa(『三國遺事』) based on the iconogrphy of water-moon Avalokiteshvara paintings introduced from China. We can find out from the analysis of detailed iconography that the description of twin bamboos shown in water-moon Avalokiteshvara paintings in the late Goryeo period well reveal Goryeo people’s excellent drawing characteristics with their various representations techniques based on very realistic descriptions.
Background : Emphysematous pyelonephritis (EPN) is an acute gas forming necrotizing infection of the renal parenchyma with high mortality. Although its incidence is relatively low, it mostly occurs in patients wiith diabetes mellitus. The aim of the study is to identify the risk factors related to mortality and assess the outcome of managements according to the radiologic classification. Materials and Methods : The clinical records of 23 patients diagnosed with EPN were reviewed retrospectively. The cases were grouped into two types on the basis of computed tomography scan. Type 1 EPN was defined as renal necrosis and gas formation with total absence of fluid content. Type 2 EPN was defined as the presence of renal or perirenal fluid in association with bubbly or loculated gas pattern. The patients' symptoms, performed investigations, and treatments were analyzed. Results : All patients had diabetes mellitus. Escherichia coli (78.6%) was the most common pathoqen in urine and blood cultures. The factors showing statistically significant differences between survivors and non-survivors were age (P=0.013), the presence of obstructive uropathy (P= 0.008), and type 1 group (P=0.030). Multivariate logistic regression showed that factor significantly related to death was age (odds ratio=1.20, 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.38, P=0.037). Conservative treatment including antibiotics and percutaneous drainage was successful in type 2 group, Overall mortality was 26.1%; all expired patients were from type 1 group. The mortality of conservative treatment and nephrectomy in type 1 group was 83.3% and 20.0%, respectively. Conclusion : These results suggest that old age is a significant risk factor for mortality in patients with EPN. Nephrectomy should be considered as the main treatment option in patients with type 1 EPN.