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This study was conducted to analyze the cost effectiveness in line with total phosphorus standard enforcement of public sewage treatment facilities. The additional cost for the total phosphorus removal process was calculated to analyze the cost effectiveness of the advanced water purification process. The analysis results showed that the T-P removal by coagulation sedimentation was more efficient than the advanced water purification facilities in terms of facilities investment cost, and if the coagulation filteration was used for T-P removal, the activated carbon process among the advanced water purification techniques was more efficient in terms of facilities investment cost. In this study, the effects of the T-P removal process that will be additionally introduced according to the tightening of the effluent T-P standard were analyzed within a limit. The actual benefits of improved T-P concentration in the water source will provide diverse values, including the leisure water, environment improvement water, eco-system in the water source and industrial water, in addition to the advanced water purification.
본 연구에서는 한국에서 분리된 infectious bronchitis virus(IBV)의 spike(S) gene 중에서기 S2 glycoprotein gene의 염기와 아미노산 서열을 결정하여 기존의 분리주와 비교하였고 phylogenetic tree를 작성하였다. 외국 분리주의 경우 S1 glycoprotein gene을 기준으로 작성한 phylogenetic tree 혈청형에 따라 분류되고 S2 glycoprotein gene을 기준으로 작성한 phylogenetic tree도 S1에 의한 결과와 밀접한 연관성을 갖는 것으로 보고되었으나 국내분리주의 경우 S1 glycoprotein에 의한 phylogenetic tree가 혈청형에 따라 분류되었으나 S2 glycoprotein gene에 의한 phylogenetic tree의 경우 모든 혈청형의 IBV 분리주가 하나의 cluster로 분류되는 특성을 나타내었다. 본 실험결과 국내 IBV 분리주의 경우 S2 glycoprotein gene이 S1 gene과는 다르게 변이하고 있는 것으로 조사되었다.
정원구 ( Won-gu Jeong ), 허인량 ( In-ryang Huh ), 이건호 ( Geon-ho Yi ), 김세희 ( Se-hee Kim ), 배철민 ( Cheol-min Bae ), 박운지 ( Un-ji Park ), 최승봉 ( Seung-bong Choi ), 김종철 ( Chong-cheol Kim ) 한국환경분석학회 2017 환경분석과 독성보건 Vol.20 No.1
We monitored the monthly change of water quality on the site of the nonpoint management area of Heanmyeon in Yang-gu County from 2009 to 2015. We found that SS, TP, and COD values were highly correlated with turbidity water concentration. Additionally, we monitored changes in turbidity using a real-time monitoring system. Using the data, the stage-discharge rating curve was calculated and we analyzed the correlations of COD, SS, and TP with the turbidity value. We found that SS concentration decreased by 48.1~83.6% under 10~30 mm rain fall and 72.1~86.6% under 30~50 mm rainfall as a result of comparing the event mean concentrations (EMCs) of SS with rainfall events that occurred in 2010 and 2014. We analyzed the rainfall and SS discharge rate per area based on the log data. Water quality was higher in 2014 than in 2010 during rainfall events. We concluded that the water quality at Mandae watershed was improved continuously by progress of non-point management policy.
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Objectives: Users of parks or children's play facilities have pointed to pets' bowel movements as the most serious problem when using them. In prior studies, a very low detection rate of parasites (eggs) in sand flooring materials has been found. Even though feces have been identified, no parasites (eggs) have been detected. Method: A standard solution of nitrate nitrogen was used to verify the reliability of a new nitrogen analysis method. The linearity, precision, and accuracy of the nitrate nitrogen analysis method were verified. Using this method, the pollution distribution of the sand flooring material and the degree of pollution at each point were investigated. Results: As a result of the verification of the nitrogen analysis method, the linearity was found to be good at r2=0.999 when distilled water is mixed in a standard substance solution. The standard substance additive solution r2=0.968 was found to be good. Precision represented 0.01 to 0.06% RSD for peak height. The recovery rate was 92.4 to 104.0 percent, indicating high accuracy. According to the same method of analysis, the flooring material sand at a general amusement facility with the largest number of concealed spaces was nitrate nitrogen 6.1 times higher than at the entrance of the playground. Also, in a comparison between clean sand and sandy flooring, the average nitrogen concentration of the sand flooring material was 24.4-167 times higher than pure sand. Conclusions: As such, no parasites (eggs) were detected at all points under investigation, but the sand flooring was exposed to animal fecal contamination. Therefore, the management of nitrogenous components should allow accurate identification of animal fecal contamination so that the timing of sand replacement can be managed hygienically and safely.
We monitored the water quality and algal communities to analyze the environmental factors that contributed to the development of cyanobacterial blooms in lake Uiam from 2012 to 2015. Anabaena species were isolated as the dominant type of cyanobacteria in the lake, and these were first observed at sites S6~S9 from June to July. The total phosphorus (T-P) concentration was estimated at 0.015 mg/L in 2015 and 0.043 mg/L in 2011, which represents a reduction of 65%. Hence, the N/P ratios in the lake also changed, i.e., the ratios were 110~130 in 2014~2015, and 40~70 in 2010~2013. The daily loads of T-P were reduced 5.3 kg/d and 8.8 kg/ d in 2014 and 2015, respectively, which were better loading rates than the value of 23.0 kg/d and 16.6 kg/d in 2012 and 2013, respectively. Algae blooms did not occur in Lake Uiam during 2014 to 2015. According to our analysis of critical environmental conditions, blooms will readily occur when N/P ratios are 20~30 and water temperatures are maintained at 20~25°C over a period of 30 days; moreover, 50~60 mm of precipitation is needed from the middle of June to early July.
From 2014 to 2016, water quality of Youngrang Lake was surveyed, according to the location and depth. Following observations were recorded. Distribution of dissolved oxygen in the water depth was investigated at the middle section and the downstream 1st, 3rd, 5th, when investigating the bottom lm interval anoxic layer. The organic matter and nutrient concentration distribution was COD upstream 2.8 mg/L, middle section 4.2 mg/L downstream 4.1 mg/L, which was more than two times higher in the bottom layer. The TP concentrations showed a similar trend as the COD, being 0.047 mg/L at upstream, 0.051 mg/L in the middle, and 0.059 mg/L downstream. Difference in salinity was observed at every survey period; the lowest salinity recorded 28.5% during the second survey, and highest was 32.1% in the fourth survey. Korean trophic state index (TSIko) showed eutrophic conditions in the middle section and downstream, whereas mesotrophic state was maintained elsewhere during the entire period. In order to evaluate the cause of water pollution of the Youngrang lake, regression analysis determined the relationship between salinity and DO, COD, TN,TP, Chl-a; the results indicated R2 from 0.63 to 0.95. Youngrang lake water quality had a close relationship with salinity due to inflow of seawater. As a result,in order to improve the quality of Youngrang lake, efficient incorporation of the amount of water through the seawater influent is considered the key.