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The hybrid origin of Ilex × wandoensis C. F. Mill. & M. Kim was studied by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using taxa-specific primers, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2)regions, and sequence analysis of PCR amplicons of the ITS region. Five accessions of I. integra Thunb., three accessions of I. cornuta Lindl. & Paxton and 22 accessions of I. × wandoensis, tentatively characterized based on morphological characters,were selected and subjected to PCR analysis. Amplified products of the selected accessions were sequenced. Significant variations were observed in leaf morphology of I. × wandoensis accessions based on the presence of single or multiple teeth and cuneate or rounded base of the leaf blade. Based on the PCR amplifications, sequence and RFLP analysis using HhaI and HaeIII restriction enzymes, the hybrid origin of I. × wandoensis was confirmed. Some accessions appeared to be introgressant and either crossed back to I. integra or to I. cornuta based on the RFLP polymorphisms. Analysis of the ITS2 region of the nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) using primers specific to certain taxon or taxa, and RFLP analysis of PCR amplicons proved to be useful tools to study the nature of interspecific hybridization and introgressions in complement with morphological characters.
This paper argues for the assumption of OT that grammars of languages differ not in their set of constraints, but in the rankings of those constraints by showing that emerging patterns found in loanwords can be accounted for by cross-linguistically well- motivated markedness constraints. For the purpose, this paper examines emergent patterns of North Kyungsang Korean such as gravitation of a high tone to a closed syllable, monosyllabic vowel lengthening and a falling-toned monosyllable. I show that these emergent patterns are results of universally well-established constraints, whose effects have been masked in the native language by the effects of higher ranking constraints. In the development of loanword phonology, these constraints are reranked, so that their effects are visible.
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The purpose of this study is to activate the disposition behaviour of dealing with the recyclable clothes by using the primary causes related to the behaviour. The summary of the outcome of this research is as follows. First. the attitude of girl students toward the consumption of their clothes is of great value. It presents the attitudes toward both the internal incentive and the external incentive are of great value and the attitude toward the external incentive has a little higher level than the attitude toward the internal incentive does : the altruistic behaviour of high school girls who tend to simply give or donate their clothes to their relatives or neighbors has a higher level than the economic behaviour by barter or sale at second-hand. Second. there's a positive correlation between the attitude toward the consumption of clothes and the altruistic behaviour in dealing with clothes and there is not a significant correlation between the attitude toward the consumption of clothes and the economic behaviour. The attitude toward the internal incentive has a positive correlation with the altruistic disposition. This research shows that there's a positive correlation between the attitude toward the external incentive and the economic disposition behaviour and the altruistic disposition behaviour. Third. the relative power of influence of the related variables that have an effect on the altruistic disposition behaviour shows that the attitude toward the internal incentive comes first and the personal contact with the information comes second. the attitude toward the consumption of clothes comes third and the existence of mother's job comes last in order of influence. The relative power of influence of the related variables that have an effect on the economic disposition behaviour shows that grades and the attitude toward the external incentive comes first and the existence of siblings comes next in order of influence.