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탄도탄의 방어영역(footprint)이란 탄도탄 요격체를 통하여 방어 가능한 지상의 영역을 의미한다. 탄도탄은 지상 자산을 주 표적으로 하며, 탄도탄 방어영역은 이러한 탄도탄을 방어하기 위한 대탄도탄 유도무기의 주요 성능지표 중 하나이다. 기존의 무기체계에 대한 최적의 배치 및 운용, 신규 무기체계의 개발에 있어서 요구조건 도출, 뿐만 아니라 다수 무기체계를 복합 운용할 경우 이들의 상호배치, 임무할당 및 효율적 운용측면에서 방어영역의 산출은 중요하다. 방어영역 산출은 먼저 방어하고자하는 탄도탄의 특성을 파악하고 표적을 모델링한 후 시간에 따른 표적의 궤적 및 속도를 산출하고, 조기경보레이더를 포함한 탄도탄 방어체계의 성능과 대탄도탄 요격체의 요격 능력에 따른 요격여부를 판단하는 일련의 과정이 요구된다. 본 논문에서는 이러한 과정을 보다 체계적으로 정립하였다. Footprint of a missile defense system is the defendable area on the ground by an interceptor. Main group of targets of ballistic missiles are the assets on the ground and therefore, footprint is one of the performance indices in missile defense. Due to this reason, computation of footprint is important for optimal deployment and operation of existing weapon systems, and derivation of requirements for new weapon systems as well as combined operation of various weapon systems. The characteristics of the ballistic missile threat is analyzed as the first step of footprint computation which is followed by modeling of the threat and then the trajectory and velocity of the threat is computed. The trajectory and velocity of the ballistic missile are used to determine whether it could be intercepted based on the performance of the missile defense system including early warning RADAR and capability of the interceptor. The aforementioned process is established in more systematic manner in the present research.
Many of the tasks that individuals undertake require persistence for their successful completion. Persistence implies not only the willingness to spend time and expend effort beyond the ordinary but to withstand discomfort(e.g., tolerance of pain or/and resistance to temptation). So we have regarded it as one form of self-control to perform the behavior (target behavior) that such tasks require. A proposal was made for making target behavior performed persistently. It was put emphasis on the role of enhancing the significance of performing target behavior. High significance of performing target behavior means that one has many reasons for one's doing target behavior or the reason that one has is more important than others. The more significant in performing target behavior, the more persistently do one perform target behavior. In the review of previous studies on self-control, we distinguished the strategies enhancing significance of performing target behavior from those of reducing painful experiences generated during performing target behavior. There seems largely two ways enhance the significance of performing target behavior: attending the desirable results(effects) of target behavior and imposing value on doing target behavior. To spcify the former, there include 1) attending the results, 2) attending the discrepancy between the result of not doing target behavior and that of doing target behavior, and 3)reminding the contingency of target behavior and its results. Proposing the advantages of attending multiple effects of doing target behavior, we discussed the possible effect of thinking about the joy of significant other's welfare of actor's on persistence of performing target behavior.
The goal of the study is to recognize the importance of our traditional tea education, lead and activate more desirable education of tea life for childhood. So as to attain this goal we studies the history of korean tea education, the present situation of guidance of tea education for childhood. An then we can find effects of tea education for childhood by debating the development sides of tea education for childhood. This study has examined that Tea Education gives a good influence of physical, cognitive, emotional, creative, and mora1 development at childhood.
The purpose of this study was to explore the underlying schematic processes in ability attribution. In this study we use the term "Ability attribution" in a limited sense that subjects assign target person's ability to various levels on that continuum on the basis of the target person's given information about her effort and/or performance. And we defined the differences between patterns of data in Ability attribution and those in Effort attribution as Ability-Effort asymmetry. The Ability-Effort asymmetry found unexpectedly in the previous studies raised a doubt about the assumption held by the previous researchers that the postdiction-Ability/Effort attribution- is merely the reverse process of the prediction. The following works were performed to criticize the assumption and explanations offered by the previous researchers and to explore the concept of Ability that children as well as adults use in everyday life especially on attribution situations. First, the patterns of Ability-Effort asymmetry found in the previous studies were reorganized into four types. The four types of asymmetry were as follows: (1) There were more subjects, who judged "effort is inversely correlated with Ability", in Effort attribution than in Ability attribution situation. (2) Developmentally, the perceived negative correlation between Effort and Ability appeared earlier in Effort attribution than in Ability attribution situation. (3) The process of Effort attribution was fitted either adding model or averaging model, but the process of ability attribution was fitted neither adding nor averaging model. And (4) the amount of inverse compensation in Effort attribution was larger than that of inverse compensation in Ability attribution. Second, Nicholls' study(1978) about the development of the conception of ability was introduced, Nicholls proposed that the concept of ability as a cause of performance develop gradually and that the concept of ability as a capacity(ability that limits the effect of effort on performance), on the whole, develope in the age 12. An third, it was assumed in this study that the postdiction-ability/effort attribution-is not the mere reversal process of the prediction(i.e., from cause to effect process). Surber's data (1980) were reorganized in this study, and discounting tendency was compared, then, with the augmenting tendency in effort attribution, and also the discounting tendency was compared with the augmenting tendency in ability attribution. It was found that children as well as adults used discounting principle both in effort attribution and in ability attribution. But there seemed no stable tendency especially for children subjects to use the augmenting principle in ability attribution. On the contrary, adults subjects used the augmenting principles as well as the discounting principle except in ability attribution given high performance-low effort. It was discussing that the developmental difference in the use of augmenting principle might be responsible for the ability-effort asymmetry. And Reeder & Brewer's implicational schema concept(1979) could be applicable to this phenomena. As conclusions, the followings were proposed. (1) Postdiction is not the mere reversal process of prediction. (2) We should take into account of the differentiation of the concept of "ability". (3) It would be promising to explore the implicational relation between ability performance, performance and ability, effort and performance, performance and effort, and ability and effort. Finally, (4) the representation of the implicational relation between performance and ability/effort might be an anchoring (or reference) point, when subjects judge the degree of ability/effort given performance and effort/ability information about target person.