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          캄보디아 2020:이중위기와 권위주의체제의 강화

          정연식 한국동남아학회 2021 동남아시아연구 Vol.31 No.2

          Faced with the unprecedented and catastrophic dual crisis of the COVID-19 pandemic and EU’s EBA withdrawal, Cambodia concentrated all efforts in 2020 to get through the dual crisis. Vigorous quarantine measures have managed to control the spread of the virus in Cambodia and various economic policies have deterred economic collapse. Although Cambodia’s economy shrank by 3.1% in 2020, it is fair to judge that Cambodia fared well given the catastrophic performance of the major industries. Cambodia’s hegemonic authoritarianism has been strengthened and sophisticated leaving little space for political opponents. EU’s sanction was activated but not enough to pull out political changes in Cambodia. With China’s unconditional support, Cambodia has survived the international pressure and the odds for the restoration of democracy in Cambodia seem to have further dwindled. 2020년 캄보디아는 EU의 EBA(무관세특혜) 지위 부분 철회와 코로나19라는 유례없는 이중 위기 상황을 맞아 국가적 역량을 총결집하여 대처했다. 적극적인 방역정책으로 코로나19 감염을 성공적으로 통제했으며 다양한 정책을 동원해 경제 붕괴를 저지했다. 비록 경제는 3.1% 마이너스 성장을 기록했지만 캄보디아의 취약한 산업구조와 핵심 산업에 가해진 막대한 타격을 고려하면 양호한 성적이다. 위기 극복 과정에서 캄보디아인민당의 패권적 권위주의체제는 더욱 정교히 강화되어 저항 세력은 크게 위축되었다. 정치적 퇴행에 대한 EU의 제재가 실행되었지만 중국의 강력한 지원에 힘입은 캄보디아의 버티기가 성공하면서 민주주의의 복원 가능성은 더욱 작아진 2020년이었다.

        • 코민테른의 植民地民族解放戰略戰術

          鄭然植,金鍾瑚 경북대학교 사회과학연구소 1991 社會科學硏究 Vol.7 No.-

          The purpose of this study is to find a clue for understanding more accurately the national liberation movement which has been accelerated in the colonial and dependent countries since the victory of the October Revolution. But there are much difficulties to do so. Because the movement has been very differently defined from the commuit approach to the bourgeois-democratic, reformist and sectarian approaches. Thus, this paper mainly detected the colonial and national questions, the united front strategy and tactics, and the colonial revoultion theory which had been brought in Comintern. In order to look into it, this study examined disscussions in Comintern about(1) imperialism and coionial society, (2) the place and character of the colonial and national liberation movement, (3) foreign and domestic class alliance, (4) proletarian hegemony, (5) bourgeois democratic revolution, and (6) the way of non-capitalist development. In conclusion, it is sade that Comintern developed the strategy and tractics for the colonial and national liberation in connection with world revolution. Because Comintren saw that it is difficult to realize the national and social liberlation in the colonial and dependent countries the national and social liberlation in the colonial and dependent countries without construction socialist society. Even if Comintern was disorganized in 1943, the premises and principles on the colonial and national questions became a base of the national liberation people's democratic revolution(NLPDR).

        • 日政下 우리 나라 地方政治에 관한 考察(Ⅱ) : 地方財政(大邱府)의 性格을 中心으로 The Characteristics of Local Public Finance in Taegu City

          鄭然植 慶北大學校 1970 論文集 Vol.14 No.-

          In this paper, I have tried to clarify the characteristics of local public finance in Taegu city under the Japanese rule from 1910 to 1945. This period may be divided into four stages. In the first stage, prior to the compulsory Korea-Japan Union Treaty of 1910, Japan had established, with in the Korean government, an advisor of public finance who played an important role in reforming public financial affairs, such as the banking and monetary systems. Ultimately, Japan gained political as well as economic control of Korea. In the second stage, from 1910 to 1919, there was a tremendous budgetary increase to maintain the colonial system of government and control of the Korean public finance. In the third stage, from 1920 to 1929, Japan used coersive measures to rule and spoil the Korean people through government enterprise and reform of the tax system. The tax reforms were initiated after those reforms designed to establish colonial control. During the period of world panic, the retrenchment policy of public finance was followed to maintain the balance of revenue and expenditure. In the last stage, from 1930 to 1945, the outbreak of war between Japan and Manchuria created the need for deficit spending to finance the war. As the war gradually expanded and World War II broke out, Korea became important as a strategic outpost in the Japanese advance against China. The Korean people were also burdened with having to supply many war resources. The stages that ave been described above have shaped the characteristics of the public finances of Taegu city in sevral ways: 1. As the colonial form of government was established and the war began to expand, the source of Taegu city revenue was almost exclusively the central government and public loans. This condition resulted in the restriction of the city government's actions and burdened the city residents with heavier taxes. 2. A large portion of the city budget was reserved for community services. The funds were used to improve residential conditions such as water supply and sanitation facilities, however, the Korean resident did not benefit as much from the improvements as did the Japanese. 3. The economic services rendered were not as important as the effect of the general administration. A large portion of the funds were used to propagate the Japanese policy by rewarding cooperation with the Japanese government. The expense of this program gradually increased to 43% of the total city budget in the midst of the war. The city government under the Japanese rule spent a large amount of money. The expenditures were not used as much for residential development and improvement as they were used for maintenance of colonial domination.

        • 中共의 政治性向

          鄭然植,尹龍熙 慶北大學校 東洋文化硏究所 1978 東洋文化硏究 Vol.5 No.-

          Since Chinese vice Premier Teng Hsiao-pin recovered his power there has been Much change in chinese political sphere such as domestic affairs, economics, military, culture and foreign relations as well. Therefore this paper aims at trying to figure out an inclination of recent Chinese politics and to examin how does inclination effect the relation-ship with the major powers surounding Korean peninsular. Untill the mid 1970's Mao's teaching had been a only dominant doctrine in the field of Chinese political ideology but recently it shows us some symptoms of reassessment of Mao's thought under the Hua ana Teng's leadership. Therefore the theoretical basis of Sino-Soviet dispute lanunched by Khrushchev's destalinization and peaceful coexistence will be gradually discolored by it's pragmatic professionalism which inclined to bring industrialization and modernization to china. In the economic aspect china has blaimed foreign investment as a comparador capital during more than two decades. Now they are willing to accept foreign investment and technical co-operation program from western countries including U.S. and Japan for the fulfilment of their recent modernization program While China defines Russia as a main enemy she is willing to maintain reliable relationship with U.S. and to have technical assistance of nuclear power and highly developed electronic equipment for modernization of their military. Thus Chinese political inclination has effected role of the major powers. In other words China needed to promote relation with U.S., Japan and Western European countries and U.S.-Sino relation stimulated Japan to normalize relation with China. During this process Russia has maid enormous efforts to hinder the normalization of Sino-Japan relation and Russia on the other hand presented favourable attitude to the Taiwan and South Korea. It means there has been a Keen competition among Major powers and China more likely to promote relations with U.S. Japan and western European countries in the near future.

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