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준희박과 농축용액에서 약간의 유연성을 갖는 강성막대형 고분자의 회전확산계수와 zero shear rate 점도를 예측하기 위해 한정된 강성 사슬모델이 제시되었다. 본 연구에서는 이제시된 모델을 분자량 분포를 갖는 다분산계로 확장시켰다. 분자들의 분자량 분포 (MW/Mn) 와 분포 함수를 알수 없기 때문에 해당분자에 가장 적당한 분자량 분포와 함수를 취하였다. 만약 이것들을 알고 있다면 제시된 모델로 회전확산계수와 zero shear rate 점도 등과 같은 인자들을예측할수 있었다. 단분산계의 경우와 같이 다분산계에서도 회전확산계수 의 평균분자 윤곽길이 의존도는 L-7 에 비례하는 것으로 나타났다. Doi와 Edwards 의 튜브 모델에 의한 L-9 과 다른 이유는 분자들의 거동을 관찰하기 위해 임의로 선정된 하나의 막 대형 고분자운동을 제약하는 정도가 심하지 않았으며 따라서 제약 완화시간도 훨씬 짧았기 때문이다. 더구나 점도와 회전 확산계수와 단분산계에서는 정성적으로 일치한데 제약 완화 시간도 훨씬 짧았기 때문이다. 더구나 점도와 회전적인 일치를 나타내었다. 이 모델로 기준 으로 하여 분자들의 길이와 종류에 관계없이 하나의 master curve를 그릴수 있었다.
Though Lin Huiyin(林徽因) is well known as an architect and poet, it seems that her poetry has not been fully evaluated. At first she wrote romantic love poems, but later her poetical style changed with having access to studies of old architecture and Modernism. This study classifies themes of her poetry into love, history, death, and reviews its change from Romanticism to Modernism and her awareness of life. Part One examines how she first wrote poems during recovering from pulmonary disease at 香山 and contains the characteristics of her romantic love poems. In these poems focused on her personal experience, she indicated memories of the love with a poet 徐志摩, concealing and inner confession through many nature`s images such as a boat, the night sky, a mast, the sun, the star, a flower. After his death, however, she expressed the truth and memories of love boldly by making use of symbol and image getting out of hesitation and concealment. Part Two looks over her turning to Modernism from Romanticism focusing on poems written in 1933-37. She participated in a magazine New Poetry<新詩> and played the role as the hostess of literature salon, where temporary Beijing intellectuals got together. She was deeply involved in Modernism as shown in Beijing School 京派 which describes city and anxiety about life. Making use of such images which represent history and time as the street, the twilight, the sand wind, the chimney, the sound of a bell, a fort, she combined city-criticizing modern consciousness with bitterness of traditional times. She got a deep philosophical meditation about history and time traveling many places to study ancient architecture with her husband 梁思成. Part Three explores the inner awareness of the poet who faced disease and death wandering through 昆明 and 四川 after the Chinese-Japanese War in 1937. She represented despair, depression, loneliness with such images as the setting sun, a lamp light, fallen leaves, graves, six o`clock, the window. Having faced her own death through experience of surgery, she showed the process where an inquiry on death and nothingness sublimates into deliverance and forgiveness in the poems written in Beijing, in 1947-48. Confronting reality and pain boldly in every single moment of her life, she displayed her inner frankness and sincerity truly in her poems. So it is not surprising that her poems are highly ranked despite their small amount.
이 글은 왜관의 일본인들이 작성한 매일기(每日記)를 바탕으로 개시(開市) 때 조선인에게 제공된 일본 요리를 분석한 것이다. ㉠ 왜관의 개시요리 기록은 1705년부터 체계적으로 정리되기 시작하여 19세기 중엽까지 그것이 이어졌다. ㉡ 조선 역관과 도중(都中)에게는 밥 이외에 국 한 가지와 반찬 세 가지 즉 1즙 3채가(初市는 2즙 5채), 그리고 그들의 종자[수행원]에게는 1즙 1채가 기본이었다. ㉢ 개시요리는 계절마다 쓰이는 재료가 달랐지만, 무처럼 철에 관계없이 연중 고르게 사용되는 재료도 있었다. ㉣ 고정 메뉴인 밥과 국 이외에, 반찬으로는 조림이 가장 많이 제공되었고 그 다음이 무침이었으며, 생선회도 가끔씩 나왔다. 왜관의 일본인들이 조선측 관계자에게 김치를 반찬으로 내놓는 일도 드물게나마 있었다. ㉤ 통신사 일행에게 제공된 향응요리에 비하면 왜관 개시요리의 종류와 내용이 간소하였지만, 개시요리는 왜관 거주 일본인의 일상적인 식생활 문화가 반영된 것이었다고 말할 수 있다. This paper clarified some facts through the analysis on the foods of Japanese style supplied for private trade[Gaeshi in K.] between Joseon and Japan, using the daily records by the trade authority of Tsushima domain, Ichidaikan in Japanese. First, the Japanese foods supplied during the time of trades was to be recorded from 1705 to the middle of 19th century at the Japan House, directed by Tsushima domain. Second, rice, soup and three kinds of side dish were supplied to Korean translators[Hundo and Byeolcha in K.] and merchants[Dojung in K.], and one soup and two kinds of side dish added for them especially in the case of the first trade in the every year. But only one soup and one side dish were supplied, in addition to rice, to their encourages each time of trade. Third, the foods supplied during the time of trades were differed by seasons. But there were some vegetables used as usual as white radish. Fourth, adding to rice and soup, the foods boiled were most common, and the next was the foods seasoned. Gimisui[Gimchi in K.] was supplied for Korean translators and merchants infrequently. Fifth, the Japanese foods supplied during the time of trades were more simple than the foods for Korean Diplomatic Envoys to Japan. But it should be emphasized that Japanese food cultures of daily life at the Japan House was reflected in the foods for the trades.
Shock irresponsive to vasopressors and vital organ dysfunctions are two most important clinical factors affecting prognosis in sepsis. These are suspected to be caused by decreased vascular responsiveness and cellular injury with disturbed microcirculation of tissue perfusion. Peroxidation of polyunsaturated cell-membrane lipids by oxygen free radicals is known as the main mechanism of cell injury in sepsis. Recent studies on the biologic functions of NO has shown that endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF), which is the same material as NO, is essential to the vessel function and microcirculation. A few studies have been reported that growth hormone (GH) has been put to clinical trial in septic patients with beneficial therapeutic effects, but the mechanisms of these effects have not been explained exactly. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of CH on the liver tissue injury in sepsis. With female rats of Sprague-Dawley as experimentaI animal, the degree of peroxidation reaction, the level of TNF-a, and NOS activity were measured. The interrelationships between the peroxidation reaction and TNF-a or NO production were investigated in this animal model of sepsis. Peritonitis had been induced by cecal ligation and perforation, and then recombinant human GH was injected 3. 0 I. U./kg IM. On pathologic examination, liver tissue of the peritonitis-only group showed lymphocyte and neutrophil infiltration, fatty degeneration of hepatocyte, and destruction of liver lobular structure. In the peritonitis-and-GH group, there were lesser lymphocyte and neutrophil infiltration and lesser structural injury in the liver tissue. In the peritonitis-only group, MDA levels of liver tissue were remarkably increased, catalase activity was used up at initial stage of peritonitis, and markedly increased plasma TNF-a levels, compared to the control group. In comparison with the peritonitis-only group, the perit,onitis-and-GH group had significantly lower MDA levels, higher catalase activity, and markedly suppressed plasma TNF-a levels. The NOS activity in liver tissue of the peritonitis-only group was significantly increased compared with the control group. GH suppressed this increase of NOS activity. In summary, GH had cell-protective effect against lipid peroxidation, suppressive action on the TNF-a production, and inhibitory effect on NOS activation. The therapeutic effect of GH was supposed to be mediated mainly by its antioxidant function. But the exact interaction between peroxidation reaction and NO or TNF-a could not elucidated clearly. Further studies are required.