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In the Eastern world, having white skin is considered a key factor for looking beautiful, resulting in many consumers desiring to have white skin and continuous growth in the whitening cosmeceuticals market. Hundreds of companies, including AmorePacific and LG Household & Health Care, have developed and released products in this market, increasing their range in a systematic and strategic manner through market survey and analysis. In the cosmetics industry, it is important to develop high-performance chemicals that are suited to the properties of the skin. However, safety is even more critical because these products will be applied to the human body, and side effects of whitening agents and drugs have recently been reported. Therefore, there is a need for continued research not only to improve these properties but also to enhance mid- and long-term growth in the market. The aim of this study was to review current research on natural skin whitening products and to examine their ingredients, with a particular focus on Prunus persica Flos, Phellodendron amurense , Cudrania tricuspidata Bureau, Zanthoxylum schnifolium , Dendropanax morbifera , and Broussonetia kazinoki . Prunus persica Flos, Phellodendron amurense and Dendropanax morbifera have shown the high inhibition rate of melanin biosynthesis, and Cudrania tricuspidata Bureau and Zanthoxylum schnifolium have shown the inhibition of oxidization by inhibiting tyrosinase. Broussonetia kazinoki have shown the effect of anti-oxidant by eliminating reactive oxygen species (ROS). 본 연구는 천연 미백성분과 관련된 최신 연구 동향을 알아보는 데 그 목적이 있다. 동양에서는 예로부터 흰 피부가 미인을 가늠하는 하나의 기준으로 자리 잡아, 피부미백 선호 소비자층이 두터우며 미백 화장품시장은 지속적인 성장세를 유지하고 있다. 미백기능을 강조한 기능성 화장품 시장은 아모레퍼시픽, 엘지생활 건강 등 수백 개의 기업들이 앞 다투어 제품을 개발하고 국내외 시장 조사와 분석을 통하여 체계적이고 전략적인 시장규모를 키우고 있다. 화장품은 피부특성에 맞는 우수한 화학 소재 개발도 중요하지만, 인체에 적용되어 사용되는 만큼 안전성 측면이 매우 강조되고 있다. 최근에는 화학성분의 미백제와 약물에 대한 부작용으로 인체에 대한 위험성이 대두됨에 따라, 안전하면서도 미백 기능이 탁월한 천연 소재 미백 화장품 원료에 대한 최신 연구 동향을 탐색하였다. 본 논문에서는 천연 미백 화장품 성분으로 활용 가능성이 있는 도화, 황백, 구찌뽕나무, 산초, 황칠나무, 닥나무의 성분들을 검토하 였다. 도화와 황백 그리고 황칠나무 추출물에서는 melanin 생합성 억제율이 높았으며, 구찌뽕나무와 산초에서는 tyrosinase 활성저 해를 통한 dihydroxyphenylalanine 산화 억제능을 보였다. 그리고, 닥나무는 reactive oxygen species (ROS) 소거함으로써, 자외선에 노출된 피부에 항산화제로 작용하며 미백기능을 보여주었다.
The purpose of this study was to develop and test the effectiveness of a healthy family education program for adolescents. Based on the literature review and an assessment of middle school students' and their parents' needs for the healthy family education, a healthy family education program was developed with four main parts: ''Forming a Happy Family'', ''Developing Friendship with (Other Sex) Friends'', ''Traveling into the World of Consumption'', and ''Healthy Body, Healthy Minds.''. In order to test the effectiveness of the program, 35 students from a middle school in Seoul were treated with the education program. The treatment group was compared to a control group before and after the treatment in terms of their attitude toward and knowledge in family healthiness. As a result, the developed program was found to have a positive effect on enhancing the attitude and knowledge of middle school students related to family healthiness.
[Purpose] This study longitudinally analyzed the golf performance of KLPGA players who had participated KLPGA tour for 10 years from 2010 to 2019. [Method] open source program R had used for statistical analysis and visualization for the result. lm of stats package for a fitted linear regression model, and logistic regression analysis for glm package were used. Additionally, plot of the base package was used for data visualization. [Result] The results of statistical analysis was that the performance factor to affect the prize money for KLPGA players was par break rate. The performance factor to affect winning the first place for KLPGA players was green in regulation. In the future, the green in regulation will be important. [Conclusion] In conclusion, if KLPGA players focused on practicing accurate second shot to improve green in regulation and reduce putting average, it would improve both parsave rate and performance. [목적] 본 연구는 2010년부터 2019년까지 총 10개년간 KLPGA 투어에 참가한 한국여자프로골프선수의 골프경기력을 종단분석하였다. [방법] 결과 도출을 위해 통계분석 및 시각화는 오픈소스 프로그램인 R로 수행하였으며, 선형회귀모형의 적합에는 stats 패키지의 lm, 로지스틱 회귀분석에는 glm 패키지를 이용하고, 데이터 시각화에는 base 패키지의 plot을 사용하였다. [결과] 도출된 결과는 한국여자프로골프선수의 상금에 영향을 미치는 경기력요인으로 파브레이크율이며, 한국여자프로골프선수의 우승에 영향을 미치는 경기력요인은 그린적중률로 나타났으며, 향후에도 그린적중율은 중요할 것으로 보인다. [결론] 한국여자프로골프선수는 정확한 세컨샷 훈련을 하여 그린적중률을 높이고 퍼팅수를 줄인다면 파세이브율도 높아져 경기력을 상향시키는 전략이 될 것이라 사료된다.
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Since women who lived in late Joseon dynasty had little freedom of expressing their opinions, their speaking to someone and the world is very meaningful in itself. Moreover, what and how they spoke in the presence of their impending death is very important. Thus, this paper investigates cases of women characters in Korean classical novels who spoke about their feelings in the presence of their impending death. Those women characters are found in <The Story of Woon-Yeong>, <Samhanseubyu>, <Maiden Suk-Young>, <Jusaengjeon>, <Simsaeng jeon>, <Yussisamdaerok>. Some of them said they bore a grudge about being unloved, and some did not cling to love and resigned themselves to fate. Others placed filial duty above love and said love was futile. Each woman character had a difference reason for her determination of death, such as for expressing her will, out of desperation, being unable to overcome the grief, due to sense of guilt and shame or feeling anger. In addition, this paper investigates the meaning of the death of those women characters by examining the emotions of family and other people who judge their death. Their reactions were different for each work. There were cases in which a lover or husband recognized the love of a woman and renounced the world while being sick together, expressed love more strongly, or regretted that they had not met in life even wanting to meet after death. In Korean classic novels, through the death of female characters, through what they say in the face of death, through her emotional expressions, it is highlighted what she wanted to say to the world and the issues the writer wanted to raise in the work. The reason female characters chose death was because of their natural emotions rather than ideological or ethical judgments. 본고에서는 고전소설 중에서 작품 중간에 죽음을 선택한 여성들이 죽음에 처했을 때에 어떤 말을, 어떤 감정으로 하는지를 살펴보았다. <운영전>, <숙영낭자전>, <삼한습유>, <주생전>, <심생전>, <유씨삼대록>에서 이러한 여성 인물들이 발견되는데, 사랑과 자기 성취에 대한 간절함을 표출하면서 원한, 불안, 공포, 감사, 죄책감을 드러낸 경우, 정절 훼손 모해로 원통함, 당혹감, 수치심을 드러낸 경우, 자존감, 자부심, 의지로 현실에 저항하면서도 슬픔을 이기지 못하는 경우 등 적극적인 자기표현으로써 자결한 이들이 있었다. 이들보다는 소극적인 자기표현으로 죽음에 이르는 경우들에서는, 자책, 낙담, 한으로 가득하여 우울, 마음의 동요, 자기 억제 등의 감정을 겪으며 병들어 죽은 이들, 울화와 반감이 쌓여 서서히 죽어간 여성들이 있었다. 같은 애정전기소설 속 여주인공들이지만, 운영은 자존감, 감사, 죄책감을, 배도는 포기와 낙담을, 소녀는 자책과 한을 드러내면서 죽음에 이르렀다는 면에서 달랐다. 한편, 조선후기 여성들의 삶을 비교적 현실적으로 담고 있다고 하는 국문장편소설 속 여주인공인 진양공주는 삶과 죽음을 대하는 면에서도 상층여성의 심리를 대변하는 면이 있었다. 내적 분노를 침묵으로 삭이거나 발산하는 것이 용이하지 않을 때에 병들어 죽곤 했기 때문이다. 죽어간 여성인물에 대한 타인의 반응들도 작품마다 달랐는데, 애인이나 남편이 여성의 사랑을 알아주고 같이 아파하면서 세상을 등진 경우도 있었고, 더 강하게 사랑을 표현한 경우도 있었으며, 생전에는 만나지 못했던 것을 아쉬워하며 사후에라도 만나고 싶어 하기도 하였다. 이렇게 고전소설에서는 여성 인물의 죽음을 통해, 그녀들이 죽음에 직면해서 말하는 것을 통해, 그녀의 감정 표현을 통해, 그녀가 세상을 향해 말하고 싶었던 것과 작품에서 문제제기하고 싶었던 것들을 부각시켰다고 할 수 있다. 여성인물들이 죽음을 선택한 것은 이데올로기나 윤리에 경도되고 침윤된 의식적 판단이기보다는 한 인간의 자연스러운 감정들 때문이었던 것이다.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the eating behaviors, the self-perception of body images, the hematological indices and the nutrient intake of adolescent female athletes in Incheon. The subjects were 112 female athletes (track and field: n=32, target shooting: n=27, fencing: n=29, swimming: n=14, badminton: n=10) from middle and high schools in Incheon. This cross-sectional study was conducted by means of a self-administered questionnaire. Fasting blood samples were obtained and analyzed for hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), ferritin, serum iron, mean cor-puscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), unsaturated iron binding capacity (UIBC), total iron binding capacity (TIBC) and transferrin saturation (TS). Nutrient intakes obtained by means of the 3 day-recall method were analyzed using the Computer Aided Nutritional Analysis Program. Statistical analysis was conducted using the SPSS 10.0 program. Most of the female athletes had dietary problems such as eating unbalanced meals, skipping meals, and preferences for processed foods. More than 60% of the female athletes skipped breakfast. As for perception of their body images, track and field athletes in particular, controlled their weights significantly better than the other athletes (p < 0.05). With regard to their physical exertion during exercise, 56.3% of the swimmers and 31.3% of the track and field athletes answered "very hard", which was a significant difference (p < 0.001). More than 80% of the female athletes experienced vertigo during exercise (p < 0.01). Also more than 50% of the female athletes, with the exception of the badminton players, had experienced irregular menstruation (p < 0.05). The average serum iron levels (p < 0.05), the serum ferritin levels (p < 0.05) and TS (p < 0.05) of the track and field athletes was significantly lower as compared to that of the other athletes. The nutrient intakes of the female athletes, with the exception of Vitamin B6, niacin and phosphorus were lower than the Korean Recommended Daily Allowances (RDA). In particular, the calcium and iron intakes of the female athletes were under 50% of the Korean RDA. Therefore, proper nutritional education and supplementation are required for female athletes to encourage desirable eating habits, as well as to improve their nutritional status and exercise performances. (Korean J Community Nutrition 8(6): 951~963, 2003)
Recently, various implant cylinders were supplied, especially received gold cylinders, cast cylinders produced from premade gold and plastic cylinders and plastic cylinders. This study measured and compared precise fit produced when using conventional gold and plastic cylinders. The comparative fit of lapped and non-lapped castings made form plastic pattern was examined. The implant/abutment interface fit was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy(SEM) for each of four cylinders. The following results were obtained: 1. The case of plastic cylinder showed 9.67±1.5㎛ gap when Steri-Oss fixture was connected. 2. The case of lapped casting made from plastic cylinder showed 3.01±2.81 ㎛ gap when Steri-Oss fixture was connected. 3. The case of gold/plastic cylinder showed 9.80±1.68 ㎛ gap when Steri-Oss fixture was connected. 4. The case of gold cylinder showed 5.47±2.43 ㎛ gap when Steri-Oss fixture was connected. 5. In case of each cylinder which was connected with Steri-Oss fixture, the size of gap was showed less in the order of the case of gold/plastic cylinder, the case of plastic cylinder, the case of gold cylinder and the case of lapped casting made from plastic cylinder. As results of this study, the use of premade gold cylinder offers an advantage over plastic patterns in precise fit. When plastic patterns are uses, polishing of implant cylinder components should provide precise fit.
This paper is about the study that examines the relational aspect between a family and the royal family in the early long-length Korean classical novel, which is <Sohyunsungrok>. This novel is written in the mid to late 17th century. It is about establishment, prosperity, and succession of the Sohs. The stature of the Sohs was positioned as a family of integrity and tried to practice filial piety as the most important virtue, but had a sense of loyalty that saves the nation in a great crisis at the same time. Besides, they were cooperative to the king but when there was a fault, they followed a custom by speaking plainly. These orientation and stature of the family appear intensively in narrations about a princess married to this family and a queen from this family. By a trial of strength between the princess and a king’s son-in-law, the justification of the family’s lifestyle and values was imposed and by a daughter being a queen, the morality and qualifications of the family were verified. The dynamics between the family and the royal family were handled comprehensively by widely examining the main characters’ political views, debates about setting of relation and duty between sovereign and subject, contents about a conflicting relation between loyalty and filial piety and about participation in war and a marriage becoming a queen, as well as a princess's marriage. Through this, the novel informs about values and views of life of writers and readers of the time.
Objective: Novel design-based STEAM program is developed to educate elementary secondary school students about the role of robot experts and help them to design their career pathways to be a robot expert. Background: Conventional robot education program focuses on educating other subjects such as physics or mathematics using robot or educating robot control using commercial robot-kit. The proposed STEAM program emphasizes not only evoking an interest about robot development process but also generating creative ideas. Method: The program is designed based on product development process of commercial products including robots. Students are encouraged to generate various ideas with the help of thinking tools. Results: The exemplary programs were applied to 10 different schools and all the teachers and students reported that the provided program was fun to do and help them to understand the job of robot experts. Conclusion: The proposed design-based STEAM program framework could help students to be more creative and actively involved in learning new ideas.