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정석훈,정재우,박기현,서현덕,박재홍,박범영,주석배,최재영,정해도,Jeong,,Suk-Hoon,Jung,,Jae-Woo,Park,,Ki-Hyun,Seo,,Heon-Deok,Park,,Jae-Hong,Park,,Boum-Young,Joo,,Suk-Bae,Choi,,Jae-Young,Jeong,,Hae-Do 한국전기전자재료학회 2008 전기전자재료학회논문지 Vol.21 No.3
Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) allows the planarization of wafers with two or more materials. There are many elements such as slurry, polishing pad, process parameters and conditioning in CMP process. Especially, polishing pad is considered as one of the most important consumables because this affects its performances such as WIWNU(within wafer non-uniformity) and MRR(material removal rate). In polishing pad, grooves and pores on its surface affect distribution of slurry, flow and profile of MRR on wafer. A subject of this investigation is to apply CMP for planarization of shallow trench isolation structure using microstructure(MS) pad. MS pad is designed to have uniform structure on its surface and manufactured by micro-molding technology. And then STI CMP performances such as pattern selectivity, erosion and comer rounding are evaluated.
KB103 was developed from a cross between Burley 21 and Va 528 in 1983. It was developed by haploid method derived from anther culture method. It has moderate resistance to black shank(Phytophhorn nicotianae Breda de Haan Var. nictiana Waterhouse). KB103 produced good yields and quality in 1988-1990. It flowered about four or five days later than standard variety Burley 21, and plant height, leaf width, leaves per plants were similar to those of Burley 21. In maturing and curing properties as well as in chemical constituents of cured leaves, KB 103 was very similar to that of Burley 21. Regional farm test with the breeding line, KB 8304- ADH 65 named as KB 103 in 1986, was performed for 4 crop years from 1987 at 29 locations. It was released on burley tobacco area in 1992.
Burley tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) KB 108 was developed from a single cross between KB 104 and TC 591 which was developed from a cross between Burley 49 and Tobacco Introduction 1406. It was tested for its resistance to black shank, potato virus Y(PVY), TMV and agronomic characteristics under field conditions. KB 108 has resistance to tobacco mosaic virus(TMV) and necrotic strain of potato virus Y(PVY-VN) with secreting glandular trichomes. It has also moderate resistance to black shank caused by phytophthora parasitica val. Nicotianae. KB 108 has an up-right plant growth habit similar to Burley 21. It flowers about 1-2 days later than Burley 21. The leaf width and length of KB 108 are approximately 3 cm wider and longer than those of Burley 21. The yield of KB 108 was higher 4%, nearly equal in value per kg compared to Burley 21.
Copper has been used as an interconnect material in the fabrication of semiconductor devices, because of its higher electrical conductivity and superior electro-migration resistance. Chemical mechanical polishing(CMP) technique is required to planarize the overburden Cu film in an interconnect process. Various problems such as dishing, erosion, and delamination are caused by the high pressure and chemical effects in the Cu CMP process. But these problems have to be solved for the fabrication of the next generation semiconductor devices. Therefore, new process which is electro-chemical mechanical polishing(ECMP) or electro-chemical mechanical planarization was introduced to solve the technical difficulties and problems in CMP process. In the ECMP process, Cu ions are dissolved electrochemically by the applying an anodic potential energy on the Cu surface in an electrolyte. And then, Cu complex layer are mechanically removed by the mechanical effects between pad and abrasive. This paper focuses on the manufacturing of ECMP system and its process. ECMP equipment which has better performance and stability was manufactured for the planarization process.
This experiment was conducted to investigate varietal responses to cool temperature (18℃) and short photoperiod (8 hours a day) in a controlled room of phytotron. Five burley tobacco varieties (Nicotiana tabacum L.), Awelius (very early flowering type), Burley 21 and KB 103 (medium), Banket Al and MB 1 (slightly late) and TC 681 (late) were compared in number of leaves per plant and day to flower in different treatment periods (10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 days). The days to flower decreased significantly than the control (in the phytoron with 14hr photoperiods and a minimum temperature 20'c) when the treatment periods were over 15 days for the varieties Aurelius, Burley 21 and KB 103, and 20 days for TC 681, and 30 days for Banket Al, respectively. And also the number of leaves decreased significantly than that of the control when the periods of treatment were over 10 days for Burley 21 and Aurelius, 15 days form 103, and 20 days for TC 681 and Banket Al, and 30 days for MB 1, respectively. The decreasing ratio in the number of leaves per plant under cool temperature and short photoperiod treatments was the lowest in Banket Al and MB 1. Key words : Nicotiana tabacum, cool temperature, short photoperiod.
The vein-necrosis strain or potato virus Y (PVY-Vff) and black shank (Phytophlhora parasitica roar. nicotianae) causes severe damage on burley tobacco(Wicotiana tabacum L.) in Korea, A new burley tobacco resistance to PVY and black shank, KB 110, was developed by Korea Ginseng and Tobacco Research Institute. It was developed from the cross of Burley 21 with TC 591 in 1990, and was backrossed to Burley 21 in the following season. TC 591 has resistance to PVY and moderate resistance to race 0 of black shank, but it is susceptible to tobacco mosaic vim (TMV). KB 110 was evaluated for its resistance to PVY, TMV and black shank in the greenhouse and at fields for preliminary and performance trials. KB 110 which has secreting glandular trichomes was resistant to PVY-VN, TW and black shank. It had an erect growth habit and two more leaves per plant than that of Burley 21, and matures two to three days later. It yielded approximately 3 percent more cured leaf than the standard cultivar Burley 21, but other plant characteristics were very similar to those of Burley 21. It had acceptable standards for chemical and physical characteristics of lured leaf on regional farm test in 1995-1997. KB 110 produced average yields of good quality tobaccos and was appeared to be resistant to PVY inwhere occurrence of the virus are severe chronic at burley growing area.
The vein necrotic strain of Potato Virus Y (PVY - VN) and black shank (Phyto-phthora parasitica var. nicotianae) are the two major diseases causing severe damages especially in burley tobacco (N. tabacum L.) area in Korea. A new tobacco variety, KB 111, resistant to PVY and black shank disease, was developed by Korea Ginseng & Tobacco Research Institute in 1997. It is a male sterile(MS) F$_1$ hybrid of the cross between MS TC 613 and KB 108. KB 111 was compared to Burley 21 on the agronomic characteristics and disease resistances in performance tests: It possessed upright growth habit and flowered two days later than Burley 21. It was resistant to both PVY and black shank and yielded about 3% more cured leaf than Burley 21, but other characteristics are very simiar to those of Burley 21. The chemical composition and physical properties of the cured leaf of KB 111 were as much acceptable as those of Burley 21 while it produced average yield of good quality leaf and appeared to resistant to PVY and black shank disease on regional farm test in 1998.
This study was carried out to obtain the basic information about the sucker producing characteristics of certain burley tobacco varieties(Nicotiana tabacum L. var. burley) at Suwon and Chonju Experiment Station, Korea Ginseng & Tobacco Research Institute in 1999. The number and weight of suckers for 12 varieties or breeding lines were investigated three times, 45 days after transplanting for ground sucker, 10 days after topping, and 10 days after maleic hydrazide(MH) applying for upstalk sucker. KB 103 and KB 9416-1 produced less ground suckers and upstalk suckers than other entries did. KB 9210-8 produced less ground suckers and (Male sterile TC 612 x KB 108)F$_1$ also produced less upstalk suckers than other entries did. There was no differences among entries in sucker production at 10 days after MH treatment. Between the weight of total sucker and days to flower revealed the negative correlation, but not significant. The low sucker producing entries described above could be used as a parental line in the breeding program for the low sucker producing variety.
This study introduces Electro-chemical Mechanical Deposition(ECMD) lot making Cu interconnect. ECMD is a novel technique that has ability to deposit planar conductive films on non-planar substrate surfaces. Technique involves electrochemical deposition(ECD) and mechanical sweeping of the substrate surface Preferential deposition into the cavities on the substrate surface nay be achieved through two difference mechanisms. The first mechanism is more chemical and essential. It involves enhancing deposition into the cavities where mechanical sweeping does not reach. The second mechanism involves reducing deposition onto surface that is swept. In this study, we demonstrate ECMD process and characteristic. We proceeded this experiment by changing of distribution of current density on divided water area zones and use different pad types.