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Fracture separation of the distal femoral epiphysis is not so common as epiphyseal injuries elsewhere. Salter-Harris type Ⅱ injury is the most common and usually occurs in older children. The fragment usually has placed in the sagittal(type Ⅰ) or coronal(type Ⅱ) plane. Type I injury usually occurs by indirect force, type Ⅱ by direct force. Fractures of the distal femur involving growth plate tends to occur in adolescent from 12 to 16 years of age and likely to be a cause of physeal arrest. A 15-year-old male gymnast had bilateral distal femoral Salter-Harris type Ⅰ injury during descending posture from parallel bars. We report it with review of the literature.
Objective : Thujae Orientalis Folium (TOF) can cool the blood and stop bleeding, eliminate phlegm and relieve cough in Oriental medicine. In addition, the fresh is used alone externally. Recently, TOF is known to have anti-tumor component. And also known to have tyrosinase inhibitory effect. Method : For these reasons, this study was designed to investigate anti-cancer and whitening activities of TOF. In this experiment, effects of TOF on proliferation rates of melanoma cells and on changes in genetic profiles were investigated. The genetic profile for the effect on human derived melanoma cell, SK-MEL-2, was measured using microarray technique, and the functional analysis on these genes was conducted. Results : Total 541 genes were up-regulated and 1,079 genes down-regulated in cells treated with TOF. Genes induced by TOF were mainly concerned with anti-cancer effects and apoptosis. Genes suppresed by TOF were related in extracellular signalling pathway. The network of total protein interactions was measured using cytoscape program, and some key molecules, such as THAP1, MAX1, STAM2, SMAD6, CYCS, PEX5, PSEN1, NONO, MAP2K7 and CREB1 that can be used for elucidation of therapeutical mechanism of medicine in future were identified. Conculusion : These results suggest possibility of TOF as anti-cancer drug for human melanoma. In addition, the present author also suggest that related mechanisms are involved in inhibition of several cancer pathway, activation of apoptosis pathway and suppression of general metabolic pathway.