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        • KCI우수등재

          질병전염 방지를 위한 농촌변소 개량에 관한 연구

          정문식,정문호 한국환경보건학회 1979 한국환경보건학회지 Vol.6 No.1

          '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

          An experimental study was carried out to develop a rural type toilet of which the effluent could not transmit parasitic diseases at a village in Kangwon Province, Korea, during the period of January through December 1978, A drum tank (dia. 57cm$\times$90cm) and a cement tank (100cm$\times$100cm$\times$100cm) were filled with human excreta collected from toilets of the villages (the ratio of feces to urine was estimated approximately 1: 5) at once and three threecompartment toilets were constructed and used by people. pH, temperatures and viability of parasitic eggs were examined with the content of toilets. Rusults are summarized as follows: 1. pH increased from 7.0 at the beginning of experiment to 7.5 or 8.0 after 4 months of storage in drum tank as well as in cement tank and so did from 7.0~7.5 in the first tank to 8.0~8.5 in the third tank of all three-compartment toilets. 2. Temperatures of content at middle part of toilets in January through March ranged from 2 to 6$\circ$C which were 2-4$\circ$C higher than those of air, and those of lower part were again 1~2$\circ$C higher than of middle part. but temperatures of air, at middle part andat lower part in April were 14$\circ$C, 9~10$\circ$C and 8~9$\circ$C respectively, in July 29$\circ$C, 20~21$\circ$C and 19~20$\circ$C respe ctively and in October 17$\circ$C, 14$\circ$C and 14~13$\circ$C respectively. 3. All the parasitic eggs were degenerated about 4 months after filling drum tank with human excreta on 10th April while 10% of eggs were degenerated on 15th May, and all the eggs were degenerated about 4 months after filling cement tank on 24th August while about 10% were degenerated on 11th September and 20% on 4th October. 4. Degeneration rates of eggs were only 5~15% at 5cm below surface in the first tanks of three-compartment toilets while 45~65% at 50cm below, and concentration rates of eggs in second tanks were 8~12% of those in first tanks and only a few eggs were found in third tank but all of them were degenerated. Specific gravity of liquid of 1.022~1.024 in second tanks was not enough for overflowing eggs into third tanks.

        • KCI우수등재

          생활폐기물 성분에 관한 연구

          정문식,조영채,정용택 한국환경보건학회 1981 한국환경보건학회지 Vol.7 No.2

          '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

          Generation of Solid Wastes grew rapidly with the increase of living standard of the people in Korea recently and their composition was more complicate. The weight of Solid wastes generated in Seoul into year of 1979 was about 420 million tons which required 1.5 million $m^2$ of burial land and daily generation for person was 1.6kg. The Composition of more than 80% ash contents was suitable for sanitary landfill but recently ash was decreasing while paper, synthetic materials, glass etc, increasing and alternative method had to be found to dispose the wastes properly. Weight and Composition of Wastes by season and living standard were surveyed for one year from June 1980 to May 1981 in Seoul. Disposal mathods by waste composition was studied. Results were summarized as follows: 1) Each component stored separately at generation point was to be collected and to be reused or disposed by public organization or private company. Some incentives have to be arranged. 2) Wastes collected from household were transfeted to about 420 temporally storing places and transported to two dumping areas by about 700, 4-8 tons trucks which droped litters on the streets. Large dumping lots should constructed along the western coasts and the wastes would be transported through big container trucks or trains to the lots. 3) Ash contents decreased to 40-70% while garbage, synthetic materials, paper increased and they are two to three times in summer of those in winter. Ash in affluent residential areas is less than 50% of whole wastes while that in poor apartment and residential areas is 60-70%. 4) Large dumping places should be constructed along the western coasts which are not far from Seoul because no suitalbe lands are available, and proper leakage protection arrangements should be made.

        • KCI우수등재

          농촌지역 집단변소개량의 환경보건학적 효과분석

          정문식,정문호,백남원,한돈희 한국환경보건학회 1989 한국환경보건학회지 Vol.15 No.1

          This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of environmental health between the mass improvement and the partial improvement of privies in rural area. For this study, three villages were selected in Chun Sung County, Kangwon Province.

        • KCI등재후보
        • KCI등재후보

          형성 중인 생명에 대한 국가의 기본권 보호의무 ― 태아의 생명권과 국가의 기본권 보호의무에 관한 2008. 7. 31. 헌법재판소 결정에 대한 평석 ―

          정문식 전남대학교 법학연구소 2008 법학논총 Vol.28 No.2

          '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

          Durch vorliegende Entscheidung hat das Koreanische Verfassungsgericht(KVerfG) das Lebensrecht des werdenden Lebens ausdrücklich anerkannt. Nach ihrer Auf- fassung ergebe sich die staatliche Schutzpflichten aus Art.10 S.2 der Koreanische Verfassung(KV). Mittels Untermaßverbots hat KVerfG darauf geprüft, ob die staatliche grundrechtlche Schutzpflicht für werdendes Leben durch §762 in Ver- bindung mit §3 des Koreanischen BGB(KBGB)) erfüllt werden. Wegen der Schutz- normen für fetus im Koreanischen StGB(KStGB)) und Gesundheitschutzgesetz für Mütter und Kinder(MKSchG) sei §762 KBGB den staatlichen Schutzpflichten für werdendes Leben nachgekommen. Einerseits darf diese Entscheidung positiv gewertet werden, weil KVerfG daran festgehalten hat, dass dem fetus das Grundrecht auf Leben zukommt, obwohl es an eines Artkels über Lebensrecht in KV fehlt. Auch klarer wird, dass durch KVerfG angewendete Untermaßverbot Evidenzkontrolle statt Vertretbarkeitskontrolle bedeutet. Andererseits mangelt es an Begründung für die Festlegung, dem werdenden Leben das Grundrecht auf Leben zuzukommen. Noch ist das Beginn des Lebensrecht erklärungsbedürftig. Darüber hinaus kann die Entscheidung von KVerfG für Verfas- sungsmäßigkeit der staatlichen Schutzpflichten im Ergebnis schwerlich richtig gewertet werden, weil KVerfG die Effektivität der Schutznormen im KStGB für fetus nachgeprüft hat, nicht die Geeignetheit der §762 KBGB für die Schutz des werdenden Leben und Ungleichbehandlungen zwischen lebendig und tot zur Welt kommendem. Durch vorliegende Entscheidung hat das Koreanische Verfassungsgericht(KVerfG) das Lebensrecht des werdenden Lebens ausdrücklich anerkannt. Nach ihrer Auf- fassung ergebe sich die staatliche Schutzpflichten aus Art.10 S.2 der Koreanische Verfassung(KV). Mittels Untermaßverbots hat KVerfG darauf geprüft, ob die staatliche grundrechtlche Schutzpflicht für werdendes Leben durch §762 in Ver- bindung mit §3 des Koreanischen BGB(KBGB)) erfüllt werden. Wegen der Schutz- normen für fetus im Koreanischen StGB(KStGB)) und Gesundheitschutzgesetz für Mütter und Kinder(MKSchG) sei §762 KBGB den staatlichen Schutzpflichten für werdendes Leben nachgekommen. Einerseits darf diese Entscheidung positiv gewertet werden, weil KVerfG daran festgehalten hat, dass dem fetus das Grundrecht auf Leben zukommt, obwohl es an eines Artkels über Lebensrecht in KV fehlt. Auch klarer wird, dass durch KVerfG angewendete Untermaßverbot Evidenzkontrolle statt Vertretbarkeitskontrolle bedeutet. Andererseits mangelt es an Begründung für die Festlegung, dem werdenden Leben das Grundrecht auf Leben zuzukommen. Noch ist das Beginn des Lebensrecht erklärungsbedürftig. Darüber hinaus kann die Entscheidung von KVerfG für Verfas- sungsmäßigkeit der staatlichen Schutzpflichten im Ergebnis schwerlich richtig gewertet werden, weil KVerfG die Effektivität der Schutznormen im KStGB für fetus nachgeprüft hat, nicht die Geeignetheit der §762 KBGB für die Schutz des werdenden Leben und Ungleichbehandlungen zwischen lebendig und tot zur Welt kommendem.

        • KCI우수등재

          동남아지역의 보건학교육 현황

          정문식 한국환경보건학회 1978 한국환경보건학회지 Vol.5 No.1

          '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

          겨울철에 동남아로 여행을 떠나다니 추위를 피할 수 있어 다행으로 생각하며 부러워하는 사람이 있었으나 사실은 그렇지 않았다. 속내의와 두툼한 외투를 입고 지내다가 평균 30$\circ$C가 넘고 습도가 높은 곳에서 지내기란 고역이었으나 세탁소 종업원들의 이상한 생각을 불러 일으켜가며 챙겨간 여름옷도 하루만 입고나가면 땀으로 흠뻑젖어 한 지역에 가면 첫날에만 입고 나가며 가장 즐겨 입은 웃옷은 간편하고 빨기좋은 나이론 남방이었으나 이런 온도차에 의한 고역은 지독하여 다시 한번 격게 되어 며칠간은 심한 몸살을 하게되었다. 1978년 새해들어 채 설 기분도 가시지 않은 1월 12일에 출국하여 제일먼저 들른곳은 홍콩대학교 의과대학 예방의학교실(Community medicine)이었다. 주임교수는 WHO의 Malaria Program과 싱가폴 대학에 있던 Dr. M.J. Colbourne으로 그날따라 토요일인 때라 그 다음 날에는 Hawaii에서 열리는 암의 역학적인 면에 관하여 회의가 있어 떠난다고 하며 무척 바쁜 눈치였다. 그곳에서 주로 하는일은 의과대학생들에 대하여 강의하며 1년에 몇명씩 대학원생도 받으나 올해는 한명도 없다고 한다. 물로 대학원생의 입학자격은 의사에 한한다. 두번째 들린 곳은 태국 방콕으로 시간을 많이 보낸곳은 Mahidol대학교 보건대학(Faculty of Public Health)이었다. 12개과에 139명의 교수진과 435명의 학생을 가진 큰 학교 이다.

        • KCI등재후보

          유럽공동체법에 따른 기본권제한시 유럽인권재판소의 인권보장- Boshporus결정에 나타난 내용을 중심으로 -

          정문식 전남대학교 법학연구소 2008 법학논총 Vol.28 No.1

          '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

          In der bisherigen Entwicklung seiner Rechtsprechung über das Verhältnis von EMRK-Grundrechte un EU-Recht hat der EGMR die “externe Kontrollwirkung” ausgebaut, nach der ein nationaler Akt dann vollumfänglich am Maßstab der EMRK zu messen ist, wenn EMRK-konformes Verhalten zu keiner rechtlichen Konflikt mit einer anderen Rechtsordnung führt wie EU-Rechte. Als neuen Lösungsansatz zwischen staatlicher Freiheit in der Gestaltung ihrer internationalen Beziehungen und möglichst umfassender Bindung an dem Menschenrechtsstandard entwickelt der EGMR mit Bosphorus-Entscheidung eine widerlegbare Vermutung, dass keine Verletzung der EMRK und ihrer Zusatzprotokolle vorliegt, solange sich die EMRK Vertragsstaaten beim Vollzug des europäischen Gemeinschaftsrechts an die Verpflichtungen aus der EMRK halten und das angewendete Recht ebenso hohe Schutzmaßstäbe aufweist, die ein materiellrechtlich und verfahrensrechtlich zwar nicht unbedingt identisches(identical), aber gleichwertiges(equivalent), d.h. qualitativ vergleichbares(comparable) Grundrechtsschutzniveau halten können. Allerdings kann diese Vermutung durch die Umstände des Einzelfalls widerlegt werden, in denen eine Anhaltspunkt für offensichtlich mangelhaften(manifestly deficient) Rechtsschutz besteht. In der Zukunft kann der EGMR mit EU/EG-Streitigkeiten möglichst nichts tun haben wollen, weil er bei der internationalen bzw. europäischen Zusammenarbeit keine große Schwierigkeiten machen möchten. Doch hat der EGMR die allerletzte Menschenrechtskontrolle in Europa noch nicht aus der Hand gegeben. In der bisherigen Entwicklung seiner Rechtsprechung über das Verhältnis von EMRK-Grundrechte un EU-Recht hat der EGMR die “externe Kontrollwirkung” ausgebaut, nach der ein nationaler Akt dann vollumfänglich am Maßstab der EMRK zu messen ist, wenn EMRK-konformes Verhalten zu keiner rechtlichen Konflikt mit einer anderen Rechtsordnung führt wie EU-Rechte. Als neuen Lösungsansatz zwischen staatlicher Freiheit in der Gestaltung ihrer internationalen Beziehungen und möglichst umfassender Bindung an dem Menschenrechtsstandard entwickelt der EGMR mit Bosphorus-Entscheidung eine widerlegbare Vermutung, dass keine Verletzung der EMRK und ihrer Zusatzprotokolle vorliegt, solange sich die EMRK Vertragsstaaten beim Vollzug des europäischen Gemeinschaftsrechts an die Verpflichtungen aus der EMRK halten und das angewendete Recht ebenso hohe Schutzmaßstäbe aufweist, die ein materiellrechtlich und verfahrensrechtlich zwar nicht unbedingt identisches(identical), aber gleichwertiges(equivalent), d.h. qualitativ vergleichbares(comparable) Grundrechtsschutzniveau halten können. Allerdings kann diese Vermutung durch die Umstände des Einzelfalls widerlegt werden, in denen eine Anhaltspunkt für offensichtlich mangelhaften(manifestly deficient) Rechtsschutz besteht. In der Zukunft kann der EGMR mit EU/EG-Streitigkeiten möglichst nichts tun haben wollen, weil er bei der internationalen bzw. europäischen Zusammenarbeit keine große Schwierigkeiten machen möchten. Doch hat der EGMR die allerletzte Menschenrechtskontrolle in Europa noch nicht aus der Hand gegeben.

        • KCI등재

          미국 연방대법원 사법심사기준으로서 입법관련 자료에 대한 신뢰성 판단

          정문식 한양대학교 법학연구소 2018 법학논총 Vol.35 No.1

          Since the 1960s, the U.S. Supreme Court(SCOTUS) has made unconstitutional decisions based on strict scrutiny in Equal Protection cases, in which racial classification matters. However, there are some cases where a decision on constitutionality is made while applying the strict scrutiny. When the SCOTUS applied not only strict scrutiny but also adequacy-checking to the record of the agency or the Congress, the law was upheld. The test manner on the record can be divided two, adequacy-checking is a modest verifying legislative data submitted by Congress, credibility-test is strictly judging for confidence in government data from a skeptical view point. Even if the SCOTUS apply the strict scrutiny, the law can be upheld through the adequacy-checking test on the record supporting legislation. The conservative Justices who made the unconstitutional decision in Shelby County and the liberal Justices who made the unconstitutional decision in Windsor seem to be equally skeptical to the record submitted by Congress. However it is different, under what conditions, it is more important and persuasive, SCOTUS can apply credibility test on the record supporting legislation. Considering the role of the legislative, the executive and the judiciary under the principle of separation of powers, the court can apply the adequacy-checking to the record of the legislative under the strict scrutiny. If there is a serious restriction on the fundamental rights, the court can credibility-test to the record under the rational basis test. For the Constitutional Court of Korea the credibility and the adequacy method will be helpful to establish more persuasive and reasonable standard for the judicial review. 미국 연방대법원은 1960년대부터 인종을 차별기준으로 한 평등보호사건에서 엄격심사를 하며 위헌결정을 했다. 그러나 엄격심사를 하면서도 합헌결정을 한 경우가 있는데, 정부나 의회의 입법관련 자료에 대한 신빙성을 판단할 때 적합성심사를 한 경우가 그러하다. 의회가 제출한 입법관련 자료에 대하여 어느 정도 타당성만 확인하는 것을 입법자료에 대한 적합성(adequacy)심사, 입법관련 자료에 대한 의문을 가지고 회의적인 시각에서 정부자료에 대한 신뢰 자체를 엄격하게 허용하는 것을 입법자료에 대한 신뢰성(credibility)심사라 할 수 있다. 연방대법원이 엄격심사를 하더라도 적합성심사를 하면 합헌으로, 합리성심사를 하더라도 신뢰성심사를 하면 위헌으로 결정될 가능성이 있다. 셸비카운티 사건에서 위헌결정을 내린 보수주의 대법관들과 윈저 사건에서 위헌결정을 내린 자유주의 대법관들은 의회가 제출한 입법관련 자료에 대해서 상당히 회의적인 시각으로 그 신뢰성을 의심하고 위헌결정을 했다는 점에서 동일한 것으로 보인다. 그러나 어떤 조건 하에서 입법관련 자료에 대한 심사기준을 엄격히 할 것인지, 어떤 조건일 때 심사기준의 엄격성이 정당화되는지 하는 점이 더 중요하고 설득력이 큰 것이다. 권력분립 원칙 하에서 의회와 정부, 법원의 역할을 고려한다면, 엄격심사기준을 적용하면서도 사실관계에 대한 관련 자료에 대해서 법원은 적합성심사를 할 수 있다. 기본권에 중대한 제한이 발생하는 경우에는 관련 자료들에 대해서 신뢰성심사를 할 수 있다. 우리 헌법재판소도 평등심사에 있어서 원칙적으로는 완화된 심사기준을 적용하고 예외적으로 엄격심사기준을 적용하는데, 입법자가 제시한 관련 자료들에 대한 심사기준을 세분화하면서 합리적 근거를 제시하면 설득력 있는 심사기준정립에 도움이 될 것이다.

        • KCI우수등재

          일부농촌지역의 토양 및 채소류에서의 기생충란 조사

          정문식 한국환경보건학회 1975 한국환경보건학회지 Vol.2 No.1

          '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

          The law prohibits use of human excreta without proper treatment since 1968 in Korea, but the rate of infection of parasitic diseases is high among all ages of people. An examination of parasitic eggs in soil and vegetables was performed from April to September, 1974, soil samples were collected near toilet, at gardens, at vegetable farms with excreta used and not used, and strawberry farms in Shindong myon, Chunseong-gun, Kangwon province, and vegetables collected were cabbage, young radish, lettuce, Welshonion, spinach and strawberry. Main findings are as follows 1. Positive samples of Ascaris lumbricoides are 18 out of 25(64%) in the soils near toilet, 9 out of 28(3.2%) in the garden soils and 8 out of 18(44%) in the soils of vegetable farms. 2. Trichocephalus trichiurus and Enterobius vermicularis were detected in 8 soil samples respectively Trichostrongylus orientalis 7(25%) and Ancylostoma duodenale 3(11%) out of in the soils near toilets. 3. Parasitic egg negatives are 62(55%) out of 112 soil samples. 4. Ascaris lumbricoides is found in 11 roots(48%) of cabbage and young radish out of 23 respectively, 14 lettuce(34%) out of 41,4 Welsh onion(40%) out of 10,3 spinach(33%) out of 9, and 2 strawberry(11%) out of 18. 5. Ancylostoma duodenale positives are 2 roots of cabbage(9%) out of 23, 4 young radish (17%) out of 23, and 7 lettuce(17%) out of 41, and negatives of parasitic eggs on vegetables are 62 roots(51%) out of 124 samples.

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